International Journal of Human Resource Studies

Journal Information
EISSN : 2162-3058
Published by: Macrothink Institute, Inc. (10.5296)
Total articles ≅ 684
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Latest articles in this journal

Abdullah Ibrahim, Anuar Safian, Ahmad Aizudin Md Rami, Wan Khairul Aiman Wan Mokhtar, Farah Syazrah Mohd Ghazalli
International Journal of Human Resource Studies, Volume 12, pp 40-49;

Malaysia's progress depends on the effectiveness of leaders in maintaining unity based on the principles of Rukun Negara and upholding the existing law. The development of democratization education is extremely important to ensure the well-being of our beloved Malaysia. This process must take place perfectly for the well-being of Malaysian citizens towards continuing to lift the country's progress in the future. Students are the front line of the country on their shoulders carrying the trust of leadership and the future of the country. They play an important role as future leaders and need to have a high level of understanding and appreciation of democratization and duty as Malaysians. Specifically, this research examines the impact of student leadership on the democratization of education in Malaysian public universities. The student leadership questionnaire developed by Kouzes & Posner in 2007 and the democratized education questionnaire developed by Evans & Rose in 2007 adopted a cross-sectional survey method in the data collection process. A total of 326 student leaders of Peninsular Malaysia Public University participated as the study’s Respondents. Student leadership has also had a 39.6% impact on democratized education. This research can be used by national leaders, university administrations, and the Ministry of Education as a guide for assessing the leadership of future national leaders. It can be used as a basic reference to improve various knowledge of leadership management based on democratization education as the basis for the formation of the identity of Malaysian leaders.
Sayed Uddin
International Journal of Human Resource Studies, Volume 12, pp 22-39;

The present work is an empirical study of the causes of labour migration, especially, Bangladeshi temporary migrants to Malaysia. The study is based on the survey of 100 Bangladeshi migrant workers who were selected according to two stage sampling procedure. On one stage, an area where Bangladeshi workers reside was selected through random sampling procedure. On the second stage, 100 respondents were selected from the area according to purposive snowball sampling procedure. The main objective of the study is to find out the causes for migration of Bangladeshi workers to Malaysia. The majority, 66 respondents, leave their country because of poor income. These respondents had some income in their origin country but that was not sufficient to survive their needs to look after their family. It was also found that 31 respondents left the country because of unemployment. Thus, most of the Bangladeshi workers left their country due to poor income and unemployment. Finally, the study suggested that adequate measures should be taken to provide pre-departure training on job and host county’s culture to the expected migrant workers.
Santhosh K St Samanthar, Zoharah Omar, Khairuddin Idris, Aminah Ahmad
International Journal of Human Resource Studies, Volume 12, pp 50-83;

Workplace bullying has shown a steep rise globally in the last three decades, reporting its pervasiveness among various sectors and industries. It is universally recognized as a significant work stressor causing severe health, well-being, and psychosocial problems for employees, the economy, and society. The claim comes as no surprise with the contemporary debate among organizations, especially MNCs HRSSC, striving to succeed globally and stay competitive through cost savings and increased productivity. However, SSC formation has swayed the HRD professions’ to strategic HR roles to focus on the organization’s profit-making goal, eventually at the expense of employees’ well-being by indirectly condoning workplace bullying. For these reasons, the present study investigates the prevalence of workplace bullying at MNC HRSSC in Malaysia to find out how the Western countries that pioneered the studies reveal the severity of workplace bullying manages organizations in Asian countries that are still at the early stage comparatively of recognizing the phenomenon. The study will examine the prevalence, the experience level of role stressors, namely role ambiguity and role conflict, which are relatable to the MNC HRSSC setup, and their consequent representation as antecedents to workplace bullying. A cross-sectional study was adopted to conduct descriptive and inferential statistical analysis with n=460. The descriptive statistical analysis used IBM SPSS (v24.0) to determine the prevalence of workplace bullying by adopting a two-step cluster analysis and the strict operational definition criterion and the role stressors experiences level. At the same time, Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was used to determine the correlation and influence between the predetermined organizational antecedents (role ambiguity and role conflict) and workplace bullying. Data were collected using a 14-items Role Questionnaire (RQ) and 22-item Negative Act Questionnaires-Revised (22-items NAQ-R). Findings show a high prevalence rate of workplace bullying (66.7%), a high level of role ambiguity (72.6%), and role conflict (70.2%), resulting in a positive & significant relationship with workplace bullying. Thus, these results autonomously conclude that workplace bullying is prevalent among MNC HRSSC with a high level of role ambiguity and role conflict experience, which are significant antecedents based on the General Strain Theory (Agnew, 1992) underpinning theory. Therefore, the study recommends that local HRD professionals and policymakers review employees’ job descriptions to determine one’s role and set KPI accordingly. Global Business Services representing the MNC and the local HRSSC management team must develop and implement robust anti-bullying policies and programs and sustain them in practice to curtail the negative consequences.
Desak Putu Eka Nilakusmawati, Dewa Made Alit Adinugraha, I Gusti Ayu Made Srinadi, Gede Ganesh Adi Bharata
International Journal of Human Resource Studies, Volume 12, pp 1-21;

