Modern Research in Inflammation

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2169-9682 / 2169-9690
Published by: Scientific Research Publishing, Inc. (10.4236)
Total articles ≅ 57
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Edvard V. Kryzhanovskii, Alexander B. Yavorsky, Lim Kwong Choong
Modern Research in Inflammation, Volume 10, pp 1-9; https://doi.org/10.4236/mri.2021.101001

Abstract:
Prostatitis is a widespread disease associated with pelvic pain syndrome, which is characterized by pelvic pain, various urinary symptoms, and possible sexual dysfunction. An adequate therapy requires schemes for chronic prostatitis that affects, among other things, the atypical causative agents. We investigate a therapy for prostate inflammation consisting in a combination of macrolides with the usage of men’s pads for underwear during the treatment. We demonstrate the efficacy of this therapy on a group of patients with chronic prostatitis. The group of patients under this combination therapy exhibits better recovery dynamics compared to the group of patients who were treated only by macrolides. We observe a statistically significant (p-value < 0.01) difference between the two groups in the data from three sections of the NIH-CPSI questionnaire, which concerned pain, symptoms of impaired urination, and quality of life. The number of patients with soreness of the prostate, with the presence of bacteria and leukocytes in the prostate gland secretion, and with the presence of microorganisms in the PCR tests after treatment was lower in the combination therapy group compared to the macrolide group. The obtained results demonstrate that the use of macrolides in combination with the use of men’s pads in the treatment of chronic prostate inflammation, including “abacterial” prostatitis, is promising. More generally, our results highlight the importance of flexible and individual approaches to the treatment of chronic prostatitis.
Miriam Viviane Baron, Michele Paula dos Santos, Gabriela Di Lorenzo Garcia Scherer, Luis Manuel Ley Dominguez, Vitória Pereira Itaquy, Natalia Cardoso Nascimento, Fernanda Nerys, Tais Michele Werle, Carolina Paz Mohamad Isa, Carina Marangoni, et al.
Modern Research in Inflammation, Volume 09, pp 1-7; https://doi.org/10.4236/mri.2020.91001

Abstract:
Parotid gland adenocarcinoma is commonly a tumor of low malignancy and low incidence worldwide. The reported case shows the rapid progression of this tumor in an elderly patient and infrequent effects, such as a presentation of facial edema not commonly described in the medical literature. Patient was admitted to hospital in November 2019 with secretion and partial hearing loss in the right ear and infiltrative and stone lesion with initial skin ulceration in the right cervical region. After 42 days, he returned and was admitted to the intensive care unit with significant swelling of the face, hardened and hyperemic neck, difficulty in speech and inability to open the eye. He presented changes in the mobility of the speech and hearing organs, reduced laryngeal mobility, vocal changes, speech with altered articulation and severe oropharyngeal dysphagia with risk of bronchoaspiration. The patient was diagnosed in September 2019 with a parotid tumor (salivary gland adenocarcinoma T4). The medical team requested computed tomography, computed tomography angiography of the chest and cervical vessels and computed tomography of the neck, in addition to evaluation by the head and neck surgery service and general surgery. After analyzing the results, the medical team suggested a hypothesis of tumor invasion that could result in obstruction of local lymphatic drainage, something unusual in the evolution of this type of tumor. In addition, it was not possible to adhere to radiotherapy treatment due to the extent of the lesion and there was also no confirmation of metastases. The reported case shows us that parotid gland adenocarcinoma, when diagnosed in an advanced stage, can limit the approach to treatment. It was chosen in agreement with the family to proceed with palliative care without invasive measures. Palliative care may be the best option for cases like this, bringing some comfort to the patient and his family.
Felix Arístides Somarriba Aráuz, Práxedes de Regla Rojas Quintana, Santiago Bernia Sarría, María Elizabeth Ixcoy García, Aimé Reyes Pérez, Armando Bernia González
Modern Research in Inflammation, Volume 09, pp 19-31; https://doi.org/10.4236/mri.2020.93003

