Nephro-Urology Monthly

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2251-7006 / 2251-7014
Published by: Kowsar Medical Institute (10.5812)
Total articles ≅ 562
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Fatemeh Javidi, Parsa Yousefichaijan, Fatemeh Dorreh, Ali Arjmand,
Published: 2 October 2021
Background: Montelukast, as a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, could reduce inflammation in nephrotic syndrome (NS). This study aimed to evaluate the therapeutic effect of montelukast as adjunctive therapy in pediatric NS. Methods: This clinical trial study was conducted on patients with NS. The patients were assigned into two equal groups (N = 25 in each) of intervention (steroid + montelukast) and control and treated for one month. One month later, in the follow-up stage, their proteinuria was measured. The results before and after treatment were statistically analyzed by SPSS software version 21, and the final report of the project was presented. Results: The age of participants in the intervention and control groups was 7.26 ± 4.23 and 6.79 ± 3.91 years, respectively (P = 0.68), and there were 10 female participants in both groups (P = 1.0). Albumin levels in 96% of the control group and 76% of the intervention group were 1.5 - 2.5 μg/dL (P = 0.037). Also, 48% of participants in the control group were corticosteroid dependent, and 60% of participants in the intervention group responded to corticosteroids (P = 0.194). The severity of nephrotic syndrome was moderate in 60% of participants in the control group and mild in 60% of participants in the intervention group (P = 0.138). Conclusions: The results of this study showed that recovery rate was higher in the intervention group, but the difference was not statistically significant.
Moustapha Faye, Fabrice Arnold Tcheumagam Tiako, Ahmed Tall Lemrabott, Bacary Ba, Niakhaleen Keita, Modou Ndongo, Abou Sy, Babacar Ndiaye, Maria Faye, El Hadji Fary Ka
Published: 2 October 2021
Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of Rituximab in the management of idiopathic membranous nephropathy (IMN) based on the following criteria: (I) Biological remission at three months (M3) and six months (M6); (II) change in mean proteinuria (24PU), mean serum albumin, and mean serum creatinine at M3 and M6; (III) and side effects. Methods: This retrospective descriptive and analytical study included patients with histologically confirmed IMN with positive plasma anti-PLA2R antibodies who received at least one dose of Rituximab after six months of follow-up without spontaneous remission. Patients with unexplainable records were not included. Results: A total of five patients (P1, P2, P3, P4, and P5), including four males and one female were analyzed. The mean age was 44.20 ± 23.14 years. All patients had IMN type 2. At inclusion, the mean albuminemia, mean creatinine, and mean 24hPU levels were 15.56 ± 5.27 g/L, 6.54 ± 1.13 g/24h, and 17.3 ± 7.60 mg/L, respectively. The median anti-PLA2R antibody titer was 100 IU with extremes of 10 and 800 IU. Partial remission was noted in three patients at M3 (P2, P4, and P5), and it was maintained until M6 in P2. No complete remission was observed. A significant decrease in mean 24hPU at M3 was noted (P < 0.001). Generalized pruritus associated with seizures was noticed in P4 after the first dose of Rituximab. Conclusions: Partial remission was noted in three patients at M3, and one patient maintained this remission at M6. Rituximab significantly reduced 24hPU at M3 after administration. Rituximab administration was well tolerated by the patients.
Fereshteh Aliakbari, Majid Emadeddin, Neda Taghizabet, Fatemeh Rezaei-Tazangi, Zahra Sadeghzadeh, Seyed Jalil Hosseini
Published: 19 September 2021
Background: Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), especially in men, can lead to multiple morbidities and facilitate the transmission of serious pathogens, such as the human immunodeficiency virus. The present study used the data from a nationwide survey on male morbidities to estimate the prevalence of STDs among men in Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study used the data from a nationwide project on male reproductive morbidities in 2007. A total of 2296 men within the age range of 25 - 60 years were recruited by systematic cluster sampling from four provinces (i.e., Golestan, Hormozgan, Kermanshah, and Isfahan, Iran). The data on the symptoms of STDs, including genital secretion, pushing out, itching or genital ulcers, and lymphadenopathy of the inguinal area after sexual contact, were collected by trained urologists. Data analysis was carried out using SPSS software (version18.0, Chicago, IL, USA). The independent samples t-test and chi-square test were used for data analysis. Results: A total of 2296 men with a mean age value of 39.95 ± 10.3 years were interviewed in this study. Two-thirds of all the subjects (75%) were aware of using condoms in suspected sexual relationships; however, only 69% of the aforementioned subjects used condoms in those circumstances. Overall, 14 subjects (0.6%) had one type of STDs at the study time. Moreover, 110 subjects (4.7%) answered “yes” to the question of whether they were referred to a physician for sexual problems. Conclusions: The prevalence of STDs is still low among the male population in Iran. Careful and well-designed surveillance systems to monitor the incidence of STDs and proper preventive measures to restrict the spread of sexually transmitted pathogens are among the proposed recommendations.
