Devices and Methods of Measurements

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ISSN / EISSN : 2220-9506 / 2414-0473
Total articles ≅ 188
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S. A. Tikhomirov
Devices and Methods of Measurements, Volume 12; doi:10.21122/2220-9506-2021-12-1-23-29

For several decades development of methods for generating ultrashort pulses has been an independent urgent scientific and technical problem. There is a constant improvement both in the methods of such pulses receiving and in methods of their use. The aim of this work was to investigate the possibility of realizing the coordinated operation of two fundamentally different types of pump lasers for the femtosecond oscillator and amplifier based on one single-lamp laser head and to create on this basis a compact high-power femtosecond system with pulsed pumping and one power unit. The practical implementation of two types of pulsed lasers (nano- and picosecond ones operating, respectively, in Q-switch and modelock regime) on a single laser head with two active elements and one pump lamp is carried out. The required synchronization in time the pump pulse femtosecond amplifier formation and quasi-stationary region of generated pulses in the output radiation of a femtosecond Ti:sapphire is obtained. On this basis a compact, pulse pumped monoblock laser system has been developed that can generate femtosecond pulses with a duration of 50–150 fs with an energy up to 1 mJ and a high enough pulse repetition rate (up to 1 kHz which is determined by the type of laser head and pump unit used). In the developed laser system a compact scheme of a stretcher-compressor with a single common diffraction grating is used. Laser systems of this type characterized by a relatively low cost due to the use of a single power supply unit for simultaneous pumping of the amplifier and oscillator, as well as lower requirements for the quality of optical elements and usage conditions due to the pulse mode of operation, are quite practical and can be used both in scientific research in the field of ultra-high-speed kinetic spectroscopy and nonlinear optics, as well as in numerous technical applications, particular in the precision processing of materials, as optical simulators of the action of heavy charged particles in testing the radiation resistance of integrated circuits and electronic modules.
A. A. Adnastarontsau, D. A. Adnastarontsava, R. V. Fiodortsev, D. V. Katser, A. Y. Liavonau, D. V. Romanov, D. N. Tcherniakovski, A. О. Mikhailau
Devices and Methods of Measurements, Volume 12; doi:10.21122/2220-9506-2021-12-1-46-57

The purpose of the research was to create an algorithm for determining and correcting the output parameters of the navigation module and the flight-navigation complex of unmanned aerial vehicles which provides control of an aviation gyro-stabilized platform with a multispectral optoelectronic system during flight and tracking various objects of observation. Principles of control of an aviation technical vision system located on an unmanned aerial vehicle on a two-degree gyro-stabilized platform with the possibility of full turn around two perpendicular axes along the course and pitch are considered. Stability of tracking of observation objects at a distance of up to 10000 m is ensured by the use of a multispectral optoelectronic system including a rangefinder, thermal imaging and two visual channels. Analysis of the object of observation and the method of its support are carried out. An algorithm is proposed for integrating a Global Navigation Satellite System and a strapdown inertial navigation system based on the extended Kalman filter which includes two stages of calculations, extrapolation (prediction) and correction. Specialized software in the FreeRTOS v9.0 environment has been developed to obtain a navigation solution: latitude, longitude and altitude of the unmanned aerial vehicle in the WGS-84 coordinate system, as well as the pitch, heading and roll angles; north, east and vertical components of velocities in the navigation coordinate system; longitudinal, vertical and transverse components of free accelerations and angular velocities in the associated coordinate system based on data from the receiving and measuring module of the Global Navigation Satellite System and data from the 6-axis MEMS sensor STIM300.
Н. А. Поклонский, S. A. Vyrko, A. I. Kovalev, I. I. Anikeev, N. I. Gorbachuk
Devices and Methods of Measurements, Volume 12; doi:10.21122/2220-9506-2021-12-1-13-22

