Global Journal of Agricultural Innovation, Research & Development

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EISSN : 2409-9813
Published by: Avanti Publishers (10.15377)
Total articles ≅ 64
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Pan Yuqi, Jiang Penghui, Li Manchun, Chen Dengshuai
Global Journal of Agricultural Innovation, Research & Development, Volume 9, pp 81-99; https://doi.org/10.15377/2409-9813.2022.09.7

Abstract:
The accuracy of grain yield estimation is critical for national food security. Because of the comprehensive influence of spatial differentiation conditions, such as temperature, precipitation, soil, rice variety, and irrigation, yield estimation requires integrated modeling that is based on dynamic conditions. These dynamic conditions include geographical background, biological factors, and human impact. Most existing studies focus on the observation and analysis of external factors; only a few reports on yield simulations are coupled with nature, management, and crop growth mechanism. Our study incorporates the crop growth mechanism of rice, along with data of rice varieties, soil, meteorology, and field management, to determine the rice yield in Jiangsu province, China. In addition, we have used a decision support system for the agrotechnology transfer model, along with Coupled Model Intercomparison Project data and geographic information system technology. Our results showed that: (1) A calibrated variety genetic coefficient could simulate rice biomass value (flowering stage, maturity stage, and yield) reasonably. The values of NRMSE (Normalized Root Mean Square Error) between the simulated and measured values after parameter calibration are all less than 10%, the values of d(index of agreement) are all close to 1, the simulated value of yield is in good agreement with the measured value. (2) A linear correlation between the meteorological elements and yield was observed. The linear correlation had regional differences. Notably, an increase in precipitation was conducive to the increase in yield. Except at the Huaiyin site, the other sites showed that the temperature rise could potentially lead to reduced production. We found that an increase in solar radiation was unfavorable to the production of rice in the northern and western sites in the Jiangsu province, whereas it was conducive in the southern and eastern sites. (3) Our study predicted the rice yield from typical sites in the Jiangsu province from 2019 to 2060 in the wake of climate change while excluding the extreme effects of diseases, pests, typhoons, and floods. The order of average yield per unit area is as follows: Xinghua site (8212.76 kg/ha) > Huaiyin site (7912.70 kg/ha) > Gaoyou site (7440.98 kg/ha) > Gaochun site (7512.29 kg/ha) > Ganyu site (7460.88 kg/ha) > Yixing site (7167.00 kg/ha). Notably, the average yields from the Xinghua and Huaiyin sites were higher than that from the Jiangsu province (7617.77 kg/ha). The fluctuation of the yield per unit area at each site was generally consistent with the fluctuation in the overall yield, showing a downward trend and tends to be stable. The dispersion of yield per unit area indicates that Gaochun had the most stable yield per unit area followed by Xinghua, Ganyu, Yixing, Huaiyin, and Gaoyou. The yield per unit area of the Huaiyin and Gaoyou sites was unstable and portrayed the biggest fluctuations. Future studies need to focus on how to deal with spatial variation and carry out adaptive verification to make the simulation results applicable to more dimensions.
Nikita Arya,
Global Journal of Agricultural Innovation, Research & Development, Volume 9, pp 61-80; https://doi.org/10.15377/2409-9813.2022.09.6

Abstract:
Pulses and dairy products are recognized for their nutritional and functional benefits and are consumed in various forms. Yogurt is considered a source of good quality protein with anti-carcinogenic, hypocholesterolemic properties, and palliating effects on lactose intolerance. Similarly, chickpea is known for its high protein content, low glycemic index, and hypoglycaemic effects. These food ingredients cater to numerous advantages for human health and can address public health issues related to malnutrition or other nutritional deficiencies. With this background, the manuscript explores the possibility of employing chickpea isolates to fortify yogurt to improvise protein content along with sensory and physicochemical properties. So far, the literature has shown that protein extracts, when added to yogurt, result in gaining protein content and overall product quality. The yogurt market is growing, and consumers from different countries have expressed their willingness to purchase fortified yogurts to achieve optimum health. Therefore, developing a new combination of yogurt and chickpea isolates can provide a therapeutic alternative to enhance the nutritional status of the vulnerable population, viz. children, pregnant, lactating mothers, elderly, sportsperson, etc., when a judicious food intake is a must.
Mekonnen Adnew Degefu, Mohammed Assen, Roger Few, Mark Tebboth
Global Journal of Agricultural Innovation, Research & Development, Volume 9, pp 35-53; https://doi.org/10.15377/2409-9813.2022.09.4

