Journal of Geographic Information System

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 21511950 / 21511969
Current Publisher: Scientific Research Publishing, Inc. (10.4236)
Total articles ≅ 507
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Márcia Macedo, Maria Maia, Emilia Kohlman Rabbani, Oswaldo Lima Neto
Journal of Geographic Information System, Volume 12, pp 15-44; doi:10.4236/jgis.2020.121002

Abstract:
One of the principal difficulties related to road safety management in Brazil is the lack of data on road projects, especially those on rural roads, which makes it difficult to use road safety studies and models from other countries as a reference. Updating road networks through the use of hyperspectral remote sensing images can be a good alternative. However, accurately recognizing and extracting hyperspectral images from roads has been recognized as a challenging task in the processing of hyperspectral data. In order to solve the aforementioned challenges, Hyperion hyperspectral images were combined with the Optimum Forest Path (OPF) algorithm for supervised classification of rural roads and the effectiveness of the OPF and SVM classifiers when applied to these areas was compared. Both classifiers produced reasonable results, however, the OPF algorithm outperformed SVM. The higher classification accuracy obtained by the OPF was mainly attributed to the ability to better distinguish between regions of exposed soil and unpaved roads.
T. Umaru Emmanuel, Adedokun Adeniyi, Emmanuel T. Umaru, Adeniyi Adedokun
Journal of Geographic Information System, Volume 12, pp 1-14; doi:10.4236/jgis.2020.121001

Abstract:
River flooding has become a widely distributed and devastating natural disaster that has caused significant damages both economically and socially in Nigeria. Although, the Nigeria Meteorological Agency (NiMet) are always on time to provide flood warnings prior to flood disasters, spatial information pertaining to the areal extent vulnerable to the hazard are not usually made available. This study focuses on the application of geospatial techniques and quantitative research method for the assessment and analysis of flood risk and vulnerability assessment along the River Benue Basin of Kogi State. Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) images for 2010, 2014 and 2018 were used. These images were processed, digitized, interpolated, classified, overlaid and buffered using the ArcMap 10.3.1 GIS software to generate classified land use/cover maps, topographic map and flood physical vulnerability maps. Household questionnaires which contained structured questions were distributed and obtained to analyse the social-economic vulnerability of the study area using descriptive analysis. The study revealed that areas within 6-kilometre buffer from the River Benue are most vulnerable to flood hazard with the vulnerability decreasing towards the southern part. The two urban areas in the study area (Abejukolo and Oguma) are vulnerable to flood threat. Abejukolo is vulnerable due to high water footprint in the town and its surroundings. The factors that increase flood vulnerability of the inhabitants are low elevation, high illiteracy rate, high numbers of dependent population, poverty, low quality housing, poor land use and planning, inadequacy or absence of risk communication tools. The study recommends the development of guidelines for land use, continuous vulnerability mapping of the study area especially in the flood risk probability months (April to October), construction of dams to contain release water from the upstream, collaboration of NEMA with the local Government and traditional rulers for effective risk communication and relocation of communities lying on the river Benue basin in other to reduce the population vulnerability to flood impacts.
John Carter, Emanuel Vasquez, Allison Jones
Journal of Geographic Information System, Volume 12, pp 45-69; doi:10.4236/jgis.2020.122003

Abstract:
This case study addresses the Forest Service reauthorization for grazing of domestic sheep in Utah’s High Uintas Wilderness, USA. It provides an approach using spatial analysis and aerial imagery to evaluate the lands capable of being grazed based on Forest Service criteria and field surveys. The resulting model and analysis demonstrated that the Forest Service has not applied its own criteria. This has led to the Forest Service overestimating the amount of land and numbers of sheep that can be supported in the study area. Past field studies show this has resulted in environmental damage by grazing sheep. Our analysis concludes that the numbers of domestic sheep should be greatly reduced to protect these lands and wilderness values. Limitations of the study include the lack of a suitably detailed soil survey to determine erosion susceptibility, a lack of ground cover data, a lack of Forest Service data for the level of grazing use, or utilization, and the lack of a Forest Service quantitative measurement of vegetation production in each plant community and soil type. In the end, our use of aerial imagery, GIS determinations of areas of steep slopes and dense forests, and our measurement of vegetation production in the dominant soil types showed most of the land is not capable for grazing domestic sheep even in the absence of this other data.
Vivian Da Silva Celestino Reginato, Samuel Abati
Journal of Geographic Information System, Volume 12, pp 70-83; doi:10.4236/jgis.2020.122004

