Damianus Journal of Medicine

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ISSN / EISSN : 2086-4256 / 2656-4971
Total articles ≅ 51
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Sandy Ayu Monica Silalahi, Yuda Turana, Yvonne Suzy Handajani
Damianus Journal of Medicine, Volume 20, pp 120-126; https://doi.org/10.25170/djm.v20i2.2037

Abstract:
Introduction: Aging and physical disability are often associated with hypertension, obesity and blood sugar levels which are important factors in the development of metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease.This study aims to determine the relationship between obesity, hyperglycemia, hypertension and sarcopenia among the elderly at PUSAKA Kalideres, West Jakarta. Methods: This study used a cross-sectional analytical descriptive study consisting of 107 respondents aged ≥ 60 years at PUSAKA Kalideres, West Jakarta from September 2019 to November 2019. The dependent variable studied was sarcopenia, while the independent variables of the study were obesity, hyperglycemia and hypertension. The criteria for sarcopenia are based on the 2019 Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia (AWGS). Obesity is categorized if the BMI is ≥ 25 kg, hyperglycemia if the fasting blood sugar level is ≥100 mg / dL, hypertension if the blood pressure is ≥140 / 90 mmHg. Results: Based on 107 respondents, most of them were aged  65 years (62.6%) and most of them were female (70.1%). The results showed 30 respondents (28%) sarcopenia, 51 respondents (47.7%) obesity, 24 respondents (22.4%) hyperglycemia, and 31 respondents (29%) hypertension. Based on bivariate analysis, it shows that age and obesity have a significant relationship with sarcopenia p = 0.006 (p> ) and obesity p = 0.022 (p> ). The results of multivariate analysis showed that age and non-obesity were associated with sarcopenia (p = 0.005; OR = 4.734; CI = 1.587 - 14.122 and obesp = 0.015; OR = 0.309; CI = 0.120 - 0.796). Conclusion: Age is a risk factor for sarcopenia in the elderly and those who are not obese have a greater risk of developing sarcopenia.
Winona Akilakanya
Damianus Journal of Medicine, Volume 20, pp 135-143; https://doi.org/10.25170/djm.v20i2.1159

Abstract:
Pendahuluan: Pola makan merupakan salah satu faktor lingkungan yang ikut mempengaruhi munculnya diabetes melitus.Pola makan masyarakat Indonesia saat ini didominasi oleh sumber karbohidrat terutama beras, disertai dengan konsumsi gula, garam, dan lemak yang berlebih. Metode: Pengambilan sampel yang dilakukan dari bulan September 2018 – Agustus 2019 dari Puskesmas Rawa Buntu, Puskesmas Serpong 1, RW 13 & 15 Kecamatan Penjaringan.. Pengambilan data pola makan dilakukan dengan cara cross-sectional menggunakan 24-hr food recall, diisi oleh peneliti dengan menggunakan alat bantu porsi saji. Kadar glukosa darah sewaktu diambil menggunakan glucose strip test. Jumlah responden mencapai 96 orang, dengan kriteria inklusi diatas 25 tahun dan kriteria eksklusi tidak memiliki tipe diabetes selain tipe dua. Hasil 24-hr food recall diolah dengan menggunakan aplikasi nutrisurvey, kemudian dianalisa dengan menggunakan uji chi-square. Hasil: Uji chi-square untuk hubungan antara pola makan dengan kadar glukosa darah untuk ketiga faktor pola makan (jadwal p=0,617; jenis p=0,780; Jumlah p=0,893) mendapatkan nilai p>0,05. Simpulan: Tidak ditemukan hubungan yang bermakna antara pola makan dengan kadar glukosa darah pada penderita diabetes melitus tipe dua di Kecamatan Serpong dan Kecamatan Penjaringan.  
Fajar Pranoto
Damianus Journal of Medicine, Volume 20, pp 97-103; https://doi.org/10.25170/djm.v20i2.2054

