Scientific Journal of Crop Science

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EISSN : 2322-1690
Published by: Academic World Research (10.14196)
Total articles ≅ 22
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Talat Yasari, Mohammad Reza Shahsavari
Published: 30 January 2019
Scientific Journal of Crop Science, Volume 8, pp 382-388; https://doi.org/10.14196/sjcs.v8i1.2551

Abstract:
Awareness of the role of temperature and day length on plant growth and development can be used in agronomic management and plant breeding, and provide basic and essential information for prediction of development stages. To estimate the length of development stages of a soybean variety namely Wood Worth using the temperature, day length and planting dates of this variety in different regions of Isfahan during 1996-1999. To determine the model of each stage, the length of each stage as a dependent variable and thermal variables, day length, and the product of multiplication of thermal variables with day length variables were used as an independent variable in step wise regression. For all stages by delaying in planting, the length of the stage decreased. The coefficients of determination for planting to emergence, emergence to flowering, emergence to poding and emergence to maturity were 76.4%, 85.6%, 86.9% and 92.2%, respectively. The results of this study show that the contributions of thermal parameters play a major role in determining the estimation models of development stages of Wood Worth variety.
Dagne Kora, Ermias Teshome, Amare Biftu, Ayalew Sida
Scientific Journal of Crop Science, Volume 7, pp 371-376; https://doi.org/10.14196/sjcs.v7i11.2550

Abstract:
Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is the world’s second most important grain legumes after common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) among food legumes grown for production worldwide. Ethiopia is considered as a secondary center of genetic diversity for chickpea. Field experiment was conducted at two districts with the objectives to demonstrate different insecticide for the control of pod borer on chick pea and to give awareness on the use and effectiveness of the insecticide against pod borer on chickpea. The experiment was conducted using one chick pea varieties; Habru (more preferred) and two insecticide Diazenon (1.2l/ha) and Karate (400 ml/ha). The result revealed that both insecticides are effective against pod borer even if they have slight percent larval reductions at both districts. The pod borer damage reduction by different treatments ranged from 71.87 % to 90.63 % and 58.33 % to 66.66 % compared to that in control at Ginir and Goro, respectively. Diazenon resulted maximum seed yield 2610 kg/ha and 2200 kg/ha at Ginir and Goro, respectively. The plot sprayed with Diazenon gave the maximum net return birr 75,348/ha and 61,120/ha at Ginir and Goro, respectively. It is recommended that these insecticides are suggested to the growers for management of the pod borer population below economic threshold level under field conditions.
Reta Dargie, Amare Biftu, Ayalew Sida
Scientific Journal of Crop Science, Volume 7, pp 337-341; https://doi.org/10.14196/sjcs.v7i7.2544

Abstract:
The demonstration was conducted in two districts of Bale zone, Goba and Dinsho to demonstrate and validate the effectiveness of pre emergence (Dual gold) and post emergence (Gallant super) herbicides laid out in simple plot design. Faba bean variety ‘Moti’ was used with recommended seed rate of 180 kg ha-1. 100 kg ha-1NPS fertilizer was applied all at planting. Important yield and yield components, percentage of yield increment and loss, production and benefit cost were collected to see the profitability difference of the herbicides. The grain yield of dual gold was higher than the gallant super and unsprayed and the percent benefit (%NB) also showed that dual gold and gallant super were beneficial. However, the application of dual gold was superior rewarding treatment. The guidelines on the utilization of the herbicides should be supported by practical training and following the safety and precautions of the manuals prepared with herbicides.
Mengistu Bogale, Amare Biftu, Ayalew Sida
Scientific Journal of Crop Science, Volume 7, pp 333-336; https://doi.org/10.14196/sjcs.v7i7.2543