Abstract:
Introduction: Infertility is a health problem that does not cause death, disability or physical pain; however, it is a crisis for couples who see their life plans threatened and suffer not only at the time of diagnosis and during treatments, but in multiple daily situations. Scientific Problem: There are no published studies on the characteristics of the infertile patient who has required surgical treatment, which is attended at the Territorial Center for Assisted Reproduction, Cienfuegos. Objective: To characterize the patients with infertility diagnosis who underwent surgical treatment and were treated at the Territorial Center for the care of the infertile couple in the province of Cienfuegos. Methodological Design: A descriptive, prospective, cross-sectional study of a series of cases was carried out at the Territorial Center for Assisted Reproduction, inserted in the Department of External Consultation of the General University Hospital, Dr. “Gustavo Aldereguía Lima” in Cienfuegos, in the period from January 2015 to December 2016. The variables studied were: age, skin color, pelvic inflammatory disease, personal pathological history, number of pregnancies, number of deliveries, number of abortions, age of the first sexual relations, cause of infertility, time attending the consultation, previous pelvic surgery, preoperative diagnosis, type of surgery, type of treatment and results of the surgery. Results: A predominance of age was obtained between 26 and 35 years of previous pelvic inflammatory disease, Bronchial Asthma as a personal pathological antecedent, previous pelvic surgery, number of pregnancies between 1 and 2, induced abortion among other results.
Miriam Viviane Baron, Luis Manuel Ley Dominguez, Carolina Paz Mohamad Isa, Gabriela Di Lorenzo Garcia Scherer, Michele Paula dos Santos, Vitória Pereira Itaquy, Talia Guimarães dos Santos, Julia Braga da Silveira, Paulo Ricardo Martins, Amanda Corrêa dos Santos, et al.
Modern Research in Inflammation, Volume 09, pp 9-17; https://doi.org/10.4236/mri.2020.92002

Abstract:
Atrial fibrillation is a cardiac arrhythmia of high prevalence in the population, especially in the elderly. Its main electrical characteristics are the interval between two successive irregular R waves, absence of P waves and presence of f waves between QRS complexes. The most common symptoms of atrial fibrillation are irregular palpitations associated with dyspnea, dizziness, feeling tired, fatigue and general malaise, but not all patients have any symptoms. The present report presents the history of an elderly patient who arrived at the hospital’s emergency department with irregular heart rhythm and palpitations. The patient’s symptoms, associated with the electrocardiogram results, indicated paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. Electrical cardioversion was performed, and after, cardiac ablation via the femoral vein at the hospital’s cardiology service. There were no complications during the procedure. As a routine imaging exam after ablation, control esophagogastroduodenoscopy was requested to verify that there was no formation of atrio-esophageal fistula developed by the invasive ablation procedure and electrocardiogram, which showed normal sinus rhythm. The patient remained in the cardiac intensive care unit for observation for 24 hours. After the electrical cardioversion and catheter ablation procedures, the patient improved his clinical picture of atrial fibrillation and was discharged after 24 hours of hospitalization. He received treatment to perform at home, to reduce acid reflux into the esophagus and to prevent thrombosis. He did not present pulmonary thromboembolism after hospital discharge. It is believed, therefore, that this form of treatment and management of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation is effective for the solution of the proposed problem and can also serve as a reference for other professionals within the cardiology service.
Mohemid M. Al-Jebouri, Balsam Yahya R. Al-Mahmood
Modern Research in Inflammation, Volume 08, pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.4236/mri.2019.81001