Abstract:
Introduction: The increasing number of substance use cases has been becoming a public health problem in Indonesia. Primary healthcare doctors play an important role in health promotion and early detection of health problems. Several studies have shown that, physicians have negative attitudes towards patients with substance use problem. Negative attitudes among physicians may affect the quality of healthcare delivery. The objective of the current study was to assess primary healthcare doctors’s attitudes towards patients with substance use problems in Jakarta.Methods: This was an observational descriptive study using a cross-sectional method. Participants of this research were primary healthcare doctors in Jakarta. Data were gathered using Medical Condition Regard Scale. Participants’ attitudes towards patients with substance use problems was analysed using a descriptive approach.Result: 569 data from participants were analysed. Most of them were female, age 25-35 years old, and have less than 5 years working experience. We found that 307 primary healthcare doctors had negative attitudes toward patients with substance use problems (54%) and 262 doctors had positive attitudes (46%).Conclusion: The result indicates that primary healthcare doctors in Jakarta have negative attitudes towards patients with substance use problems. Further studies are needed to evaluate factors that might influence such attitude.Keywords: attitudes, primary healthcare doctors, Medical Condition Regard Scale
Ivena Ivena, Nelson Sudiyono, Edwin L. Jim, Herdiman T. Pohan
Damianus Journal of Medicine, Volume 20, pp 152-162; https://doi.org/10.25170/djm.v20i2.2694

Abstract:
Introduction: COVID-19 is characterized by complaints of fever, cough, weakness, respiratory, and gastrointestinal disorders. The existence of treatment in the isolation room accompanied by prolonged bed rest will cause the patient to experience deconditioning syndrome.Case Report: A man, 58 years old, post severe COVID-19 patients with shortness of breath, ineffective cough and feeling weak in all four extremities due to prolonged bed rest (denconditioning syndrome). Deconditioning syndrome is defined as a reduction in anatomical and physiological function caused by disease, age, or physical inactivity. The patient was given active gradual mobilization, range of movement exercise, endurance, strengthening, balance, and coordination exercise. The patient was also given breathing exercise, chest physical therapy, and effective cough. Seven days after rehabilitation, the patient could regulate his breathing pattern and ambulate independently. The patient was discharged and continue self training at home.Conclusion: Breathing exercise, chest physical therapy, aerobic exercise, muscle strengthening exercises in all four extremities, coordination, balance exercise, and gradual mobilization training are very important in the recovery of  post severe COVID-19 patients.
Sharon Claudia Ethelyn Sihole, Sandy Vitria Kurniawan
Damianus Journal of Medicine, Volume 20, pp 104-110; https://doi.org/10.25170/djm.v20i2.2513

Abstract:
Introduction: Candida albicans is a common human flora. However, if the amount is above average, it can cause a disease called candidiasis. Fluconazole is an antifungal medication that can cure candidiasis but its number of resistance is increasing. Therefore alternative treatments are needed like using herbs. Cymbopogon citratus essential oil is proven to have an antifungal effect. The purpose of this study is to see the synergistic antifungal effect of fluconazole combined with lemongrass against C. albicans.Methods: Experimental study design was used in this research and conducted in vitro. C. citratus was extracted with hydrodistillation method. Disc diffusion method was performed using MHA agar with Glucose 2% and methylene blue. Lemongrass essential oil concentration that are used are 2,5%, 5%, 10%, and 20% using tween as a solvent.Results: Minimum concentration of lemongrass essential oil that could inhibit C. albicans growth is 10% with average diameter of inhibition zone 10 mm. Minimum concentration of fluconazole combined with lemongrass essential oil that could inhibit C. albicans growth is 2,5% with average diameter 21,3333 mm. Average diameter of inhibition zone by fluconazole combined with lemongrass essential oil is greater than fluconazole’s inhibition zone added with lemongrass essential oil inhibition zone alone, therefore fluconazole combined with C. citratus essential oil work synergistically.Conclusion: There is a synergistic antifungal effect of fluconazole combined with C. citratus essential oil against C. albicans.Key Words: Candida albicans, Cymbopogon citratus, fluconazole, synergistic
Myra Antonia
Damianus Journal of Medicine, Volume 20, pp 111-119; https://doi.org/10.25170/djm.v20i2.2638