Abstract:
On-farm demonstration of post-emergence herbicide (Axial 045 EC)was conducted at two districts (Goba and Dinsho) of Bale zone for the control of grass weeds in malt barley in the highlands of Bale during 2017/18 main cropping season. Test crop used was improved malt barley variety IBON 174/03 at the rate of 125 kg/ha. Fertilizer used was NPS at the recommended rate for the area (100 kg ha-1). The treatments consisted of 2 4-D, 2 4-D + Axial 045 EC and weedy check. The result obtained from the two districts indicated that the herbicides (2 4-D + Axial 045 EC) are remained the most effective against the broad leaves and grass weeds in malt barley. Maximum barley grain yield was recorded at both districts (2720 kg ha-1) at Dinsho and (3680 kg ha-1) at Goba in plots treated with 2 4-D + Axial 045 EC with grain yield advantage over check (58.82%) and (67.39%) at Dinsho and Goba respectively. The second maximum grain yield was recorded at both districts in plots treated with 2 4-D. The lowest grain yield was recorded in weedy check at both districts (1120 kg ha-1) at Dinsho and (1200 kg ha-1) at Goba. The Cost- benefit analysis also revealed that plots treated with 2 4-D + Axial O45EC gave the maximum net benefit at both districts. The lowest was recorded from weedy check plots. Hence, it is recommended that farmers should have to use both herbicides (2 4-D + Axial O45 EC) for the control of weeds (broad leaves and grass weeds) in malt barley. Farmers participated on demonstration and evaluation also selected (2 4-D + Axial O45 EC) as promising herbicides in controlling weeds in malt barley.
Amare Biftu, Ayalew Sida, Bayata Gaddisa
Scientific Journal of Crop Science, Volume 7, pp 356-362; https://doi.org/10.14196/sjcs.v7i9.2539

Abstract:
On-farm participatory demonstration of improved faba bean technologies was carried out in Dinsho and Goba districts of Bale zone in 2017 production season. The objectives of the study were to demonstrate and evaluate improved faba bean technologies in order to enhance farmers to select the best fit variety/ies for their localities based on farmers’ selection criteria. Recently released faba bean varieties, namely, Dosha, Gora and Moti were planted at two kebeles of Dinsho district (for Nitosol area) where as Didea, Hachalu and Walki were planted at two kebeles of Goba District (for Vertisol area) with recommended packages. The demonstration was undertaken on single plot design of 10m x 10m area for each variety with the spacing of 40cm between rows and recommended seed rate based on the size of the seed and 100 kg/ha NPS fertilizer rate. Mini-field day was organized at each respective site on which different stakeholders were participated, participatory evaluation of the varieties was made and experiences were shared. Yield data per plot was recorded and analysed using descriptive statistics. Farmers’ preferences were identified using focused group discussion and summarized using pair wise and simple ranking methods. At Dinsho, the mean yield of Dosha variety was 23.75qt/ha and had 31.94% yield advantage over the check. It is also preferred by the farmers. At Goba, the mean yield of Didea variety was 20.6qt/ha and had 4.04% yield advantage over the check. It is also preferred by the farmers. Participant farmers were enhanced to set their own selection criteria and the most important were tillering capacity, pod per plant, seed per plant, seed size, well adapted to the environment, disease free and has no loading problem. Thus, Dosha variety (for Nitosl) and Didea variety (for Vertisol) were recommended for further scaling up/out activity in all demonstration sites and similar agro-ecologies.
Mohammad Reza Shahsavari, Saeid Davazdahemami, Moslehedin Rezaei
Published: 30 May 2018
Scientific Journal of Crop Science, Volume 7, pp 377-381; https://doi.org/10.14196/sjcs.v7i11.2549

Abstract:
Plant spacing of castor (Ricinus communis L.) is very important to obtain optimum seed yield. This study was conducted to find out the effects of inter row and intra row spacing on different traits of green castor at the Kabotarabad Agriculture Research Station of Esfahan in the spring 2006, using a randomized complete block design with split plot arrangement and four replications. Main plots were three inter rows spacing (60, 80 and 100 cm) and sub plots were three intra rows spacing (30, 50 and 70 cm). The effect of inter row spacing on plant height, plant dry weight, stem diameter and plot yield was significant. The highest seed yield was obtained in 60 cm inter row spacing. The effect of intra row spacing was significant on plant dry weight, number of candle per plant, number of seeds per candle, number of seeds per plant and plot yield. The highest yield was obtained in 70 cm intra row spacing. The interaction between inter row and intra row spacing was not significant for any of the traits. The highest plot seed yield (1175 kg/ha) was obtained in 60 cm inter row and 70 cm intra row spacing.
Mebrahtom Ftwi, Endris Yesuf, Melaku Tesfa, Abera Degefa
Scientific Journal of Crop Science, Volume 7, pp 310-325; https://doi.org/10.14196/sjcs.v7i5.2532