Abstract:
Background: Cytokines have a major role in mediating immunity as well as inflammation. The main proinflammatory cytokines are activated after injury and implicated in healing interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). High levels of IL-6 are recorded at initial inflammatory response and start decreasing down to eight day of wounding while TNF-α level remained static and IL-1α levels showed a different pattern of change following injury and consequence of infection. Methodology: This study was conducted in Al-Kindy and Al-Wasity hospitals in Baghdad on 200 patients suffering from wounds. One hundred patients were with acute wounds infection and the other 100 patients wounded but without infection and considered as control. Interleukin-1α (IL-1α), interleukin-TNF-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-60) were determined utilizing ELISA kit sandwich methods (Elabscience, USA). Results: The present study revealed that the values of IL-1α, and TNF-α at 48 hours of hospitalization were 23.547 and 27.177 pg/ml among patients with infected wounds respectively, and 7.05 and 28.127 pg/ml among patients without wound infections respectively. While IL-6 showed a highest level at 96 hours of residence in hospital and the value was 183.43 pg/ml for patients with infected wounds, and the value of the same interleukin was 88.696 pg/ml at 72 hours of residence of patients without wound infections. Conclusions: Interleukin-1α elevated after 24 hr of infection and then decreased. Proinflammatory cytokines (IL-6) was detectable within 24 hr of infection. The highest concentration of IL-6 was seen with mixed bacteria and followed by gram negative bacteria and this probably due to lipopolysaccharide secretion caused an increase of IL-6 in blood circulation. Irregular changes were seen in TNF-α values with durations of patients stay in hospitals.
Amuda K. C., Pushpa Parajuli, Ram Sharan Mehta, Gayananda Mandal
Modern Research in Inflammation, Volume 08, pp 45-61; https://doi.org/10.4236/mri.2019.84004

Abstract:
Background: Phlebitis is the inflammation of the tunica intima of the vein. If left untreated may lead to infection or thrombus formation. Early detection and appropriate interventions reduce the occurrence and severity of cannula related phlebitis. Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of magnesium sulphate with glycerin dressing as compared to heparinoid ointment application on management of peripheral cannula induced phlebitis. Materials and Methods: A Quasi-experimental design was carried among admitted patients in Medical-Surgical Units of BPKIHS. Out among 50 admitted patients with cannula induced phlebitis. Simple random sampling technique was used to allocate the wards to each interventional group and purposive sampling technique to select samples where instruments baseline Performa and observation scale was used to collect data. Results: The study findings revealed significantly reduction of phlebitis score after 48 hours of treatment with both interventions. Thus it was concluded that both the applications were effective in reducing level of phlebitis. Regarding effectiveness, there was a statistically significant difference in phlebitis score in both experimental groups after comparison baseline within 8, 16, 32, 40, 48 hours of administration of intervention (P = 0.05). The mean visual infusion scale score was more in MSG group as compared with that of HPA group. It shows that there is more reduction of VIP score in Magnesium sulphate with glycerin (MSG) group. Conclusion: In the research, study findings revealed that Magnesium sulphate with glycerin dressing is more effective than heparinoid ointment on management of peripheral cannula induced phlebitis.
Miriam Viviane Baron, Marcus Vinicius De Mello Pinto, Janine Koepp, Cristine Brandenburg, Paulo Ricardo Martins, Amanda Corrêa dos Santos, Daniela Moraes, Carolina Gonçalves Pinheiro, Nathália Ken Pereira Iketani, Bartira Ercília Pinheiro da Costa
Modern Research in Inflammation, Volume 08, pp 11-27; https://doi.org/10.4236/mri.2019.82002