Abstract:
Background: Extracellular mass/body cell mass (ECM/BCM) ratio is a independent predictor mortality in nutritional status and certain chronic disease. ECM/BCM ratio is influenced by various factors such as muscle mass, blood cells, bone mass, tendons, total body water, and certain chronic diseases.Objective: Determine factors associated with elderly ECM/BCM ratio in Jakarta nursing home.Methods: This observational cross-sectional study was conducted in four nursing home in Jakarta. Nutritional status measured with Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) score, Body Mass Index (BMI), Waist Circumference (WC), Mid-Arm Circumference (MAC), and calf circumference (CC) using measurement. ECM/BCM ratio is measured using Maltron Bioscan 916, Pearson correlation and Kendall's Tau B were used for bivariate analysis. Simple linear regression was used for multivariate analysis.Results: A total of 74 subjects were recruited (mean age 72.12 years, 71.6% women). Body mass index (p<0.05), WC (p<0.05), and CC (p<0.05) were negatively associated with ECM/BCM ratio, while MNA score (p<0.05) and age (p<0.05) were positively associated with ECM/BCM ratio. There wasn't any significant difference in TBW between male and female elderly. In the multivariate linear regression analysis, BMI was negatively associated with ECM/BCM ratio (p<0.05).Conclusions: Significant relationship were found independently between MNA score, BMI, WC,MAC, and age with ECM/BCM ratio. Body mass index is the main factor associated with ECM/BCM ratio in the elderly in Jakarta nursing homes. Our findings suggest that elderly with lower BMI have higher ECM/BCM ratio.
Reinardus Alexander Ricky
Damianus Journal of Medicine, Volume 20, pp 127-134; https://doi.org/10.25170/djm.v20i2.1329

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Introduction: Video game addiction is a control impairment over the desire to play video games that stems from a habbit of prolonged gaming with high intensity. One of its causes are in-game microtransactions. Microtransaction involves various purchases within a video game by using real-life money. Microtransactions can make games easier, customize in-game looks, and earn rare in-game items. This is suspected to increase gaming intensity and duration. This research aims to find out the association between microtransaction in video games and video game addiction among medical students in Atma Jaya Catholic University of Indonesia.Methods: This study is an observational-analytical study with a cross-sectional approach with a total of 70 respondents. The respondents consist of medical students from class years 2016-2018 at Atma Jaya Catholic University that fulfil the inclusion and exclusion criterias. The data was collected by distributing an online survey to each PBL groups from each class years. Questionnaires used are Video Game Addiction Test (VAT) to assess video game addiction and microtransaction questionnaire to assess in-game microtransactions. Data analysis was done using a computer program.Results: The number of male and female respondents are equal. This study has found 32.9% of students with video game addiction. The proportion of students who have carried out in-game microtransactions is 41.4%. Chi square test shows that there is a significant association between in-game microtransactions and video game addiction (p = 0.001), with an odds ratio of 6.Conclusion: There is a significant association between microtransaction in video games with video game addiction.Keywords: microtransaction in video games, pre-clinical medical student, video game addiction
Ireina Karyn, Maria Dara Novi Handayani, Octavianus Darmawan
Damianus Journal of Medicine, Volume 20, pp 89-96; https://doi.org/10.25170/djm.v20i2.2639

