Devices and Methods of Measurements

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ISSN / EISSN : 2220-9506 / 2414-0473
Total articles ≅ 192
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, A. I. Мitkovets, M. V. Asadchaya, A. L. Mayorov
Devices and Methods of Measurements, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.21122/2220-9506-2021-12-3-211-219

Abstract:
Magnetic fluids belong to the class of nanomaterials with a high gain of light absorption, aggregative and sedimentation stability as well as controllability by external fields, which is of interest to use in the field of optoacoustics. The purpose of the work was to experimentally study the effect of the optoacoustic transformation in a magnetic fluid, depending on the concentration of magnetic colloidal particles, boundary conditions, intensity of the laser as well as to identify the possibilities of using the magnetic fluid as an element of the optoacoustic transformation in a number of applications. A brief analysis of the optoacoustic transformation mechanism in a magnetic fluid was carried out and a technique and an installation that implements the shadow measurement variant developed. A Lotis type laser was used as a source of ultrasonic pulse-laser excitation in magnetic fluids. A quartz and air were used as a material transmitting the energy of laser radiation in a magnetic fluid. Receiving of ultrasound signals was made by a piezoelectric probe at a working frequency of 5 MHz. In the measurement process, the concentration of the dispersed phase in tmagnetic fluid was varied from zero to 8 % and the energy in the impulse – from zero to 10 mJ. For the first time, it was established that: a) an amplitude of the function of the optoacoustic transformation in a magnetic fluid, depending on the concentration of the dispersed phase, has a maximum determined by the fluid physical properties and boundary conditions; b) for all samples within the measurement error, a quasilinear dependence of the specified amplitude of energy in the laser pulse in the range of 0–8 MJ has been established. A number ways of the optoacoustic effects in magnetic fluids to use in ultrasonic testing, measuring the intensity of the laser radiation had been suggested.
V. L. Solomakho, A. A. Bagdun
Devices and Methods of Measurements, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.21122/2220-9506-2021-12-3-194-201

Abstract:
The quality of nanomaterials and nanotechnologies is largely determined by the stability of the applied technologies, which, to a large extent, depend on the constancy of particle sizes. In this regard, metrological problems arise that are associated both with measuring the dimensions of the microstructure of aerosols, suspensions and powders, and with ensuring the uniformity of measurements when transferring a unit of a physical quantity from a standard to working measuring instruments. The purpose of this work was to determine and calculate the error in transferring the size of a unit of length when measuring the diameter of nanoparticles. An analyzer of differential electric mobility of particles was determined as a reference measuring instrument for which the calculation was made. It allows the separation of aerosol particles based on the dependence of their electrical mobility on the particle size. In combination with a condensation particle counter, it allows you to scan an aerosol and build a particle size distribution function. This measurement method is the most accurate in the field of measuring the diameters of particles in aerosols, therefore, the error in the transmission of particle size must be set as for a standard. The paper describes the physical principles of measurement by this method and presents an equation for determining the diameter of nanoparticles. Based on this equation, the sources of non-excluded systematic error were identified. Also, an experimental method was used to determine the random component of the measurement error of nanoparticles and to calculate the error in transferring the size of a unit of length when measuring the diameter of nanoparticles. The obtained results will be used for metrological support of standard samples of particle size, ensuring traceability of measurements of aerosol particle counters and for aerosol research.
I. A. Konovalov, A. A. Chesnokov, A. A. Barinov, S. M. Dmitriev, A. E. Khrobostov, M. A. Makarov
Devices and Methods of Measurements, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.21122/2220-9506-2021-12-3-183-193

