Behavioral Neuroscience

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ISSN / EISSN : 0735-7044 / 1939-0084
Total articles ≅ 6,401
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Kevin L. Brown, Matthew J. Sodoma, John H. Freeman
Behavioral Neuroscience, Volume 135, pp 498-517; https://doi.org/10.1037/bne0000446

Abstract:
Modern nonhuman animal research on the rapid forgetting of memories formed early in life-often termed "infantile amnesia"-has focused on neurobiological changes occurring between learning and retention testing to explain age differences in memory. Developmental differences in initial learning have received less attention as a contributing factor to infantile amnesia effects. The present study identifies conditions under which associative learning and memory are comparable between pre and postweaning rats across multiple training-testing intervals. Postnatal day (P) 17-18 or P24-25 littermates were trained with white noise conditional stimuli (CSs) alone, forward-paired, or explicitly unpaired with floor shock unconditional stimuli (USs), and tested for retention at intervals ranging between 5 min and 15 days later. Findings from within- and across-institution replications revealed that age differences in CS freezing were influenced by (a) the associative nature of the CS and US at training, (b) the number of CS, US presentations at training, and (c) the interval between training and testing. Rats trained on P17 or 18 displayed robust retention comparable to rats trained on P24 or 25 only when training in younger rats involved additional forward-paired CS-US presentations. Poor long-term retention observed at multiple training-testing intervals in rats trained on P17 or 18 was overcome with many additional forward-paired CS-US presentations at training. Conditions necessary for appropriate developmental comparisons of learning and memory relevant to the future neurobiological studies are discussed. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).
Elyssa M. LaFlamme, Ludise Malkova,
Behavioral Neuroscience, Volume 135, pp 581-590; https://doi.org/10.1037/bne0000444

Abstract:
Cholinergic neurotransmission within the hippocampus has long been suggested to play a pivotal role in memory processing, based partly on the assumption that the well-established amnestic effects of systemic cholinergic receptor blockade are mediated by the hippocampus. However, experimental evidence suggests that this may not be the case; a growing number of studies employing selective lesion or pharmacological approaches to disrupt cholinergic transmission within the hippocampus have failed to find robust deficits in either learning or memory, primarily in rodent models. Here, we evaluated the contribution of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR)- and muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR)-mediated neurotransmission in the hippocampus of rhesus macaques for performance in a hippocampal-dependent spatial memory task, the Hamilton Search Task. We infused the nAChR antagonist, mecamylamine, or the mAChR antagonist, scopolamine, and evaluated performance on a within-subject basis. Neither treatment impaired performance under any task conditions. These data demonstrate that the hippocampus is not the critical site for the mnemonic actions of cholinergic neurotransmission, at least in the context of spatial memory. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).
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