Biochemical Society Symposia
ISSN / EISSN : 0067-8694 / 1744-1439
Published by: Portland Press Ltd. (10.1042)
Total articles ≅ 810
Latest articles in this journal
Biochemical Society symposium, Volume 74, pp 259-271; https://doi.org/10.1042/bss0740259
PtdIns is synthesized at the endoplasmic reticulum and its intracellular distribution to other organelles can be facilitated by lipid transfer proteins [PITPs (phosphatidylinositol transfer proteins)]. In this review, I summarize the current understanding of how PITPs are regulated by phosphorylation, how can they dock to membranes to exchange their lipid cargo and how cells use PITPs in signal transduction and membrane delivery. Mammalian PITPs, PITPα and PITPβ, are paralogous genes that are 94% similar in sequence. Their structural design demonstrates that they can sequester PtdIns or PtdCho (phosphatidylcholine) in their hydrophobic cavity. To deliver the lipid cargo to a membrane, PITP has to undergo a conformational change at the membrane interface. PITPs have a higher affinity for PtdIns than PtdCho, which is explained by hydrogen-bond contacts between the inositol ring of PtdIns and the side-chains of four amino acid residues, Thr59, Lys61, Glu86 and Asn90, in PITPs. Regardless of species, these residues are conserved in all known PITPs. PITP transfer activity is regulated by a conserved serine residue (Ser166) that is phosphorylated by protein kinase C. Ser166 is only accessible for phosphorylation when a conformational change occurs in PITPs while docking at the membrane interface during lipid transfer, thereby coupling regulation of activity with lipid transfer function. Biological roles of PITPs include their ability to couple phospholipase C signalling to neurite outgrowth, cell division and stem cell growth.
Biochemical Society symposium, Volume 74, pp 95-105; https://doi.org/10.1042/bss0740095
The FYVE domain is an approx. 80 amino acid motif that binds to the phosphoinositide PtdIns3P with high specificity and affinity. It is present in 38 predicted gene products within the human genome, but only in 12-13 in Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster. Eight of these are highly conserved in all three organisms, and they include proteins that have not been characterized in any species. One of these, WDFY2, appears to play an important role in early endocytosis and was revealed in a RNAi (RNA interference) screen in C. elegans. Interestingly, some proteins contain FYVE-like domains in C. elegans and D. melanogaster, but have lost this domain during evolution. One of these is the homologue of Rabatin-5, a protein that, in mammalian cells, binds both Rab5 and Rabex-5, a guanine-nucleotide exchange factor for Rab5. Thus the Rabatin-5 homologue suggests that mechanisms to link PtdIns3P and Rab5 activation developed in evolution. In mammalian cells, these mechanisms are apparent in the existence of proteins that bind PtdIns3P and Rab GTPases, such as EEA1, Rabenosyn-5 and Rabip4u27. Despite the comparable ability to bind to PtdIns3P in vitro, FYVE domains display widely variable abilities to interact with endosomes in intact cells. This variation is due to three distinct properties of FYVE domains conferred by residues that are not involved in PtdIns3P head group recognition: These properties are: (i) the propensity to oligomerize, (ii) the ability to insert into the membrane bilayer, and (iii) differing electrostatic interactions with the bilayer surface. The different binding properties are likely to regulate the extent and duration of the interaction of specific FYVE domain-containing proteins with early endosomes, and thereby their biological function
Biochemical Society symposium, Volume 74, pp 161-81; https://doi.org/10.1042/bss0740161
Phosphoinositide signals regulate cell proliferation, differentiation, cytoskeletal rearrangement and intracellular trafficking. Hydrolysis of PtdIns(4,5)P2 and PtdIns(3,4,5)P3, by inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatases regulates synaptic vesicle recycling (synaptojanin-1), hematopoietic cell function [SHIP1(SH2-containing inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase-1)], renal cell function [OCRL (oculocerebrorenal syndrome of Lowe)] and insulin signalling (SHIP2). We present here a detailed review of the characteristics of the ten mammalian 5-phosphatases. Knockout mouse phenotypes and underexpression studies are associated with significant phenotypic changes, indicating non-redundant roles, despite, in many cases, overlapping substrate specificity and tissue expression. The extraordinary complexity in the control of phosphoinositide signalling continues to be revealed.
Biochemical Society symposium, Volume 74, pp 199-209; https://doi.org/10.1042/bss0740199
The mature sphingolipids of yeast consist of IPCs (inositolphosphorylceramides) and glycosylated derivatives thereof. Beyond being an abundant membrane constituent in the organelles of the secretory pathway, IPCs are also used to constitute the lipid moiety of the majority of GPI (glycosylphosphatidylinositol) proteins, while a minority of GPI proteins contain PI (phosphatidylinositol). Thus all GPI anchor lipids (as well as free IPCs) typically contain C26 fatty acids. However, the primary GPI lipid that isadded to newly synthesized proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum consists of a PI with conventional C16 and C18 fatty acids. A new class of enzymes is required to replace the fatty acid in sn-2 by a C26 fatty acid. Cells lacking this activity make normal amounts of GPI proteins but accumulate GPI anchors containing lyso-PI. As a consequence, the endoplasmic reticulum to Golgi transport of the GPI protein Gas1p is slow, and mature Gas1p is lost from the plasma membrane into the medium. The GPI anchor containing C26 in sn-2 can further be remodelled by the exchange of diacylglycerol for ceramide. This process is also dependent on the presence of specific phosphorylethanolamine side-chains on the GPI anchor.