Fariba Esmaeil Mosharafi, , Saeid Amirkhanlou
Published: 19 September 2021
Background: Aortic arch calcification (AAC) is very common in hemodialysis patients and is associated with cardiovascular events and the incidence of arteriovenous fistula (AVF) failure. In order to predict the prognosis of patients, a study was conducted to determine the annual failure rate of AVF and its related factors. Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed on 145 patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) who were AVF candidates, visiting a referral center in Golestan province of Iran. After the insertion of intravenous arterial fistulas, posterior-anterior chest x-rays were captured, and the grafts were classified by a radiologist. Patients were followed for one year, and the rates of fistula failure (FF) and cardiovascular mortality were recorded. Finally, the data were entered into SPSS 19 software and analyzed by the Chi-square test. Results: Of 112 patients followed up for one year, 56.2% were men. During the one-year follow-up period, 5.3% of the patients developed arteriovenous FF, and this event was more common in men, but the difference was not statistically significant. The majority of the AVF candidates had a history of diabetes and hypertension, but no association was found between the one-year FF rate and these two diseases. Nearly 7.7% of the patients had grade III calcification, but no significant relationship was observed between the AAC grade and AVF failure rate. Conclusions: The rate of one-year FF was higher among ESRD patients with a history of chronic kidney diseases. Our results also demonstrated that the mortality rate is higher in patients with a high degree of AAC and patients with medical history (cardiovascular disease and diabetes).
, Bayu Gemilang
Published: 5 September 2021
Context: Intravesical prostatic protrusion (IPP) is a potential candidate for the initial evaluation of patients with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). Intravesical prostatic protrusion is also known to predict the outcome of trials without a catheter and medical treatment outcomes and to determine bladder outlet obstructions. Objectives: This study aimed to determine whether IPP influences the residual LUTS after surgery in patients with benign prostate hyperplasia who have undergone prostate surgery. Evidence Acquisition: An online database search was conducted regarding the prognosis of postoperative benign prostate hyperplasia patients with intravesical prostatic protrusions. The selected databases comprised PubMed, ScienceDirect, EBSCO, and Cochrane Library. Randomized controlled trial, cohort, or case control studies that were written in English or Bahasa and published up until November 2020 were included. We reviewed postoperative outcomes, including subjective symptoms, based on the International Prostate Symptom Score and objective signs, such as Qmax and post voiding residue. Results: Our initial database search yielded 143 papers. After exclusion from abstract screening, seven papers were considered for full-text analysis. Five of these studies showed higher preoperative intravesical prostatic protrusion within successful postoperative outcomes. Some studies showed that patients with significant intravesical prostatic protrusions had more significant International Prostate Symptom Score decrements. However, two studies demonstrated that intravesical prostatic protrusion was not a significant prognostic factor. Conclusions: Most studies suggested that intravesical prostatic protrusion can predict better post-surgery lower urinary tract symptom outcomes. Further research using information about the risk of bias in ultrasound examination and more homogeneous surgical techniques and considering the duration of patients’ illness before they receive surgical management is needed.
, Yassir Yassir, Rudy Hidayat,
Published: 18 August 2021
Background: Uric acid (UA) levels are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular events and mortality in hemodialysis patients. However, there are still conflicting data on the mechanism of increased risks related to uric acid levels. Objectives: This study assessed the association between uric acid levels and symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA), as a marker of cardiovascular disease, in the subjects undergoing hemodialysis twice weekly. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted in a tertiary hospital in Jakarta, Indonesia. We included all the adults who underwent hemodialysis twice weekly for at least three months in our hospital. Subjects already on uric acid lowering therapy, pregnant or lactating women and those with a history of malignancy were excluded. Uric acid and SDMA levels were measured at the same time in pre-dialysis venous blood samples. Bivariate analysis was performed using the Mann-Whitney U test or one-way ANOVA. Results: A total of 126 subjects were included. The median level of UA was 8.4 mg/dL (IQR: 2.6, min: 4.1, max: 13.6), and 72 subjects (57.14%) had UA levels of 8 mg/dL or higher. The median SDMA level was 535.5 (312.7) mmol/dL (min: 119.7, max: 1895.5). Subjects with UA levels > 8 mg/dL had significantly higher SDMA levels compared to subjects with UA levels < 8 mg/dL (550.1 (IQR: 357.25) vs 491.35 (IQR: 181.1), P: 0.0475). Conclusions: In twice-weekly hemodialysis patients, UA levels above 8 mg/dL were associated with increased SDMA levels.
Gholam Ali Jafari, Reza Fotouhi Ardakani, Jamileh Nowroozi, Mohammad Soleiman Soltanpour,
Published: 17 August 2021
Background: Urinary stones are a major problem world, and their incidence has increased significantly in recent years. Objectives: This study aimed to develop a simple and rapid molecular method based on PCR and qPCR assays to detect Oxalobacter formigenes (which causes oxalate degradation in intestines) in fecal samples of healthy volunteers and patients with calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis, and determine the amount of urinary oxalate in the two groups. Methods: This study was performed on urine and fecal samples of 73 patients with kidney stones and 52 healthy individuals. After DNA extraction, PCR and qPCR assays were performed on two gene regions of Oxalobacter formigenes, OXC, and FRC. Also, urine oxalate was measured in the study population using biochemical methods. Results: We found that the presence of Oxalobacter formigenes could reduce the risk of kidney stones and calcium oxalate stones. In fact, both FRC and OXC genes were involved in the diagnosis of Oxalobacter formigenes; however, the results based on the FRC gene showed higher efficiency. In addition, the presence or absence of stones did not affect the amount of urinary excretion of oxalate, rather it is affected by diet. Conclusions: Molecular identification of Oxalobacter formigenes by PCR and qPCR assays allows rapid, specific, and reproducible detection in fecal samples, which also allows immediate processing of these samples in clinical conditions.