The study of thermoelectric properties of crystalline semiconductors with structural defects is of practical interest in the development of radiation-resistant Peltier elements. In this case, the spectrum of energy levels of hydrogen-like impurities and intrinsic point defects in the band gap (energy gap) of crystal plays an important role. The purpose of this work is to analyze the features of the single-electron band model of semiconductors with hopping electron migration both via atoms of hydrogen-like impurities and via their own point triplecharged intrinsic defects in the c- and v-bands, as well as to search for the possibility of their use in the Peltier element in the temperature range, when the transitions of electrons and holes from impurity atoms and/or intrinsic defects to the c- and v-bands can be neglected. For Peltier elements with electron hopping migration we propose: (i) an h-diode containing |d1)and |d2)-regions with hydrogen-like donors of two types in the charge states (0) and (+1) and compensating them hydrogen-like acceptors in the charge state (−1); (ii) a homogeneous semiconductor containing intrinsic t-defects in the charge states (−1, 0, +1), as well as ions of donors and acceptors to control the distribution of t-defects over the charge states. The band diagrams of the proposed Peltier elements in equilibrium and upon excitation of a stationary hopping electric current are analyzed. A model of the h-diode containing hydrogen-like donors of two types |d1) and |d2) with hopping migration of electrons between them for 50 % compensation by acceptors is considered. It is shown that in the case of the reverse (forward) electrical bias of the diode, the cooling (heating) of the region of the electric double layer between |d1)and |d2)-regions is possible. A Peltier element based on a semiconductor with point t-defects is considered. It is assumed that the temperature and the concentration of ions of hydrogen-like acceptors and donors are to assure all t-defects to be in the charge state (0). It is shown that in such an element it is possible to cool down the metal-semiconductor contact under a negative electric potential and to heat up the opposite contact under a positive potential.
I. A. Konovalov, A. A. Chesnokov, A. A. Barinov, S. M. Dmitriev, A. E. Khrobostov, M. A. Legchanov, S. S. Borodin, M. A. Makarov
Devices and Methods of Measurements, Volume 12; doi:10.21122/2220-9506-2021-12-1-67-74

The correlation method of the coolant flow measuring is widely used in research practice including for studying of turbulent coolant flows in scale models of elements of nuclear power plants. The aim of this work was to develop a technique for assessing the effect of noise recorded by a measuring system on the flow rate readings obtained using the correlation method. A technique to assess the effect of noise as well as the relative position and acquisition period of sensors is presented. An insignificant concentration of a salt solution (NaCl or Na2SO4 ) is used as a passive impurity which creates a conductivity gradient of the medium recorded by a conductometric system. Turbulent pulsations at the interface between two concurrent isokinetic flows in a channel with a square cross section are used as the signal source for the correlational algorithm. Paper presents the values of the turbulence′s transport time between spatial conductometers, the results of estimating the spectral power density and band of the recorded signal and also the signalto-noise ratios of the measuring system obtained on their basis which are subsequently used to estimate the confidence interval of the transport time. As a result of measurements the relationship between the confidence interval value and the signal length were obtained. The measurements which were carried out at different relative positions of conductometers make it possible to make a conclusion about an increase in the spectral width of the signal and, as a consequence, a decrease in the length of the confidence interval with increasing of distance between sensors. The presented work is an approbation of this approach for its application as part of an experimental model of a nuclear reactor in order to determine per-channel flow rates in the channels of the core simulator using mesh conductometric sensors taking into account the effect of noise.
Devices and Methods of Measurements, Volume 12; doi:10.21122/2220-9506-2021-12-1-7-12

The permanent magnetic field in addition to electromagnetic radiation has a significant effect on performance of devices. This is particularly true for highly sensitive precision measuring equipment, such as, for example, magnetometers or photomultiplier tubes. In this regard a new high-performance materials for protection against permanent fields and electromagnetic radiation need to be developed. The purpose of this paper is a development of a hardware and software complex for high-precision determination of permanent magnetic field attenuation coefficient and certification of protective materials. This paper describes an experimental installation for determining the attenuation coefficient of a permanent magnetic field using materials and coatings on standard package for electronic equipment. The installation ensures a uniform magnetic field flow in the measurement volume. The advantage of the measuring device is the ability to measure magnetic field in three coordinates due to the use of three pairs of Helmholtz coils and a three-dimensional Hall sensor. The software will enable to control of the magnetic field in all three directions, simulating the real operating conditions of devices that require protection from such influences. In addition, a movable positioning system makes it possible to compensate for the Earth's magnetic field, which increases the accuracy of estimating the attenuation coefficient by protective materials in weak magnetic field. An alternative use of the capabilities of the installation is to test the performance of the devices in a permanent magnetic field and evaluate the electromagnetic compatibility. Experimental results of the work includes determination of the magnetic field attenuation coefficient using standard photomultiplier tube package made of electrolytically deposited permalloy and the sheet of annealed permalloy. Thus, the effect of annealing and closed magnetic circuit on the degree of weakening of the magnetic field is shown. It has been demonstrated that annealing which causes a significant increase in the magnetic permeability promotes an effective attenuation of weak magnetic fields (up to 1 mT). In magnetic fields with an induction of 1 mT or more, effective attenuation is provided by a closed magnetic circuit.
, D. A. Borisevich
Devices and Methods of Measurements, Volume 12; doi:10.21122/2220-9506-2021-12-1-75-81