Abstract:
The Drovers’ Paths are remnants of important land access roads from Rio Grande do Sul to São Paulo at the time of Colonial Brazil. They were built and used between the 18th and 20th centuries, particularly in the region of Coxilha Rica. The main objective of this research is to develop a method for decision-making applied to the territorial landscape management in the Coxilha Rica. The method consisted of generating criteria to map the visibility spot reached from the main selected points; define the human visual acuity, realize bibliographic research, use cartographic and historical documents, inter-views, as well as field surveys that enabled the identification, characterization and mapping of historical farms and drovers’ paths. After data processing, the information was entered into the cartographic database; the data were cross-checked and analysis was made of the visibility of the surrounding farms and stone-walled corridors. Quality assessments showed that, with the visibility polygons, and through the use of cartographic tools, we could cross-check between different levels of information and analyze landscape intervention alternatives in order to minimize environmental impacts. When applying the method in the Coxilha Rica it was possible mapping the visibility polygon, taking human visual acuity into consideration, based on historical farms and stone-walled corridors; and making spatial analyses to explore alternatives to intervention (installation of power transmission systems) in order to preserve the scenic environment of the region. In the end, the decision was by does not construct the system.
Maher A. El-Hallaq, Abdelkhalek I. Alastal, Raed A. Salha
Journal of Geographic Information System, Volume 11, pp 321-330; doi:10.4236/jgis.2019.113019

Abstract:
Smart sustainable city is that uses the technology to transform their core systems and optimize the exploitation of limited resources; it is a knowledge-based system that provides real-time insights to stakeholders. As a result of the challenges facing the cities of the Gaza Strip regarding population growth, lack of resources, increased demand for materials, the siege imposed on the Gaza Strip for more than twelve years, the smart city approach can contribute to mitigating these challenges and creating opportunities and solutions for many of these problems. Thus, this study aims to promote sustainable urban development through the adoption of smart city approaches using the city’s 3D representation and analysis capabilities to reflect and define the current situation and formulate a future vision using GIS and Building Information Modeling (BIM) considering Sheikh Hamad city as a case study. This involves developing a GIS web-based 3D model of the urban landscape of the city and creating a geometric descriptive database that includes the various elements of the city such as buildings, services and other facilities. The constructed database is to be automatically updated and can be used to facilitate documentation, transparency and help in decision-making process. The 3D smart city can also benefit stakeholders, government officials, private sectors as well as the city citizens. Therefore, urban services will be more efficient, and the cities of the Gaza Strip will be able to achieve sustainable development and competition in difficult economic, environmental and social conditions. This study recommends the use of BIM and GIS technologies in the transformation to a smart city concept as well as the rehabilitation of existing cadres to enable them to use those technologies to achieve the goal of improving the quality of life and facilitating the daily lives of people.
Confiance Mfuka, Xiaoyang Zhang, Emmanuel Byamukama
Journal of Geographic Information System, Volume 11, pp 331-346; doi:10.4236/jgis.2019.113020

Abstract:
White Mold of soybeans (Glycine Max), also known as Sclerotinia stem rot (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum), is among the most important fungal diseases that affect soybean yield and represents a recurring annual threat to soybean production in South Dakota. Accurate quantification of white mold in soybean would help understand white mold impact on production; however, this remains a challenge due to a lack of appropriate data at a county and state scales. This study used Landsat images in combination with field-based observations to detect and quantify white mold in the northeastern part of South Dakota. The Random Forest (RF) algorithm was used to classify the soybean and the occurrence of white mold from Landsat images. Results show an estimate of 132 km2, 88 km2, and 190 km2 of white mold extent, representing 31%, 22% and 29% of the total soybean area for Marshall, Codington and Day counties, respectively, in 2017. Compared with ground observations, it was found that soybean and white mold in soybean fields were respectively classified with an overall accuracy of 95% and 99%. These results highlight the utility of freely available remotely sensed satellite images such as Landsat 8 images in estimating diseased crop extents, and suggest that further exploration of consistent high spatial resolution images such as Sentinel, and Rapid-Eye during the growing season will provide more details in the quantification of the diseased soybean.
Barbara Marana
Journal of Geographic Information System, Volume 11, pp 457-479; doi:10.4236/jgis.2019.114028

