Learning & Behavior

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ISSN / EISSN : 0090-4996 / 1532-5830
Published by: Springer Nature (10.3758)
Total articles ≅ 2,759
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Corrine Keshen, , Sarah Buck, Peter Khouri
Published: 4 May 2022
Learning & Behavior pp 1-12; https://doi.org/10.3758/s13420-022-00525-5

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, Joël Fagot
Published: 21 April 2022
Learning & Behavior pp 1-13; https://doi.org/10.3758/s13420-022-00522-8

Abstract:
Summary: While humans exposed to a sequential stimulus pairing A-B are commonly assumed to form a bidirectional mental relation between A and B, evidence that non-human animals can do so is limited. Careful examination of the animal literature suggests possible improvements in the test procedures used to probe such effects, notably measuring transfer effects on the learning of B-A pairings, rather than direct recall of A upon cuing with B. We developed such an experimental design and tested 20 Guinea baboons (Papio papio). Two pairings of visual shapes were trained (A1-B1, A2-B2) and testing was conducted in a reversed order, either with conserved pairings (B1-A1, B2-A2) or broken ones (B1-A2, B2-A1). We found baboons’ immediate test performance to be above chance level for conserved pairings and below chance level for broken ones. Moreover, baboons needed less trials to learn conserved pairings compared to broken ones. These effects were apparent for both pairings on average, and separately for the best learned pairing. Baboons’ responding on B-A trials was thus influenced by their previous A-B training. Performance level at the onset of testing, however, suggests that baboons did not respond in full accordance with the hypothesis of bidirectionality. To account for these data, we suggest that two competing types of relations were concomitantly encoded: a directional relation between A and B, which retains the sequential order experienced, and a non-directional relation, which retains only the co-occurrence of events, not their temporal order.
Irene M. Pepperberg
Published: 20 April 2022
Learning & Behavior pp 1-2; https://doi.org/10.3758/s13420-022-00524-6

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, Julia E. Schroeder
Published: 4 April 2022
Learning & Behavior pp 1-12; https://doi.org/10.3758/s13420-022-00521-9

Abstract:
We studied object–location binding in pigeons using a sequence learning procedure. A sequence of four objects was presented, one at a time at one of four locations on a touchscreen. A single peck at the object ended the trial, and food reinforcement was delivered intermittently. In Experiment 1, a between-subjects design was used to present objects, locations, or both in a regular sequence or randomly. Response time costs on nonreinforced probe tests on which object order, location order, or both were disrupted revealed sequence learning effects. Pigeons encoded location order when it was consistent, but not object order when it alone was consistent. When both were consistent, pigeons encoded both, and showed evidence of object–location binding. In Experiment 2, two groups of pigeons received training on sequences where the same object always appeared at the same location. For some pigeons a consistent sequence was used while for others sequence order was randomized. Only when sequence order was consistent was object–location binding found. These experiments are the first demonstrations of strong and lasting feature binding in pigeons and are consistent with a functional account of learning.
Shiva Shabro, Christina Meier, Kevin Leonard, Andrew L. Goertzen, Ji Hyun Ko,
Published: 25 March 2022
Learning & Behavior, Volume 50, pp 125-139; https://doi.org/10.3758/s13420-021-00507-z

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, Sara Guarino, Christopher Hagen, Carmen Torres
Published: 2 March 2022
Learning & Behavior pp 1-17; https://doi.org/10.3758/s13420-022-00519-3

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, Sean D. T. Aitken, Broderick M. B. Parks
Published: 2 March 2022
Learning & Behavior pp 1-16; https://doi.org/10.3758/s13420-021-00504-2

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