Abstract:
One of the important tasks in carrying out a computational justification of the reliability and safety of equipment that is part of the projected nuclear power plants today is the modeling of the bubbly regime of the coolant flow. In this regard the aim of this work is the use of extended methods of using matrix conductometric systems which are widespread in research practice for study of gas-liquid flows. The work uses a method of primary processing of experimental data aimed at eliminating of excess conductivity in the cells of the developed wire mesh sensor which makes it possible to obtain the values of the true volumetric gas content in the investigated area. Subsequent analysis of the possibilities to estimate the volumes of registered gas bubbles by the gradient method as well as the size of the interface in the sensor cells which plays a key role in modeling the interfacial heat and mass transfer. Comparison of readings values with the control instruments cues showed a good agreement. The presented work is an adaptation of the use of a conductometric measuring system for the study of multicomponent flows with the aim of further application for the study of two-component flows in the channels of the core simulator using wire mesh sensors.
R. V. Lukashevich, G. A. Fokov
Devices and Methods of Measurements, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.21122/2220-9506-2021-12-3-239-248

Abstract:
Inorganic scintillation detectors are widely used to measure of dose rate in the environment due to their high sensitivity to photon radiation. A distinctive feature when using such detectors is the need to take into account of the position of the effective energy release center. This peculiarity is actual when using measuring instruments with inorganic scintillation detectors as working standards during calibration at short “source–detector” distances in conditions of low-background shield or using a facility with protection from external gamma radiation background in the dose rate range from 0.03 to 0.3 μSv/h (μGy/h). The purpose of this work was to calculate the position of the effective energy release center of NaI(Tl) scintillation detectors and to take it into account when working at short “source–detector” distances. An original method of determining the position of the effective energy release center when irradiating the side and end surfaces of inorganic scintillation detector with parallel gamma radiation flux and point gamma radiation sources at small “source–detector” distances using Monte Carlo methods is proposed. The results of calculations of the position of the effective energy release center of NaI(Tl) based detectors of “popular” sizes for the cases of parallel gamma radiation flux and point sources of gamma radiation at small “source–detector” distances are presented. The functional dependences of the position of the effective energy release center of NaI(Tl) based detectors on the distance to the point gamma radiation sources and the energy of gamma radiation sources are presented. As a result of the study it was found that for scintillation NaI(Tl) detectors of medium size (for example, Ø25×40 mm or Ø40×40 mm) the point gamma radiation source located at a distance of 1 m or more, creates a radiation field which does not differ in characteristics from the radiation field created by a parallel flux of gamma radiation. It is shown that approaching the point gamma radiation source to the surface of scintillation detector leads to displacement of the position of the effective energy release center to the surface of the detector.
A. Yu. Kutsepau, А. П. Крень, Y. V. Hnutsenka
Devices and Methods of Measurements, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.21122/2220-9506-2021-12-3-230-238

Abstract:
Сontrol of mechanical stresses formed with the deposition of nickel coatings plays an important role in the diagnosis of coatings’ technical condition. Large internal stresses can lead to cracking or flaking of coatings which is completely unacceptable for critical parts and assembly units used, for example, in space technology for which reliability is of paramount importance. An important aspect of internal stresses monitoring is the measurement error of the instruments used. The purpose of this work was to determine the characteristics of the device sensors, which make the assessment of their manufacturing possible at the preliminary stage of the measuring equipment assembling in order to maintain the required accuracy of subsequent measurements. In most cases the measurement error assessment is possible only after the equipment manufacture and calibration. In this paper it is proposed to evaluate the accuracy characteristics of device sensors based on the precision (repeatability and reproducibility) of the primary informative parameter recording. In the case of the NT-800 device that was developed at the Institute of Applied Physics of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus the effect of precision characteristics deterioration on the eventual measurement error is demonstrated. Determining the precision parameters before establishing correlation dependences between the primary informative parameter and the measured characteristic is proposed in order to reject poorly manufactured sensors and reduce labor costs. In particular, measurements of the magnitude proportional to the magnetic breakaway force were carried out using the NT-800 device with nickel specimens simulating coatings with a thickness of 200 to 700 μm and a rolling value from 0 to 40 %. It was established that in the case of well-made sensors the variation coefficient calculated from the dispersion of repeatability is in the range 0.2–0.6 %, and the variation coefficient calculated from the dispersion of reproducibility does not exceed 0.9 %. In the case of a sensor with the sensitive element parameters worsened, the variation coefficient of repeatability and reproducibility were up by one and a half times. Deterioration of the precision characteristics resulted in significant changes in the readings of the calibrated instrument. Thus the absolute measurement error for a sensor with a poorly made sensitive element turned out to be approximately 3 times higher in the range of 200– 300 MPa than that for a sensor with good precision parameters.
V. A. Alekseev, V. G. Kostin, A. V. Usoltseva, V. P. Usoltsev,
Devices and Methods of Measurements, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.21122/2220-9506-2021-12-3-175-182