Biochemical Society symposium, Volume 74, pp 117-128; https://doi.org/10.1042/bss0740117
Phosphoinositides are minor constituents of cell membranes playing a critical role in the regulation of many cellular functions. Recent discoveries indicate that mutations in several phosphoinositide kinases and phosphatases generate imbalances in the levels of phosphoinositides, thereby leading to the development of human diseases. Although the roles of phosphoinositide 3-kinase products and PtdIns(4,5)P2 were largely studied these last years, the potential role of phosphatidylinositol monophosphates as direct signalling molecules is just emerging. PtdIns5P, the least characterized phosphoinositide, appears to be a new player in cell regulation. This review will summarize the current knowledge on the mechanisms of synthesis and degradation of PtdIns5P as well as its potential roles.
Biochemical Society symposium, Volume 74, pp 129-39; https://doi.org/10.1042/bss0740129
PtdIns(3,5)P2 was discovered about a decade ago and much of the machinery that makes, degrades and senses it has been uncovered. Despite this, we still lack a complete understanding of how the pieces fit together but some patterns are beginning to emerge. Molecular functions for PtdIns(3,5)P2 are also elusive, but the identification of effectors offers a way into some of these processes. An examination of the defects associated with loss of synthesis of PtdIns(3,5)P2 in lower and higher eukaryotes begins to suggest a unifying theme; this lipid regulates membrane retrieval via retrograde trafficking from distal compartments to organelles that are more proximal in the endocytic/lysosomal system. Another unifying theme is stress signalling to organelles, possibly both to change their morphology in response to external insults and to maintain the lumenal pH or membrane potential of organelles. The next few years seem likely to uncover details of the molecular mechanisms underlying the biology of this fascinating lipid. This review also highlights some areas where further research is needed.
Biochemical Society symposium, Volume 74, pp 37-45; https://doi.org/10.1042/bss0740037
The original hypothesis put forth by Bob Michell in his seminal 1975 review held that inositol lipid breakdown was involved in the activation of plasma membrane calcium channels or 'gates'. Subsequently, it was demonstrated that while the interposition of inositol lipid breakdown upstream of calcium signalling was correct, it was predominantly the release of Ca2+ that was activated, through the formation of Ins(1,4,5)P3. Ca2+ entry across the plasma membrane involved a secondary mechanism signalled in an unknown manner by depletion of intracellular Ca2+ stores. In recent years, however, additional non-store-operated mechanisms for Ca2+ entry have emerged. In many instances, these pathways involve homologues of the Drosophila trp (transient receptor potential) gene. In mammalian systems there are seven members of the TRP superfamily, designated TRPC1-TRPC7, which appear to be reasonably close structural and functional homologues of Drosophila TRP. Although these channels can sometimes function as store-operated channels, in the majority of instances they function as channels more directly linked to phospholipase C activity. Three members of this family, TRPC3, 6 and 7, are activated by the phosphoinositide breakdown product, diacylglycerol. Two others, TRPC4 and 5, are also activated as a consequence of phospholipase C activity, although the precise substrate or product molecules involved are still unclear. Thus the TRPCs represent a family of ion channels that are directly activated by inositol lipid breakdown, confirming Bob Michell's original prediction 30 years ago.
Biochemical Society symposium, Volume 74, pp 47-57; https://doi.org/10.1042/bss0740047
Three large protein complexes known as ESCRT I, ESCRT II and ESCRT III drive the progression of ubiquitinated membrane cargo from early endosomes to lysosomes. Several steps in this process critically depend on PtdIns3P, the product of the class III phosphoinositide 3-kinase. Our work has provided insights into the architecture, membrane recruitment and functional interactions of the ESCRT machinery. The fan-shaped ESCRT I core and the trilobal ESCRT II core are essential to forming stable, rigid scaffolds that support additional, flexibly-linked domains, which serve as gripping tools for recognizing elements of the MVB (multivesicular body) pathway: cargo protein, membranes and other MVB proteins. With these additional (non-core) domains, ESCRT I grasps monoubiquitinated membrane proteins and the Vps36 subunit of the downstream ESCRT II complex. The GLUE (GRAM-like, ubiquitin-binding on Eap45) domain extending beyond the core of the ESCRT II complex recognizes PtdIns3P-containing membranes, monoubiquitinated cargo and ESCRT I. The structure of this GLUE domain demonstrates that it has a split PH (pleckstrin homology) domain fold, with a non-typical phosphoinositide-binding pocket. Mutations in the lipid-binding pocket of the ESCRT II GLUE domain cause a strong defect in vacuolar protein sorting in yeast.
Biochemical Society symposium, Volume 74, pp 211-21; https://doi.org/10.1042/bss0740211
Among the many derivatives of the inositol-based signalling family are a subgroup that possess diphosphates. In this review, some recent research into the actions of these specialized polyphosphates is analysed, and key goals for future studies are identified, which, it is hoped, will result in the wider cell-signalling community giving considerably greater attention to this intriguing but relatively neglected class of inositol polyphosphates.
Biochemical Society symposium, Volume 74, pp 69-80; https://doi.org/10.1042/bss0740069
PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10) is a tumour suppressor that functions as a PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 3-phosphatase to inhibit cell proliferation, survival and growth by antagonizing PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase)-dependent signalling. Recent work has begun to focus attention on potential biological functions of the protein phosphatase activity of PTEN and on the possibility that some of its functions are phosphatase-independent. We discuss here the structural and regulatory mechanisms that account for the remarkable specificity of PTEN with respect to its PtdIns substrates and how it avoids the soluble headgroups of PtdIns that occur commonly in cells. Secondly we discuss the concept of PTEN as a constitutively active enzyme that is subject to negative regulation both physiologically and pathologically. Thirdly, we review the evidence that PTEN functions as a dual specificity phosphatase with discrete lipid and protein substrates. Lastly we present a current model of how PTEN may participate in the control of cell migration.