Problems of World History

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ISSN : 2707-6776
Total articles ≅ 153
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M. Derzhaliuk
Problems of World History pp 26-106; https://doi.org/10.46869/2707-6776-2021-14-2

Abstract:
The article notes that the Trianon Peace Treaty of June 4, 1920 between the Entente countries and Hungary, as a result of the First World War, turned out to be, like all the other six treaties of the Versailles system, mostly unfair. Forcibly the territory of Hungary decreased by 2/3, the population decreased 2,7 times, a third of the Hungarian ethnic group became part of neighboring states. It is noted that during 1920-2020. In Hungary, there were no powerful political forces of various trends and trends that would recognize the Trianon Peace Treaty as just. At the same time, the ruling political elites of the neighboring states of Hungary considered and still consider the conditions of the Trianon fair. Such opposite assessments of the consequences of Versailles engendered antagonism, making it impossible to reach a compromise between the countries of Central-Eastern Europe. Attention is drawn to the fact that during the domination in Europe of the coalition of countries led by Germany of the Versailles Peace Treaty, including the Trianon, were dismantled, a new order was introduced, in which opponents of Versailles – Germany, Italy, Japan, the USSR, Hungary, Bulgaria. played an active role. It is noted that the winners of the World War ІІ restored the borders of the countries of Germany’s allies in Europe, in accordance with their own geopolitical interests, which corresponded by 70% to the borders established by the Entente after the World War І. The Trianon borders were restored over Hungary by the Paris Peace Treaty of February 10, 1947. The USSR, Great Britain, France and the United States acted from a hegemonic position, were guided by the right of the winner and in many respects imposed on the defeated countries the conditions of the Versailles system were discredited, did not draw proper conclusions and did not build international relations on principles close to justice, but preserved the complicated territorial contradictions of the past with the corresponding treaties. It is indicated that the threat of assimilation and disappearance of foreign Hungarians is one of the main reasons for the revitalization of modern Hungary. Measures to overcome the syndrome of the dismemberment of the Hungarian nation in Central-Eastern Europe have been going on for centuries with little results; The rate of decline in the number of Hungarians in neighboring states over the past century is the highest, so Budapest believes that there is no time to delay the introduction of autonomy for foreign Hungarians, because in the next 25 years the very need for it will disappear through their disappearance. It is emphasized that the level of ensuring the rights of the Hungarian minority in Transcarpathia especially affects the relationship of Hungary with Ukraine. The improvement of relations between Hungary and Ukraine has minimal chances, since the positions of the parties on the procedure for the application of educational and language laws in Transcarpathia do not coincide. Taking into account the decisive activity of Hungary and the Hungarian foreign communities in 2020 (the century of the signing of the Trianon Peace Treaty on June 4, 1920), it is concluded that this problem will not lose its relevance, but will significantly increase.
L. Chekalenko
Problems of World History pp 164-178; https://doi.org/10.46869/2707-6776-2021-14-7

Abstract:
To answer the question of what is public history, let's turn to its origins. The emergence of academic history in the nineteenth century, now called official, was associated with the separation of history from other fields of knowledge. At that time, it was believed that without a professional historical education, it was impossible to be an erudite and intelligent person, and to tell the past objectively and truthfully. Otherwise, these stories would resemble myths and fairy tales. Over time, history gradually became a scientific discipline, as well as an ideological science, as its primary task during the rapid kaleidoscope of changes in various political regimes was to educate ideologically savvy professionals for state-building. Thus, historical science was formed during the creation of nation-states and affirmed the national identity of different social and ethnic groups that formed one nation. What prompted recent history to approach man as the object of study? In our opinion, interest in man - a phenomenon of any civilization has existed since Hellenic times, and in the era of authoritarianism and totalitarianism has been replaced by interest in power and strength. Such a change, unfortunately, led to the tragic consequences of the First and Second World Wars. The disproportionately heavy burden of the tragedies of the Second World War and the emergence of new threats to world security in the bipolar period forced two opposing ideological camps to understand the need for dialogue, finding common ground and finding consensus in peace building. The Helsinki process began, and cooperation between the United States and the Soviet Union deepened in strategic areas: space and high technology. Security levers have been strengthened, and a regional security structure, the Conference on Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE / OSCE), has been established in the European dimension. Civilizational exchange contributed to the growth of education of the population, the deepening of the intellectual component of society. At the center of the state and history was an intelligent man – Homo Sapiens, who felt his significance for the world, history and the future. World wars have forced historians to rethink the meaning of life, its fragility and vulnerability. And the deep political, economic, and social world crisis of the 1970s drew the attention of historical science to the person. Oral history, new social history, public history, etc. appeared. The philosophical and social sciences began to study individual social groups – women's society, religious communities, working and student youth, etc. With the growth of interest in the person, the interest in history as it is, without ornaments and artificial exaggerations, the history of ordinary people and places, increased.
A. Bulvinskyi
Problems of World History pp 119-130; https://doi.org/10.46869/2707-6776-2021-14-4