Abstract:
Coordinated commercial and trial based variety evaluation is compulsory to avoid sugarcane growers’ unexpected loss due to the pre- and post release variety performance discrepancies. This investigation was conducted to establish modalities for commercial based variety evaluation, estimating the general performance (Gp) and relative variety composition or proportion (RCV) of commercial varieties cultivated in Ethiopia. The cane, sugar and estimated recoverable sucrose yield (ERS) data of commercial varieties obtained from agricultural and factory operations datasets and the survey data were included and analyzed. Three modalities were established for commercial based variety evaluation, estimating GP and RVC of sugarcane varieties. Results from the analysis of variance revealed the existence of significant and complex interactions among the variety, crop cycle, cutting and harvest age effects. Its significance demonstrated the importance of specific crop management for a specific sugarcane variety cultivated in the respective sugarcane plantation and demands the revision of the existing crop management practices in all sugarcane plantations. Generally, the established models were adequate to evaluate variety yield performance, estimate GP and RVC of the varieties evaluated. The models developed to estimate the GP and RCV of varieties in a specific sugarcane plantation were original and are the major innovative parts of this investigation. The serious variety ranking changes across locations highlighted the existence of substantial genotype x environment interaction and signals the long year cultivated sugarcane varieties had specific environmental domains in Ethiopia. The inclusion of survey data (growers’ preference) in the present investigation was much helpful in the process of identifying appropriate variety rankings. Hence, we recommend active participations of sugarcane growers in future commercial and trial based variety evaluations. Moreover, we suggested that future research efforts involving commercial and trial based variety evaluation to adopt the established modalities as a guide to assure efficient and coordinated sugarcane variety evaluation program in Ethiopia.
Amare Biftu, Ayalew Sida, Bayata Gaddisa
Scientific Journal of Crop Science, Volume 7, pp 348-355; https://doi.org/10.14196/sjcs.v7i9.2536

Abstract:
This activity was conducted during 2017 cropping season in mid altitude areas of Bale zone, with the objectives of demonstrating and evaluating the recently released chickpea varieties (both Kabuli and Desi type) with full recommended production and management packages to the farming community, to create awareness as well as demand on improved chickpea technologies and to enable farmers to select the best performing variety/ies in Goro and Ginnir districts. Dhera, Hora and Habru (Kabuli type) and Dimtu, Teketay and Natoli (Desi type) chickpea varieties were planted at two kebeles of each district. The demonstration was undertaken on single plot design of 10m x 10m area for each variety with the spacing of 30cm between rows, the recommended seed rate (120kg/ha for Kabuli type and 80kg/ha for Desi type) and 121 kg/ha NPS fertilizer rate. Mini-field day was organized at each kebele/site on which different stakeholders were participated, participatory evaluation of the varieties was made and experiences were shared among participants. Yield data per plot was recorded and analysed using descriptive statistics. Farmers’ preferences for the improved chickpea varieties were identified using focused group discussion and summarized using pair wise and simple ranking methods. For Kabuli type, the mean yield of Habru variety (standard check) was 25.5qt/ha and 26.1qt/ha at Goro and Ginnir districts, respectively. It was more yielder than the recently released varieties, Dhera and Hora. The one way ANOVA with no blocking result showed that branches per plant, pods per plant and mean yield were significant among the kabuli type varieties.For Desi type, the mean yield of Dimtu variety was 24.7qt/ha and 25.8qt/ha and had 15.42% and 19.44% yield advantage over the check (Natoli) at Goro and Ginnir districts, respectively. Participant farmers were enhanced to set their own selection criteria and the most important were branches per plant, branches with full of pods, pods per plant, seed per plant, seed size, seed colour, well adapted to the environment, disease free and has uniformity. Thus, Habru variety (Kabuli type) and Dimtu variety (Desi type) were validated with farmers and recommended for further scaling up/out activity in all demonstration sites and similar agro-ecologies.
Johannes Mequanen, Mebrahtom Ftwi, , Feyissa Tadesse, Tadesse Negi, Mohammed Bushura
Scientific Journal of Crop Science, Volume 7, pp 326-332; https://doi.org/10.14196/sjcs.v7i7.2542