Abstract:
The objective of this paper is to provide up-to-date empirical information on the expansion of P. juliflora, its environmental and livelihood impacts, and the performance of past and current management strategies in the Middle Awash Valley (MAV), Ethiopia. This study was based on data collected using focus group discussion, key informant interviews, and field observation. The results show that P. juliflora has expanded rapidly and invaded valuable grazing and croplands, and settlement areas. The rapid expansion of P. juliflora in the study area is attributed to climate change (increased temperature and declined rainfall), its ecological competition, spreading of seeds by wild animals and pastoral (mobile livestock) livelihood system, and recent occurrences of flood and drought-induced pasture scarcity that has forced livestock to eat more P. juliflora seed pods. Also, delays in the use of land cleared for farming activity have created good opportunities for Prosopis expansion. The perception and views of people on the benefits of P. juliflora and management options vary according to livelihood systems and stakeholder types (e.g., environmental managers and pastoralists). The attempted management strategies to eradicate P. juliflora (cutting, burning, and bulldozering or converting into economic utilization by making charcoal, fodder, and furniture) failed to achieve the intended outcomes. These management interventions failed due to many reasons. Some of these were the rapid rate of P. juliflora expansion triggered by the recurrent drought, severe scarcity of pasture that forced livestock to eat P. juliflora’s seed pods and travel into new areas, inadequate technologies to aid utilization and eradication, inability to collect sufficient quantity of pods to produce fodder for livestock, and absence of sufficient and satisfactory markets for the end-product (fodder). The results generally imply the need for urgent policy and management interventions. This study also highlights important issues that should be considered in introducing and implementing management strategies in the future.
Felipe Cordeiro Dias, Jaqueline Fernanda Dionísio, , Renata Da Rosa
Global Journal of Agricultural Innovation, Research & Development, Volume 9, pp 54-60; https://doi.org/10.15377/2409-9813.2022.09.5

Abstract:
Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner, 1818 is the main soybean defoliating pest in Brazil. The biological control of the species is done with products based on toxins produced by Bacillus thurigiensis (Bt), as bioinsecticides, or in transgenic plants. After activation by intestinal proteases, these toxins interact with receptors, especially cadherin, leading to death due to the formation of cellular pores. In recent years resistant populations have been identified in the laboratory, which can be a problem if the same patterns are found in crops, reducing their control effect. In this paper, we performed a comparative structural analysis of a mutation region for the gene of this receptor in A. gemmatalis, among resistant and susceptible strains treated with a toxin produced by Bt (Cry1Ac). The HaCad fragment of the cadherin gene was amplified by PCR, sequenced, and analyzed by bioinformatics tools. The PCR results were positive for resistant specimens but not for susceptible strains, suggesting the presence of a mutation in the resistant strain. In the sequenced fragments of the resistant insects, six haplotypes were found, and the originated amino acid sequences demonstrated the modification in four sites, which did not interfere with the three-dimensional shape of the protein. These data showed considerable variation taking into account the size of the fragment, even if they do not affect the final structure of the protein. The results allowed a better understanding of the mechanisms of resistance to Cry1Ac in the species, mainly in the involvement of cadherin in this process.
, Jonas Koala, Souleymane Ouédraogo, Brama Ouattara
Global Journal of Agricultural Innovation, Research & Development, Volume 9, pp 20-34; https://doi.org/10.15377/2409-9813.2022.09.3

Abstract:
Savanna Zone of Burkina Faso is characterized by the increasing population growth due to human migration from the north and central regions of the country for cultivating agricultural land and pastures. This situation induced land-use changes, and social reorganization has led to new approaches to natural resources management. Tenure issues in natural resources management limit the adoption of agroforestry systems and effective land use scale. This paper describes the species composition, structure, and diversity of woody species on agroforestry parklands at Tiogo under two types of land tenures. Ecological and structural characteristics of vegetation patches were computed to characterize the species composition. A variety of diversity measures were calculated to determine the heterogeneity for each type of land tenure. A total of 49 woody species belonging to 19 families and 38 genera were identified, of which 44 and 48 species were recorded in non-landowners’ farms and landowners' farms, respectively. Leguminosae, Combretaceae and Anacardiaceae were the most abundant families. The dominant species in agroforestry parklands were Vitellaria paradoxa, Parkia biglobosa, Lannea microcarpa, Piliostigma reticulatum and Piliostigma thonningii. Analyses of variance of the entire woody vegetation of agroforestry parklands revealed no significant differences in terms of all computed indexes but showed that the landowners’ farms were the most diverse than non-landowners farms. The density of stems ≥5 cm dbh and the basal area were higher in landowner’s farms than in non-landowners farms. In both types of farms, the size class distributions of the vegetation produced a reverse J-shaped curve, supporting that agroforestry parkland in Tiogo is dominated by young individuals. The spatial distribution of the seedling was mainly clumped, reflecting the dominance of clonal propagation. Security of land and tree tenure is a necessary condition for any land-based investment (planting and protection of preferred species and soil amendment). The challenge to maintain parklands’ tree biodiversity in “good” condition also needs to consider the flexibility of land tenure and equitability sharing of the benefits from trees.
M.A. Reynolds Chávez, A. Capetillo Burela, M. Cadena Zapata, J.A. López López, R. Zetina Lezama
Global Journal of Agricultural Innovation, Research & Development, Volume 9, pp 10-19; https://doi.org/10.15377/2409-9813.2022.09.2