Abstract:
The article analyzes the main policy directions towards Tajikistan, neighboring countries of Central Asia and culturally related to the Tajiks of the Middle East towards Tajikistan. The civil war in Tajikistan between supporters of the country’s secular and religious paths of development (1992-1997) caused mixed attitudes and policies on the part of various state, political and religious circles in Afghanistan. However, after it became clear that the struggle between secular and Islamist forces in Tajikistan could destroy the country as such, the culturally and linguistically close to the Tajiks political elite of Afghanistan (B. Rabbani and A. Masood) and Iran (A. Rafsanjani) made significant efforts to end the civil war in Tajikistan as mediators and expressed interest in the sustainable development of Tajikistan. In the 2000s, Iran abandoned attempts to influence Tajik policy in order to promote the establishment of a religious state in Tajikistan, turning to cooperation with the secular Tajik authorities in the economic sphere. Important issues complicating relations between Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan are the construction by Tajiks of large hydropower plants on mountain rivers, which Uzbekistan considers a threat to national security, and unresolved border disputes, which are a source of constant aggravation in Kyrgyz-Tajik. In general, Tajikistan has complex problems of various kinds with most of its neighbors (with Afghanistan - drug trafficking and Islamic influences, with Uzbekistan - water energy, with Kyrgyzstan - border), which prevent bilateral relations to reach a new level of quality.
V. Soloshenko
Problems of World History pp 196-208; https://doi.org/10.46869/2707-6776-2021-14-9

Abstract:
Presented article has been written based on the report, which was delivered at the International Workshop “The Cultural and Academic Relations between the Eastern Bloc Countries and the West during the Cold War Period” organized by the Ohara Institute for Social Research/Hosei University (Tokyo, Japan) in cooperation with the State Institution “Institute of World History of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine” (Kyiv, Ukraine) and Jagielonian University (Krakow, Poland).In order for reading this article to be more accessible for the scholars of post-Soviet countries, far and near abroad, the author, on exceptional basis, used Russian as the language of her research. Because exactly Russian was the language of learning of the author’s Japanese colleagues, professors from the Hosei University / Tokyo and other universities during their studying in the USSR in the Cold War years.The article underlines that accession of Ukraine to the Soviet Union as the Union Republic-co-founder and its commitment to the establishment of the new social and economic system involved a series of public transformations. In the Soviet Union, the industrialization, collectivization, and cultural revolution were conducted, numerous universities, scientific institutions, theatres, and other culture centers were opened. Soviet culture, as officially defined, served the purpose of construction of a socialist society. At the same time, the cultural policy of the Soviet Union had not only the objectives of changing public consciousness, covered the principles of liquidation of private property and repudiation of religion, but also, on the base of communist ideology, it was intended to provide a formation of the «New Soviet Man». The author demonstrated the Cold War influence on the culture of the USSR. The research highlighted that the development of new industries and scientific discoveries of global significance by the Soviet scientists enabled to use to a greater extent of human achievements for further progress and cultural wealth accumulation. The article deals with the achievements and loses in the process of Ukrainian national identity assertion.
O. Prysiazhniuk
Problems of World History pp 179-195; https://doi.org/10.46869/2707-6776-2021-14-8