This study aims to determine: 1) an overview of the social demographic characteristics of social media users, 2) knowledge of social media users regarding digital ethics, and 3) perceptions of social media users regarding digital ethics from the social media they use. The method of collecting data in the field is a survey using a questionnaire distributed to respondents online with the help of google forms and sampling is done by purposive sampling, with a total sample of 250 respondents. The variables used in this study include: demographic and social characteristics, user knowledge of ethics in the use of social media, and user perceptions of ethics in the use of social media. The data analysis technique used descriptive analysis. The description of the knowledge of social media users regarding digital ethics includes the Law on Information and Electronic Transactions (UU ITE) and the regulations and sanctions contained in the ITE Law, it was found that most respondents stated they knew, while there was a large percentage of respondents answered that expressed Doubtful and didn't know, as well as a small percentage of answers: knew very well and didn't really know. Respondents' perceptions of digital ethics include privacy and security, ethics in posting on social media, cyber bullying, Hoax, plagiarism, End-User piracy, Software Piracy, Unauthorized Use, Hackers, Terms of use, Personnel security, Fair Use, it was obtained that the outline has a positive perception and only a small percentage of respondents have a negative perception.
Ali Bakhit Ali Fadhil, Mokana Muthu Kumarasamy, Zaharuzaman Jamaluddin, Samah M. A. Mubarak
International Journal of Human Resource Studies, Volume 12, pp 84-97;

Pandemics present different challenges for leaders, organizations, and subordinates. During the Covid19 pandemic, all organizations faced challenges, including constant regulatory changes, for social, business, and economic conversions to protection and safety. The important challenge highlighted by the pandemic is how leaders can inspire and retain creative work behaviour when all employees work from home, and what leadership style will help the company succeed and survive. On the other hand, the researcher looks to be in a unique position to explore the influence of the Covid19 pandemic on leadership style and innovative work behaviour. In the meanwhile, the earlier research explored the significant role of leadership on innovativeness and sustainability. By hiring managers from several industries across the Sultanate of Oman, this study explores the influence of leadership style on innovative work behaviour during the covid19 epidemic. For data collection, a quantitative method was adopted, with a structured questionnaire sent out through email to a randomly chosen sample of managers in two large cities. The researchers employed descriptive statistics and statistical inference to analyze the correlation and multiple regression using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 25.0. The key results of the research were that transformational leadership has a considerable beneficial influence on employee innovative work behaviour, but transactional leadership has no such effect.
Loutfi Boulahlib, Noor Hazilah Abd Manaf, Izhairi Bt Ismail, Rafikul Islam
International Journal of Human Resource Studies, Volume 12, pp 98-125;

This study aims to explore factors that influence attitudes towards implementing TQM among the academic staff in one of the Malaysian higher education institutions. A total of 270 questionnaires were distributed among academic staff at International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM), and a total of 209 questionnaires were completed. The method that best fits with the objective of this research is exploratory factor analysis. The results showed that three factors influenced the attitude of the IIUM academic staff on the execution of TQM principles. The findings of this research may stimulate other institutions to apply TQM principles in education and how TQM can be implemented in higher education. Senior-level management should take the opportunity to work together with the academic staff to boost the learning process by providing them with a platform to voice their points of view and suggestions. This paper contributes to the TQM literature and provides an important insight into current knowledge. The findings allow for implications to be made for both top management and policymakers. Such studies are needed to increase awareness and examine TQM's applicability in higher education.
Chiung-Hui Huang, Ing-Chung Huang
International Journal of Human Resource Studies, Volume 12, pp 101-111;