The aim of the work was a multivariate calibration of the concentration of unrefined sunflower oil, considered as adulteration, in a mixture with flaxseed oil. The relevance of the study is due to the need to develop a simple and effective method for detecting the falsification of flaxseed oil which is superior in the content of essential polyunsaturated fatty acids to olive oil. A few works only are devoted to identifying adulteration of flaxseed oil, unlike olive oil.Multivariate calibration carried out using a model based on the principal component analysis, cluster analysis and projection to latent structures of absorbance spectra in UV, visible and near IR ranges. Calibration uses three methods for spectral variables selection: the successive projections algorithm, the method of searching combination moving window, and method for ranking variables by correlation coefficient.The application of the successive projections algorithm, ranking variables by correlation coefficient and searching combination moving window makes it possible to reduce the value of the root mean square error of prediction from 0.63 % for wideband projection to latent structures to 0.46 %, 0.50 %, and 0.03 %, respectively.The developed method of multivariate calibration by projection to latent structures of absorbance spectra in UV, visible and near IR ranges using the spectral variables selection by searching combination moving window is a simple and effective method of detecting adulteration of flaxseed oil.
O. P. Bogdan, D. V. Zlobin, O. V. Murav'Eva, S. M. Molin, A. V. Platunov
Devices and Methods of Measurements, Volume 12; doi:10.21122/2220-9506-2021-12-1-58-66

The widespread use of polyolefin foams in strategically important industries is due to their high thermal, sound and vibration insulation properties. The aim of the work was to evaluate the non-uniformity of elastic properties over the area of sheets of polyolefin foams of various types using the acoustic non-contact shadow amplitude method of testing and confirmation by the structural analysis method. The article presents the developed installation and a new method of non-contact acoustic testing of sheets made of closed-cell polyolefin foams based on recording the amplitude of the pulse that passed through the sheet and allowing to assess to the unevenness of its elastic properties during scanning. Studies of uneven elastic properties were carried out on sheets of closed-cell polyolefin foams of the ISOLON 500 and ISOLON 300 brands which differ in material and manufacturing technology (technique of cross-linking, method and multiplicity of foaming). It is shown that the absolute amplitude of the signal and its spread relative to the average value is affected by the structure of the foam polyolefin material and its heterogeneity over the area of the studied sheet determined by the production technology which is confirmed visually using microscopy. Studies have shown the effect on the indications unevenness of the method of obtaining and the apparent density of the material. It is shown that the most uneven elastic properties and structure belong to sheets of polyolefin foam obtained by chemical cross-linking technology (the unevenness of Δ was 6.5 %). Among the physically cross-linked sheets of polyolefin foam the most uniform in structure and elastic properties are samples made of ethylene vinyl acetate with Δ = 3.8 %, as well as sheets with a high foaming rate (Δ = 3.9 %). The unevenness of structure of the studied sheets of polyolefin foams was confirmed by optical microscopy of sections in two mutually perpendicular directions.
M. A. Kuznetsov, D. P. Ilyaschenko, A. V. Kryukov, S. A. Solodsky, E. V. Lavrova, E. V. Verkhoturova
Devices and Methods of Measurements, Volume 12; doi:10.21122/2220-9506-2021-12-1-38-45