Abstract:
Intensive care units’ acquired muscle weakness is present in approximately 50% of the patients. Although active muscle training can attenuate weakness, a large proportion of critical patients cannot participate in any active mobilization. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation may be an alternative strategy to reverse muscle weakness. The objective of the study was to review the scientific publications on the use of neuromuscular electrical stimulation and its parameters and the main results in patients hospitalized in intensive care units. This is an integrative review surveying studies in online databases. The studies were selected from the following descriptors: neuromuscular electrical stimulation AND parameters AND intensive care units AND muscle weakness. The inclusion criteria included articles that addressed the topic of neuromuscular electrical stimulation and the parameters used in patients admitted to intensive care units, aged 18 years or older. Exclusion criteria were studies involving animals, case reports, letters to the editor and book chapters. The search comprised articles in the Portuguese, English and Spanish languages from January 2013 to March 2019. Of the 185 articles identified, nine met the eligibility criteria. The studies were evaluated assessing the level of evidence, and the relevant information was presented in the table and discussed. The parameters of the neuromuscular electrical stimulation employed in the studies showed positive results for the maintenance of strength and muscle mass. There was evidence of benefits in the local and systemic microcirculation, potentially mobilizing endothelial stem cells, to prevent atrophy, to reduce mechanical ventilation time and stay in intensive care unit; and when incorporated into the usual physiotherapy care, proved to be more effective than usual care. Its use is safe and viable in critically ill patients.
Sohana Hossain, Bishajit Sarkar, Nazmul Islam Prottoy, , Masuma Afrin Taniya,
Modern Research in Inflammation, Volume 08, pp 29-43; https://doi.org/10.4236/mri.2019.83003

Abstract:
This experiment has been carried out to observe the potential thrombolytic activity of naturally occuring phytochemicals in Ginger (Zingiber officinale) and to analyze their drug likeness property and ADME/T profile. Thrombolytic activity of Ginger has already been confirmed in laboratory experiment and this study focuses on the molecular interactions among four phytocompounds (Isovanillin, Gingerol, Beta-sitosterol and 2,6-Dimethyl-2-octene-1,8-diol) found in Ginger and Tissue Plasminogen Activator (tPA). Present experiment is largely based on computer-aided drug design protocol where the strength of interaction is described as binding energy function. Isovanillin exhibited better docking score, and so this compound might have greater thrombolytic activity than others. Moreover, Isovanillin also suggested sound drug likeness property and ADME/T profile which predicts its safeness for consumption in human body. But Beta-sitosterol violated Lipinski’s rule of five and 2, 6-Dimethyl-2-octene-1,8-diol showed the lowest affinity of binding with tPA. However, further in vivo or in vitro study may be required to confirm the thrombolytic activity of Isovanillin.
George Gborienemi Simeon, Silas Tonye Abbey
Modern Research in Inflammation, Volume 07, pp 9-20; https://doi.org/10.4236/mri.2018.71002

Abstract:
The ease of availability and potential tendency to abuse tramadol hydrochloride prompted this research. Making use of biochemical and histological techniques, concentrations of marker enzymes were monitored along with alterations in the liver architecture of wistar albino rats in graded doses of tramadol hydrochloride for 28 days. Specifically, levels of gammaglutamyltransferase (-GT), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were determined. Statistical evaluation of the results at a p < 0.05 elucidated significantly elevated values of these enzymes when compared with controls that were not on tramadol hydrochloride. The variations were time and dose dependent. Histological evaluation presented various degrees of inflammatory cells of the liver, cytolysis in hepatocytes and some portal tract hypertrophy. These findings support the need for caution in administration of tramadol particularly for long term administration.
Benjamin Onyema Eledo, Matthew Ugwu Igwe, Sylvester Chibueze Izah
Modern Research in Inflammation, Volume 07, pp 21-29; https://doi.org/10.4236/mri.2018.72003

Abstract:
This study investigated some immune system related parameters among post-menopausal women in Elele, River state, Nigeria. Forty-two individuals participated in this study and forty control subjects were established as well. Blood was collected from the participants, and CD4 cells and total white blood cells count were analyzed using standard procedures. Result showed that test subjects and control values were 5.46 ± 1.64 × 109/L and 7.24 ± 1.47 × 109/L, respectively for total white blood cell and 1265.19 ± 458.56 cells/μl and 2159.53 ± 400.02 cells/μl respectively, for CD4 cells. There was significant difference (P < 0.001) among the test subject and control for both parameters. The results in the test subjects for both parameters were significantly lower compared to the control. The decline in immune system related parameters among the test subjects may predispose them at risk of multiple infections and other associated health conditions.
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