Abstract:
Introduction: The world is entering an aging population. With aging comes many challenges due to changes of the brain structure that affect both cognitive function and balance. The amount of cognitive function and balance impairment cases in the elderly are rising. If left unattended, it can cause numerous adverse effects in the elderly, eventually leading to the loss of the ability to perform activities of daily living. Studies have observed the relationship between cognitive impairment and balance in Indonesia, but only a few were conducted in Jakarta, specifically among elders in the nursing home. This study is aimed to observe the association between cognitive function and balance in the elderly. Methods: This is a secondary analysis using a previous study conducted in PSTW Budi Mulia Jakarta in 2016. Demographic data, cognitive function, and balance were assessed using the demographic questionnaire, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), and Berg Balance Scale (BBS). Statistical analysis is conducted using IBM SPSS Ver 22. Results: Most respondents were female, aged 60-69 years old, had low education level, good MMSE score (53,3%), and a normal BBS (90,7%) score. We found a significant relationship between cognitive functions and balance (p=0,045). Conclusion: Cognitive function is related to balance impairment in the elderly. Key Words: balance, cognitive function, elderly
Stevan Kristian Lionardi
Damianus Journal of Medicine, Volume 20, pp 144-151; https://doi.org/10.25170/djm.v20i2.1249

Abstract:
ABSTRAKLatar Belakang: Bagi mahasiswa kedokteran, proses pembelajaran merupakan unsur esensial guna memperoleh pengetahuan dan keterampilan yang diperlukan untuk menjadi seorang dokter. Proses pembelajaran akan bahan dan materi yang banyak seringkali menghabiskan banyak waktu, mengakibatkan kurangnya intensitas dan perhatian akan pentingnya kegiatan aktivitas fisik yang rutin dan teratur yang dapat meningkatkan fungsi kognitif dan eksekutif otak. Metodologi: Desain penelitian ini adalah potong lintang dengan metode random sampling dengan responden sebanyak 103 mahasiswa angkatan 2016, 2017, dan 2018 Fakultas Kedokteran dan Ilmu Kesehatan Prodi Kedokteran Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya dengan menggunakan kuesioner IPAQ (International Physical Activity Questionnaire) untuk mengukur intensitas aktivitas fisik dan untuk mengetahui indeks prestasi mahasiwa disertai pertanyaan nilai indeks prestasi kumulatif mahasiswa melalui kuesioner. Uji analisis yang dilakukan adalah uji non parametrik Chi-square. Hasil: Hasil dari analisis data menggunakan uji Chi-square antara intensitas aktivitas fisik dengan indeks prestasi kumulatif mahasiwa menunjukkan nilai Pearson Chi-Square hitung adalah 0,048, meski telah memenuhi syarat p < 0,05 namun memiliki perbedaan yang sedikit dengan nilai yang tidak signifikan, sehingga hubungan antara kedua variable dapat dipandang dari kedua sisi. Kesimpulan : Peningkatan aktivitas fisik dapat mempengaruhi peningkatan nilai indeks prestasi kumulatif yang dimiliki, namun masih terdapat banyak faktor-faktor lain yang dapat mempengaruhi nilai indeks prestasi kumulatif seorang mahasiswa kedokteran.
Tungki Pratama Umar
Damianus Journal of Medicine, Volume 20, pp 163-171; https://doi.org/10.25170/djm.v20i2.2389

Abstract:
Introduction: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a respiratory infection that has become a global pandemic. Approximately 5% of all sufferers of this disease require an intensive care unit, with Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) as one of the main complications with a mortality ratio reaching 94%. COVID-19 which disrupts the respiratory system requires adequate management, especially in ventilation or oxygenation to reduce the risk of multi-organ damage. The author discusses this topic in this literature review.Results: Ventilation management in COVID-19 patients must adhere to the principles of Safe (for staff and patients), Accurate (preventing unusual techniques), and Swift (fast). Airway management in COVID-19 patients has a very high risk because of the large opportunity for aerosolization to occur. Providing ventilation (oxygenation) to patients with COVID-19 has many options, ranging from the nasal cannula, face mask, rebreathing masks, Venturi Mask, Non-rebreathing Mask (NRM), High Flow Nasal Cannula, Non-Invasive Ventilation (NIV), to intubation with mechanical ventilation. Regarding intubation, until now there is no specific protocol, especially regarding disagreements about early or late intubation.Conclusion: The choice of oxygen administration technique, as well as the decision to intubate, largely depended on the discretion of the anesthetist who is present and assesses it according to the individual needs and clinical status of the patient.
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