Abstract:
Tissue culture is an important and alternative technology to conventional seed propagation for speeding up the propagation rate in sugarcane. However, tissue culture would be effective if the in vitro regenerated plantlets are planted at optimum and economically feasible intra row spacing. Therefore, the objectives of this investigation were to determine optimum and economically feasible intra row spacing for speeding subsequent seed propagation and direct commercial use, respectively. The experiment was conducted at Metahara Sugar Estate plantation in 2012- 2013 crop season using completely randomized block design replicated three times. In vitro regenerated plantlets of variety NCo334 propagated at Mekelle Institute of Biotechnology Tissue Culture Laboratory were transplanted to field at 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 55 and 60 cm intra row spacing. Data on yield and yield components were collected to evaluate the performance of plantlets while the relative cost incurred to plant seedlings propagated using tissue culture and conventional methods were recorded to calculate cost benefit ratio and relative propagation rate. Results of the present investigation indicate the advantage of tissue culture over the conventional seed propagation in terms of speeding seed propagation in sugarcane. We recommend 10-30 cm intra row spacing between plants to speed up subsequent seed propagation. On the contrary, the intra row spacing of 50 cm between plants is recommended and determined to be the most optimum and economically feasible if the plantlets were planted for direct commercial use. The present investigation was conducted for one variety and under one soil type (light soil); future experiments conducted with similar objectives should include other commercial sugarcane varieties under different management practices and soil types.
Amare Biftu, Tadele Tadese, Reta Dargie, Ermias Teshome
Scientific Journal of Crop Science, Volume 7, pp 363-370; https://doi.org/10.14196/sjcs.v7i11.2540

Abstract:
This scaling up/out activity was initiated with the main objective of popularizing and disseminating proven faba bean technologies as well as to serve as a break crop for malt barley production. Dinsho and Goba districts of Bale zone were selected purposively based on their potential for faba bean production. A total of 50qt Walki and 135qt Gabalcho were distributed to 274 farmers and planted on 103ha in 2016 and 2017 cropping season. The spacing of 40cm between rows with the recommended seed rate of 180 kg/ha and fertilizer rate 100 kg NPS was applied during row planting time. Training was given to more than 800 hundred farmers and other stakeholders on faba bean production and management packages. Field days and field visits were organized to evaluate the performance and to communicate on field progress of the varieties. A total of 466 individuals were participated on these promotional events during the project period. Yield data was recorded and analyzed using mean while farmers’ feedback about the technology was assessed and interpreted using qualitative narration. The result of descriptive statics revealed that the overall mean yield of Walki and Gabalcho were 36 and 33qt ha-1 respectively. All participant farmers were interested with the stands of the two varieties in terms of pods per plant, seeds per pod, seeds per plant, stem strength, good plant height, disease tolerance, relative yield advantage and seed size. The gross income/benefit obtained as a result of using the improved varieties of faba bean (Walki and Gabalcho) was 64,800.00 ETB and 59,400.00 ETB per hectare, respectively. But, the gross marginal profit was 45,830.00 ETB and 40,430.00 ETB for Walki and Gabalcho, respectively. Since, the varieties widely accepted by the target community (especially Walki on Vertisol), the Agricultural and Natural Resource office in all levels in collaboration with other stakeholders should focus on the extension and popularization of the varieties with the recommended full packages.
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