Abstract:
In the last decade in Mexico and other developing countries, soil preparation is the agricultural activity that represents the highest costs per unit of production, due to factors such as lack of appropriate equipment, excessive tillage, high consumption of fossil fuel, lack of knowledge and training for the adequate soil management, among others. The purpose of this research was to develop a vertical tillage technology that allows primary soil preparation without investment and reduces fuel consumption and effective operating time, improves labor quality and conserves soil and water resources. For this, a chisel plow prototype was developed based on four vertical tillage parameters: (1. Working depth 2. Number of bodies 3. Spacing between chisels 4. Use of wings or sweepers). These parameters determined the criteria and dimensions of the prototype for its development in design parameters such as spacing, position, angle of attack and depth of work. The performance evaluation of the prototype was compared with the disc plow; an implement that served as a witness as it was the most widely used technology. The standardized test method was used by the National Center for Standardization of Agricultural Machinery "CENEMA". The results obtained show a prototype plow with five chisels mounted on a double platform frame. The front platform is used for the coupling of three shallow chisels and the rear one, for the coupling of two deep chisels with wings. The implement adjusts for two working depths 0.30 and 0.40 meters and two working widths 1.80 m and 2.40 m respectively. The performance evaluation showed that vertical tillage with the chisel plow prototype in its two treatments showed an average saving of more than 45% in the fuel consumption variable and 53% in the effective working time compared to conventional tillage used with a disc plow. In terms of quality of work, vertical tillage shows high performance in soil disturbance, exceeding up to 65% of the work done by conventional tillage. Finally, it is concluded that the proposed technology should be used as technological innovation and replace the conventional disk plow technology, given its technological, economic and environmental advantages.
Mohammed E. E. Mahmoud, Mohamed A. Kambal, Sumaia M. Abukashwaa, Samira A. Mohammed, Sunday Ekesi
Global Journal of Agricultural Innovation, Research & Development, Volume 9, pp 1-9; https://doi.org/10.15377/2409-9813.2022.09.1

Abstract:
Fruit flies belonging to the order Tephritidae are the most notorious pests that attack various fruit and vegetable species, causing severe economic losses. Guava orchards at Elfaki Hashim; North of Khartoum, (Khartoum State) and Elsawagi Elgenobia (Kassala State) in the middle and east of Sudan respectively were selected to assess the response of some Tephritids to water extracts (WE) of mango, guava, apple, cucumber, and ready-made juice of mango (Crystal®; Crystal Industrial Co. Ltd, Araak Group; [email protected]) against Torula yeast (a standard fruit fly attractant) and water (control) baited in locally made traps. The trial was performed as Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) replicated 3 times for 5 consecutive weeks at each site. Highly significant differences were recorded between attractants and the interaction between attractants and times (weeks) on trapping different species of fruit flies. Five species of fruit flies; Ceratitis capitata, Bactrocera dorsalis, Zeugodacus cucurbitae, Ceratitis cosyra, and Ceratitis quinaria, were found to respond positively to all tested materials at both sites. The greatest number of C. capitata flies was caught by traps equipped with ready-made Crystal® mango juice at the Elfaki Hashim site. The mean number of B. dorsalis attracted to the WEs of mango and guava at Elsawagi Elgenobia site was statistically identical to that of the same species lured to Torula yeast, 83.7, 70.3, and 111.5 flies /trap/week, respectively. Attractants extracted from botanicals are cost-free and easily prepared by farmers for mass trapping of fruit flies. More studies regarding active ingredients, doses, and the number of traps utilized per area should be considered.
Craig L. Ramsey, Paul C. Freebury, Debra H. Newman, Wolfgang Schweigkofler, Leland J. Cseke, Steven E. Newman
Global Journal of Agricultural Innovation, Research & Development, Volume 8, pp 1-22; https://doi.org/10.15377/2409-9813.2021.08.1