Abstract:
This paper describes the experience carried out with the aim to provide a technical and geo-referenced contribution to a project, submitted to the Common of Peschiera Borromeo in the Province of Milan in Lombardy. The promoter is a group of local associations; the aim is the valorisation and fruition of a green area, named Carengione Oasis. At first a GIS pre-analysis of the area has been performed to achieve a thorough knowledge of the area object of study. Then, a handheld GSP navigator has been employed to collect the data to be processed in a GIS software. This device choice has pros (a fast and very easy survey has been carried out) and cons (the acquired data have a precision of 3 to 5 meters). These data have been processed with the aid of the GIS software ArcMap release 10.4.1 by Esri. Also some free aerial images have been employed to edit features inaccessible on site. The achieved results are some thematic, metric and georeferenced maps and also a 3D virtual tour for a realistic visit of this area. They fulfil the project requirements. Anyway, due to their low precision, they have not been uploaded to enrich the official Lombardy cartography (DBTR); for this reason, part of them has been donated to the free data interchange OpenStreetMap. This work could be considered as a first step for future more precise surveys which would allow adding the acquired results to the DBTR; it has also been planned to create a story map describing the experience illustrated in this paper.
Pier Matteo Barone, Rosa Maria Di Maggio
Journal of Geographic Information System, Volume 11, pp 493-499; doi:10.4236/jgis.2019.115030

Abstract:
At a time in which several law enforcement agencies all around the world are facing severe expenditure reviews, the increasing use of low-cost solutions during crime scene investigations (CSI) can be a sustainable solution without being detracting from a scientific and rigorous forensic approach. Recently, some private companies are trying to satisfy the growing needs of the police to have cheaper and faster techniques to survey crime scenes and to obtain results with scientifically high-level outputs, more or less comparable with similar outputs from more expensive instruments. This paper reported results from a crime scene in which a low-cost GPR instrument, a free 3D photogrammetry software, and an open-source geographical information system (GIS) were deployed. The collection, processing, and analyses of these data will provide a very promising starting point for future low-cost and professional applications.
Chaokui Li, Qinlan Zhou, Kaisen Ma, Jun Fang, Wentao Yang
Journal of Geographic Information System, Volume 11, pp 715-726; doi:10.4236/jgis.2019.116043

Abstract:
Aiming at the problem of lack of data model to analyze the level of transportation integration, the paper taking Changsha-Zhuzhou-Xiangtan City Group of China as the research object, based on the Gravity measurement model, transportation comprehensive distance model, weighted road density model, analysis of Changsha-Zhuzhou-Xiangtan City Group accessibility and transportation integration level. A new method to measure the level of traffic integration is proposed and verified by the road network data and socio-economic data of Changsha-Zhuzhou-Xiangtan City Group. The results show that: Changsha-Zhuzhou-Xiangtan City Group traffic accessibility was “point to surface” shape distribution, taking the core region of Changsha as the optimal, Xiangtan, Zhuzhou, Changsha County next, in remote Yanling County, Chaling county has the lowest accessibility; the correlation between traffic network connection degree and economic connection degree reached 0.871, indicating that the transportation integration level of urban agglomerations has a high degree of fit with the level of economic integration. The research results on the one hand for the Chang-Zhuzhou-Xiangtan urban agglomeration traffic present situation to make an annotation; on the other hand, that provide a reference for further optimization of Changsha-Zhuzhou-Xiangtan urban agglomeration traffic planning.