Abstract:
One of the significant weaknesses of excimer laser-based vision correction devices is the difficulty of achieving a required change in the refractive properties of the cornea to sharply focus the image on the retina with distance from the working area (ablation zone) center to the periphery due to a change in the laser beam incidence angle. The study is aimed at improving the quality of laser action on the eye cornea by introducing an optical corrective system into the existing excimer laser vision correction equipment, ensuring the coincidence of the direction of the laser beam incidence on the corneal surface with the normal.It has been shown that the greater the reflection coefficient, the lower the absorbed energy, and the shallower the laser radiation penetration and ablation depths, which reduces the laser action opportunities and quality. When using excimer laser vision correction devices, it has been proposed to change the angle of the laser beam incidence on the cornea with a distance from the working area (ablation zone) center to the periphery during the surgery by introducing an optical corrective system based on a lightweight controllable and movable mirror, which allows achieving the coincidence of the direction of the laser beam incidence on the corneal surface with the normal.The studies have shown that the coincidence of the laser beam incidence on the corneal surface at any point with the normal when using a priori data on the specifics of the patient's eye allows expanding the functional opportunities of excimer laser photoablation, i. e., expand the ablation zone by 30 % and eliminate the possibility of errors caused by the human factor. The technique proposed can be used for excimer laser vision correction according to PRK, LASIK, Femto-LASIK, and other methods. To implement this approach, a patented excimer laser vision correction unit has been proposed with a PCcontrolled optical shaping system comprising galvo motor platforms and galvo mirrors installed on them.
Н. А. Поклонский, I. I. Anikeev, S. A. Vyrko
Devices and Methods of Measurements, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.21122/2220-9506-2021-12-3-202-210

Abstract:
The study of the electrophysical characteristics of crystalline semiconductors with structural defects is of practical interest in the development of radiation-resistant varactors. The capacitance-voltage characteristics of a disordered semiconductor can be used to determine the concentration of point defects in its crystal matrix. The purpose of this work is to calculate the low-frequency admittance of a capacitor with the working substance “insulator–crystalline semiconductor with point t-defects in charge states (−1), (0) and (+1)–insulator”. A layer of a partially disordered semiconductor with a thickness of 150 μm is separated from the metal plates of the capacitor by insulating layers of polyimide with a thickness of 3 μm. The partially disordered semiconductor of the working substance of the capacitor can be, for example, a highly defective crystalline silicon containing point t-defects randomly (Poissonian) distributed over the crystal in charge states (−1), (0), and (+1), between which single electrons migrate in a hopping manner. It is assumed that the electron hops occur only from t-defects in the charge state (−1) to t-defects in the charge state (0) and from t-defects in the charge state (0) to t-defects in the charge state (+1). In this work, for the first time, the averaging of the hopping diffusion coefficients over all probable electron hopping lengths via t-defects in the charge states (−1), (0) and (0), (+1) in the covalent crystal matrix was carried out. For such an element, the low-frequency admittance and phase shift angle between current and voltage as the functions on the voltage applied to the capacitor electrodes were calculated at the t-defect concentration of 3∙1019 cm−3 for temperatures of 250, 300, and 350 K and at temperature of 300 K for the t-defect concentrations of 1∙1019, 3∙1019, and 1∙1020 cm−3.
V. N. Yakimov
Devices and Methods of Measurements, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.21122/2220-9506-2021-12-3-220-221