Abstract:
The German Museum of Outstanding Achievements in Natural Science and Technology in Munich was founded in 1903. For three years its founder electrical engineer Oskar von Miller collected an extensive collection of historical and technical exhibits, and in 1906 the museum was opened to the public. The German Museum in Munich demonstrated for the first time that not only artists, but also technicians created masterpieces, not only philosophers, but also inventors had ingenious ideas, not only medieval objects, but also modern technology is a relic. O. von Miller formulated the most important motives and goals of the museum as follows: documentation of the role of technology for the development of society and culture; the implementation of an educational function in the presentation of technology, the achievement of a national status. The didactic principles of organizing exhibitions in the museum served to popularize natural science laws, to visually demonstrate the functional application of technical inventions. The presentation of technical objects was qualitatively different from the exhibition principles of other technical museums. Demonstration of old technologies and historical machines in action was already the norm in museum work. O. von Miller set the task of the museum to explain the technology of manufacturing technical products, such as watches, fabrics, and so on, for which fragments of workshops and factories were reproduced in exhibitions. For the first time in a technical museum, in addition to the traditional chronological display of technical inventions, the principle of operation of machines and apparatus was explained by means of experiments conducted with exhibits by visitors and museum staff. This function was extremely new for the technical museum and was nevertheless carried out mainly by the public, mainly students and young people.
O. Oliynyk
Problems of World History pp 131-146; https://doi.org/10.46869/2707-6776-2021-14-5

Abstract:
In the 21st century, China has significantly strengthened its role in world historical processes. In 40 years of reform and openness, China has not only become a world leader in economic development, it has also become an active player in the world political arena. China began to show greater interest in world development and at the same time began to actively integrate into the world community, seeking to prove the global benefits of cooperation with China. The Chinese leadership believes that China cannot stand aside from world processes and, like the rest of the world, be held hostage to the policies of other countries and bear the brunt of all the negative consequences of such policies. As a result, it was taken a course for active integration with the world community and strengthening China’s participation and influence in world processes. For this purpose, several strategic strategies have been developed to achieve a specific goal, including “going abroad”, “globalizing”, “internationalizing” and others. At the same time, the strengthening of integration processes in the world could not leave the country’s leadership indifferent, so China began to pay more attention to participation in both global and regional integration processes. One such area was China’s accession to the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) in 1991. These areas have identified three key aspects of the Asia-Pacific Dream concept: development and economic cohesion, the unification of Asia with an emphasis on harmony, mutual benefit and prosperity in the region. The China Asia-Pacific Dream initiative aims to maintain stable and friendly partnerships with neighboring countries in order to build mutual trust. China has identified a number of common challenges that the parties must address in order to build an Asian community. China hopes to work with its partners to create a beautiful region that will lead the world, benefit all parties and bring prosperity to future generations. In this context, the Chinese leadership has identified a number of areas for development for the Asia-Pacific region.
M. Fesenko
Problems of World History pp 7-25; https://doi.org/10.46869/2707-6776-2021-14-1

Abstract:
The article examines the problems and prospects of the consolidation of the international order. The thesis that the global systemic crisis is a counter phase or a crisis of consolidation of the international order, which must be overcome by the joint efforts of participants of international relations in order to maintain the stability of the international system and prevent its destruction, is justified. The sustainable development of the modern international system depends on the consolidation of participants in the international order and the deepening of constructive cooperation between its participants. The interconnectedness of numerous crises leads to the intensification of the global system crisis. Its presence is a logical result of the global development of the system of international relations. Among the main elements of the global system crisis one can distinguish the financial crisis, economic crisis, environmental crisis, demographic crisis, global governance crisis, security crisis, energy crisis, global climate crisis. The inability of participants of the international system to regulate global crisis is evidence of a global governance crisis. All these crises, as the most important elements of the global system crisis, shape its structure, reflect its essence and make it holistic. The combination of interdependent crises complicates the overcoming of the global system crisis and strengthens it. Therefore, the global governance crisis is both the cause and the consequence of the global system crisis, which in turn indicates the turbulent state of the international system, in which it is impossible to clearly determine its further development. It is proved that the inability of the participants of the international system to consolidate themselves in accordance with the scale of global political transformations is one of the reasons for the emergence and deepening of the global systemic crisis. The presence of a complex of global crisis phenomena and the lack of effective institutional mechanisms to overcome them in synergetic unity reinforce the effect of each other, which deepens the global systemic crisis. Overcoming it depends on the degree of consolidation of the international order, which aims to improve the mechanisms of global governance of the international system. The basis of a consolidated international order could be a reformed UN with expanded powers or another global international organization. The global systemic crisis requires the search for tools and factors that will help to stabilize socio-economic and political relations and to rethink the forms and mechanisms of effective global governance.
V. Shved
Problems of World History pp 147-163; https://doi.org/10.46869/2707-6776-2021-14-6