Maryam Esteghamati, Kambiz Ghasemi, Zohreh Javaheri,
Published: 17 August 2021
Background: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are very common in children. Several biomarkers have been used for the diagnosis of UTI and prediction of renal parenchymal involvement. Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate plasma D-dimer as a diagnostic marker of UTI in children. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 41 children aged 1 month to 14 years with their first febrile UTI confirmed by positive urine culture referred to Bandar Abbas Children’s Hospital, Iran, from October 1, 2017, to April 1, 2018. Participants’ demographic features, including age and gender were recorded. White blood cell (WBC) count, percentage of neutrophils, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP), and serum D-dimer were measured in random blood samples for all the patients. Results: Out of 41 children (mean age: 5.50 ± 4.01 years) evaluated in this study, 6 (14.6%) were male, and 35 (85.4%) were female. The mean plasma D-dimer level was 1496.49 ± 2787.55 µg/L. A significant positive correlation was found between D-dimer with ESR (r = 0.647, P = 0.026) and CRP (r = 0.525, P = 0.001). Plasma D-dimer was not associated with age; however, age was inversely correlated with WBC count (r = -0.327, P = 0.037). No significant relationship was found between plasma D-dimer, ESR, CRP, WBC count, and neutrophil percentage with gender (P > 0.05). Conclusions: According to our results, in children aged 1 month to 14 years with culture-confirmed UTI, plasma D-dimer is positively correlated with ESR and CRP. Nevertheless, D-dimer appears not to be influenced by age or gender. Further studies are required to confirm the utility of D-dimer as a diagnostic marker of UTI in children.
, Azar Nickavar, Mohammad Reza Khalilian, Sara Rahafard, Behdokht Abuali, Seyyed Mohammad Mahdi Hosseiny
Published: 16 August 2021
Background: Hypertension (HTN) is a significant public health problem worldwide. Early diagnosis of HTN and its related risk factors has been considered as one of the main requirements of general healthcare in children. Objectives: This study aimed to examine the nomograms of normal systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP) and the prevalence of asymptomatic HTN and pre-HTN in a population of school-aged children. Methods: Systolic and diastolic BP, height, and weight were measured in 5811 healthy school-aged children (2904 males and 2907 females) during healthcare visits. HTN was defined as systolic or diastolic BP ≥ 95th percentile for age, gender, and height of the screened population on ≥ 3 occasions. Pre-HTN was considered as systolic or diastolic BP between 90 - 95 percentile. Results: HTN and pre-HTN were detected in 8.4% and 7.8% of the children, respectively. The prevalence of HTN was 8.6% among the males and 8.2% among the females. Systolic HTN and pre-HTN were detected in 5.8 and 6.4% of the cases compared to diastolic HTN and pre-HTN observed in 5.9 and 6.1% of the participants, respectively. In addition, HTN was detected in 27.9% of children with obesity. Conclusions: According to the high incidence of asymptomatic HTN and pre-HTN in asymptomatic children, it is recommended to perform routine BP measurement during medical care visits of all healthy school children and to prevent and treat obesity in childhood.
Chettipunyam S Chetan, Suhas Challa, Manjunath S Shetty, Sudarshana Murthy K A, Kiran K Kelur, Pavan Malleshappa
Published: 11 August 2021
Nephro-Urology Monthly;

Background: Detecting significant renal injury in an accurate and timely manner in acute kidney injury (AKI) patients who are critically ill remains controversial. Serum creatinine (Cr) is an important marker of kidney function in clinical practice, and its limitations are well known. Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) as a marker of the early development of AKI in critically ill AKI patients. Methods: This prospective study was carried out at JSS Hospital, Mysuru, India. The diagnosis and staging of AKI was done according to the RIFLE criteria. Results: A total of 53 critically ill patients were enrolled in this study. During Intensive Care Unit (ICU) stay, 34 (64.2%) patients developed AKI according to RIFLE criteria. Serum NGAL levels assessed on admission were an appropriate predictor of AKI com-pared to serum Cr. Serum NGAL levels also showed a significant elevation among AKI patients than non-AKI cases. The mean levels for AKI patients at 0, 4, and 8 hours were 870.53, 1074.9, and 1090, respectively. Meanwhile, the mean levels for non-AKI patients at 0, 4, and 8 hours were 337, 307, and 292. Conclusions: Measuring serum NGAL on admission is useful in the early diagnosis of AKI com-pared to serum Cr.
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