Abstract:
A field study was conducted at the National Ornamental Research Site at Dominican University California (NORS-DUC). The study goal was to evaluate three chemical inducers applied as foliar treatments for controlling Phytophthora ramorum, on Rhododendron x ‘Cunningham’s White’ nursery plants. The inducers were chlorine dioxide (ElectroBiocide), hydrogen peroxide (OxiDate 2.0), and acibenzolar-s methyl (Actigard). Water samples from the electrostatic sprayer were measured for three physicochemical water properties. Visual assessment of plant foliage, based on the Horsfall- Barratt scale, was conducted at three and five months after chemical treatments. Foliar fluorescence (Fv/Fm) was measured over three dates. The success of P. ramorum inoculations were determined using qPCR methods. Visual assessment across both months showed no signs of P. ramorum infection or chemical injury symptoms. However, P. ramorum infection vis-à-vis qPCR analysis was confirmed. The September Fv/Fm results revealed that all the chemical inducer treatments were equivalent to the water treatment, except for Actigard. The qPCR results were in general agreement with the Fv/Fm results indicating that the rhododendrons were successfully inoculated with P. ramorum but were non-symptomatic. The electrostatic sprayer ionized the water droplets, resulting in increased Fv/Fm values for the water treatments 90 days after application. There was a three-month delay in fluorescence responses to the most effective chemical applications, indicating that woody plants may need to be monitored over the long term to determine accurate responses to foliar treatments.
Craig L. Ramsey
Global Journal of Agricultural Innovation, Research & Development, Volume 8, pp 32-48; https://doi.org/10.15377/2409-9813.2021.08.3

Abstract:
A greenhouse study evaluated the widely held hypothesis that invasive plant species have a quicker or stronger response to environmental stimuli such as magnetized irrigation water treatments. A second study objective was to test whether the polarity of magnetized water affected the responses for invasive and non-invasive plant species. Six invasive and six non-invasive plant species were stimulated by magnetizing the seeds followed by applying several magnetized water treatments to the germinated seeds. The species were taxonomically paired then the seeds were exposed to three magnetic field treatments, planted, and irrigated with three magnetized water treatments for approximately two months. The electrical conductivity, oxidation reduction potential (ORP), pH of the water, and nine plant biometrics were measured, collected, and analyzed. The study hypothesis was validated when the invasive species showed enhanced responses to the magnetized seed and water treatments. The invasive species had increased growth in seven out of the nine growth biometrics when exposed to the magnetized seed and water treatments. The long exposure time for pretreatment of seeds (six days) and extended exposure time of the water treatments on the magnets (20 h) contributed to the higher growth rates. The average increase in foliar biomass and leaf area for two paired, invasive species was 184 and 182%, respectively, for the combined seed/watering treatments. In comparison the average increase in foliar biomass and leaf area for two paired, non-invasive species was 88 and 111%, respectively, for the combined seed/watering treatments. The physicochemical water properties for the three magnetized water treatments were correlated with plant growth. The combined magnetic seed/watering treatments produced growth rates that substantially exceeded crop growth rates in comparable magnetized irrigation studies.
Davi da Silva, Carlos André Stuepp, Ivar Wendling, Cristiane Helm, Rosimeri De Oliveira Fragoso, Alessandro Camargo Angelo
Global Journal of Agricultural Innovation, Research & Development, Volume 8, pp 87-94; https://doi.org/10.15377/2409-9813.2021.08.6

Abstract:
Seeds vigor defined in the laboratory does not always reflect the final quality of seedlings produced under nursery conditions or even their survival in plantations. So, we studied the influence of Cedrela fissilis seed storage conditions on its emergence and the morphological quality of produced seedlings. Seeds were collected in October/2011, benefited, conditioned in closed glasses, and stored in three environments for a period of 515 days. Treatments consisted of: I - seedlings produced from seeds without storage (control); II - seedlings produced from seeds stored in a dry chamber; III - seedlings produced from seeds stored in a humid chamber; IV - Seedlings produced from seeds stored in an uncontrolled environment (laboratory). Sowing was performed in 50 cm³ plastic tubes filled with decomposed pinus bark and coconut fiber (50/50 v/v) and packed in a glasshouse. The study analyzed the percentage of seedlings emergence, mean seedlings emergence time, stem diameter, total height, the ratio between total height and stem diameter, shoot length, root length, total, root and shoot dry biomass, and Dickson quality index. Seed storage proved to be a negative factor for the emergence and vigor of C. fissilis seedlings, regardless of the storage environment. In addition, seeds vigor is a preponderant factor to increase seedlings' morphological quality, such as stem diameter and height.
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