Modeling of velocities and temperatures processes distribution in the plasma-forming channel determining the design features and optimal parameters of the plasma torch nozzle is one of promising directions in development of plasma technologies. The aim of this work was to simulate the processes of velocities and temperature distribution in the plasma-forming channel and to determine the design features and optimal geometric parameters of the plasmatron nozzle which ensures the formation of necessary direction of plasma flows for generation of surface waves on the surface of a liquid metal droplet under the influence of the investigated instabilities. One of the main tasks is to consider the process of plasma jet formation and the flow of electric arc plasma. For obtaining small-sized particles one of the main parameters is the plasma flow velocity. It is necessary that the plasma outflow velocity be close to supersonic. An increase of the supersonic speed is possible due to design of the plasmatron nozzle especially the design feature and dimensions of the gas channel in which the plasma is formed. Also the modeling took into account dimensions of the plasma torch nozzle, i. e. the device should provide a supersonic plasma flow with the smallest possible geometric dimensions. As a result models of velocities and temperatures distribution in the plasma-forming channel at the minimum and maximum diameters of the channel were obtained. The design features and optimal geometric parameters of the plasmatron have been determined: the inlet diameter is 3 mm, the outlet diameter is 2 mm. The design of the executive equipment has been developed and designed which implements the investigated process of generating droplets of the micro- and nanoscale range. A plasmatron nozzle was manufactured which forms the necessary directions of plasma flows for the formation of surface waves on the metal droplet surface under the influence of instabilities. An algorithm has been developed for controlling of executive equipment that implements the process of generating drops of micro- and nanoscale range.
O. D. Kanafyev, A. V. Trukhanov, Т. И. Зубарь, S. A. Chizhik, S. S. Grabchikov
Devices and Methods of Measurements, Volume 12; doi:10.21122/2220-9506-2021-12-1-30-37

Optimization of the radiation coil of the hardware-software complex for studying the effectiveness of shielding of low-frequency electromagnetic radiation will make it possible to assess the effectiveness of shielding coatings at a higher level. This fact will make it possible to develop coatings with improved characteristics. The purpose of this work was to determine the optimal characteristics of the emitting coil which will ensure its stable operation and magnetic field strength in the frequency range up to 100 kHz. The parameters of the manufactured samples, such as inductance (L), active (R) and total resistance (Z), were obtained using an MNIPI E7-20 emittance meter. In practice, the coils with the optimal parameters calculated theoretically were connected to a current source and amplifier. To detect electromagnetic radiation, a multilayer inductor connected to a UTB-TREND 722-050-5 oscilloscope was used as a signal receiver. The results of measurements showed that the resistance of multilayer coils is approximately 1000 times higher than that of single-layer coils. Also, for multilayer coils, an avalanche-like increase in total resistance is observed starting from a frequency of 10 kHz, while for single-layer coils there is a uniform increase in total resistance over the entire frequency range up to 100 kHz. The paper presents results of research on the correlation of the performance of single-layer and multilayer inductors depending on their parameters in the frequency range from 20 Hz to 100 kHz. Values of the voltage required to provide the magnetic field strength of 1, 5, 20 Oe at 25 Hz and 100 kHz have been calculated. After analyzing the data obtained, the optimal parameters of the inductor were found which ensure stable performance in the frequency range up to 100 kHz.
E. V. Titovich, M. N. Piatkevich, N. I. Makarava
Devices and Methods of Measurements, Volume 11; doi:10.21122/2220-9506-2020-11-4-289-297

One of the main factors affecting the effectiveness of radiation therapy is the constancy of the patient’s position on the treatment table created by immobilization devices of various designs and held throughout the entire irradiation procedure, which guarantees the accuracy of the delivery of the prescribed dose distribution. The purpose of the work was to establish the numerical values of the dominant components of a radiation therapy session for each of the irradiation techniques most commonly used in clinical practice of the radiation therapy.To determine the numerical values of the components of the radiation therapy session, the authors have measured each component for some clinical cases of patients’ irradiation placed. The patients had been diagnosed with the following malignant tumours: prostate cancer, breast cancer, lung cancer, head and neck tumours. More than 2000 individual measurements have been carried out with the help of such medical linear accelerators as "Clinac", "Unique", "Truebeam", and the gamma-therapeutic apparatus named "Theratron".The numerical values of the time spent on 3 groups of parameters of an irradiation session were established: the mechanical parameters of the radiation therapy equipment, the functional characteristics of the irradiation systems and the parameters that directly depend on the personnel involved in an irradiation procedure.According to the measurement results, the flow diagram for the procedures of verifying a patient’s position on the therapeutic table (2 different techniques), preceding their irradiation and the radiation therapy procedures themselves was proposed. It has been shown that a number of session components can run in parallel to each other thus optimizing the time spent by a patient in the treatment room.Using the obtained values of the time spent on the radiation session parameters it is possible to actualize the mathematical model that will allow the medical physicist to determine in advance the duration of the irradiation session at the stage of treatment planning and choose a radiation therapy technique taking into account the individual parameters of the irradiation session in each particular clinical case.
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