Although many studies have pointed to the fact that women directly experience gender discrimination, relatively little has been explored about which individual and organizational variables of women in the workplace are more sensitive to gender discrimination. This article has been conducted in an attempt to investigate the individual and organizational characteristics of female workers who are sensitive to gender discrimination. A total of 415 participants were included in this study. The results indicate that while participants' age, salary, and position are significantly and negatively related to gender discrimination; tenure years is significantly and positively related to gender discrimination. Besides, participants' education is not significantly relative to gender discrimination. Furthermore, while participants who have no spouses perceive greater gender discrimination than those who have spouses; participants whose careers are ever intermittent perceive greater gender discrimination than those whose careers are never intermittent. In addition, according to the organizational variables, firm size is significantly and negatively related to gender discrimination. While participants who work in production or administrative department perceive greater gender discrimination than those who work in sales department; participants who work in manufacture industry perceive greater gender discrimination than those who work in service industry. The results can serve as a basis for understanding women's cognition of gender discrimination in the workplace.
Olawunmi Elizabeth Eniola
International Journal of Human Resource Studies, Volume 12, pp 112-132;

COVID-19 transformed work arrangements by increasing the adoption of the work-from-home format. Work-from-home employees are susceptible to continuous job stressors and the permeability of the work-to-home border. Psychological detachment serves as the pathway to recovery from job stressors and for preventing the carryover of work thoughts into the home domain during non-work time. Therefore, this review presents theoretical and practical implications for work-to-home border management by integrating literature about psychological detachment and work-from-home. Work-home border accounting involves examining and minimizing conditions that inhibit psychological detachment, e.g., ICTs demand, overtime, telepressure, interruptions, etc., which are withdrawals from employees' energy or resource accounts, while facilitating psychological detachment through deposits which are non-work activities such as leisure, social support, exercises, etc. This article proposes the work-home border accounting system for managing the work-to-home border. The review suggests the resources employees accumulate through psychological detachment, e.g., wellbeing, life satisfaction, and work-life balance, and the deficits employees accrue if there is a shortfall of deposits required for psychological detachment, e.g., stress, low productivity, work-family conflict, etc. Hence, this article provides a coherent understanding of the processes necessary for psychological detachment during work-from-home.
G. G. Rasika Nirmal, M. K. Dinithi Padmasiri
International Journal of Human Resource Studies, Volume 12, pp 90-100;

In spite of the ampledeterminants of academic performance, which could be found in the extant literature, health behavior is scarcely investigated with undergraduates’ academic performance. Bridging the gap in the literature, based on the social exchange theory and the social learning theory, the current study has assessed the impact of health behavior on academic performance of management undergraduates (n = 304) of state universities in Sri Lanka. Findings reveal that there is a strong positive relationship between health behavior and academic performance. It is recommended that healthy practices should be promoted among undergraduates in universities and higher educational institutes by linking such healthy practices to subjects, and by encouraging undergraduates to follow extracurricular activities during the study period.
Juliza Adira [email protected], Ahmad Aizuddin Md Rami, Nor Wahiza Abd Wahat, Nurfazreen Aina Muhamad Nasharudin
International Journal of Human Resource Studies, Volume 12, pp 156-171;

Leadership qualities in crisis management have become an important aspect to ensure the effectiveness of organizations in dealing with crises. According to Shift 8 for education at the primary to secondary school level and Shift 6 for higher education, the government emphasizes the need to transform the capabilities and capacity of leaders in an educational organization in Malaysia. One of the capabilities needed by the leaders in educational organizations to perform their job nowadays is crisis management competencies. Despite the importance of leadership skills in crisis management, there has been few research focused on this topic, particularly in educational institutions. Because of that, this research has been conducted to bridge this gap. The primary goal of this study is to investigate the implementation of a transformational leadership style by leaders during crisis management in their organisation as well as the impact of the implementation on subordinates and the influence of gender on the implementation of that style. Qualitative methods which are interviews through Focus Group Discussion (FGD) were conducted involving six (6) informants from different educational institutions to identify themes. Studies have shown that, among the four characteristics of transformational leadership, only three of them, which are idealized influence, inspirational motivation, and intellectual stimulation, were regularly practised by the leaders, with less implementation of the characteristics of individualized consideration during crisis management. The findings also show that transformational leadership positively impacts subordinates during times of crisis. In addition, the gender of the leader had a significant impact on the findings, with male leaders demonstrating more transformative leadership styles during crisis management than female leaders. Finally, this study's findings will contribute to a field of study in which many educational institutions can use them as a guide to evaluate and improve the quality of their future leaders.
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