Abstract:
The method of averaging modified periodograms is one of the main methods for estimating the power spectral density (PSD). The aim of this work was the development of mathematical and algorithmic support, which can increase the computational efficiency of signals digital spectral analysis by this method. The solution to this problem is based on the use of binary-sign stochastic quantization for converting the analyzed signal into a digital code. A special feature of this quantization is the use of a randomizing uniformly distributed auxiliary signal as a stochastic continuous quantization threshold (threshold function). Taking into account the theory of discrete-event modeling the result of binary-sign quantization is interpreted as a chronological sequence of instantaneous events in which its values change. In accordance with this we have a set of time samples that uniquely determine the result of binary-sign quantization in discrete-time form. Discrete-event modeling made it possible to discretize the process of calculating PSD estimates. As a result, the calculation of PSD estimates was reduced to discrete processing of the cosine and sine Fourier transforms for window functions. These Fourier transforms are calculated analytically based on the applied window functions. The obtained mathematical equations for calculating the PSD estimates practically do not require multiplication operations. The main operations of these equations are addition and subtraction. As a consequence, the time spent on digital spectral analysis of signals is reduced. Numerical experiments have shown that the developed mathematical and algorithmic support allows us to calculate the PSD estimates by the method of averaging modified periodograms with a high frequency resolution and accuracy even for a sufficiently low signal-to-noise ratio. This result is especially important for spectral analysis of broadband signals. The developed software module is a problem-oriented component that can be used as part of metrologically significant software for the operational analysis of complex signals.
Devices and Methods of Measurements, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.21122/2220-9506-2021-12-2-133-138

Abstract:
The paper considers the operation of radioisotope measuring devices under dynamic conditions, when the Poisson pulse flux at the output of the radiation detector becomes unsteady and the nonlinearity of the calibration curve of the device, the stochasticity of the radiation signal and the inertia of the meter significantly complicate the task of estimating the measured physical parameter. of the device and analysis of the possibility of its application for linearization of the characteristics of the device, increasing the speed of the devices and solving the measuring problem in real time. The process of nonlinear transformation of the radiation signal in the system is analyzed on the basis of the assumption about the exponential distribution of the intervals between the pulses of the information flow at the output of the radiation detector. A generalized algorithm for the synthesis of a given transformation function of a time-pulse computing device of a radioisotope device has been developed according to its mathematical description. To describe the transformation function given by a set of points, it is proposed to use its approximation by a power series. The proposed calculation formulas are verified by modeling in the Scilab program on a specific example of linearization of the curve of a radioisotope altimeter with a given tabular calibration characteristic. The results obtained confirm the expediency of using time-pulse computing devices for linearizing the conversion curve of radioisotope devices in real time. Carrying out calculations according to the proposed algorithms by means of modern microelectronics opens up new possibilities for expanding the field of application of radioisotope devices in dynamic problems of industrial flaw detection, measuring the parameters of object movement, thickness of rolled products and coatings, in devices for continuous monitoring of liquid media.
A. R. Bayev, A. L. Mayorov, N. V. Levkovich, D. V. Shavlovskiy, M. V. Asadchaya
Devices and Methods of Measurements, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.21122/2220-9506-2021-12-2-124-132

Abstract:
The improvement of efficiency, reliability and productivity of ultrasonic testing of objects with cohesion between materials connected by welding, soldering, gluing, etc. is 'an important problem of the modern production technologies. The purpose of the paper is to determine in 3D space the conditions for increasing the sensitivity and reliability of the flaw detection in the cohesion zone between materials when the form of defect interface can be different. In the first part of the theoretical study the features of the formation of the acoustic fields of ultrasonic waves scattered from solid's interface when spot of an acoustic beam crosses the boundary of the defective region in the shape of an ellipse or a long strip have been investigated. In this case, the boundary conditions in the defect area change discretely or linearly. It was suggested to use a phase shift between reflected waves from the defect and defect-free interfaces as the more informative parameter depending on the cohesion between materials. There is shown that there are conditions to achieve sufficiently high sensitivity detection of interface defects when the scattered waves receiving are to be at angles outside the main directivity lobe of the scattering field pattern. The evolution features of the scattering field structure which are needed for the development of the method of evaluation the cohesion of materials has been got.
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