Abstract:
The period from January to March 2021 completed the formation of the main outlines of the foreign policy of the Joe Biden administration in the Middle East, which found its consolidation in the Interim Strategic Leadership in the field of national security. Its main features, in contrast to the policy of the D. Trump administration, are based on the principles of democracy, liberalism and reliance on the alliances and allies of the United States in the region. The main directions of the foreign policy course of the new US administration in the Middle East region are determined as follows: ensuring effective security for Israel in the context of its deep integration into the Middle East, advancing the process of the Abrahamic agreements and resolving the Palestinian-Israeli conflict on the basis of a two-state solution; organizing, together with its regional allies and partners, the effective counteraction to the Iranian expansionist course by returning to an updated and expanded Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action; continuing the counterterrorism activities with reliance on regional partners and improvement of the forms and methods of its implementation; significantly reducing the level of tension in the region. When implementing these tasks, the Biden administration will have to find a balance between the proclaimed principles of its foreign policy in the region and the existing realities and traditions, especially among the Arab countries of the region.
N. Zaletok
Problems of World History pp 107-118; https://doi.org/10.46869/2707-6776-2021-14-3

Abstract:
Comparative studies on the experiences of female representatives of different countries in WWII remain relevant today. They not only deepen our understanding of the life of women at war, but also allow us to explore the power regimes of different states at one stage or another. After all, the government organized the activities of various groups of the population aimed at winning the war. Women were no exception in this respect, regardless of whether they worked in the rear or defended their homeland with weapons in hand. For centuries, the navy for the most part represented a purely masculine environment, and the presence of a woman on a ship was considered a bad omen. However, the scale of hostilities during the world wars and, as a consequence, the need for a constant supply of personnel to the armed forces made their adjustments – states began to gradually recruit women to serve in the navy. The article compares the experiences of Great Britain and the USSR in attracting women to serve in the navy during WWII. The countries were chosen not by chance, as they represent democracy and totalitarianism, respectively, and studying their practice of involving women in the navy can deepen our knowledge of these regimes. After analysing the experience of women’s service in the navy in 1939-1945, the author concludes that their recruitment to the navy in Great Britain took place through a special organization – the Women’s Royal Naval Service (WRNS). Its personnel were trained mostly separately from men and then sent to military units of the navy. The USSR did not create separate women's organizations for this purpose; women served in the same bodies as men. The main purpose of mobilizing women to the navy in both the USSR and Great Britain was initially to replace men in positions on land to release the latter for service at sea. However, in both countries there were cases when women also served at sea. The range of positions available to them in the navy expanded during the war, and in the USSR reached its apogee in the form of admission of women to combat positions. In Great Britain, women in the navy did not officially perform combat roles, and there was a ban on them from using lethal weapons.
A. Bulvinskyi
Problems of World History pp 150-171; https://doi.org/10.46869/2707-6776-2021-13-7

Abstract:
In the article there has been made the analyzes of reflection ideological bases of foreign political and governmental positioning of Tajikistan in its’ doctrine documents. The main blocks of our analyzes was historical bases of Tajik statehood; the place and a role of Tajikistan in the world history, the place of the country in the modern world and features of understanding of the world trends of development; the place of water diplomacy in foreign political positioning of Tajikistan. It was found, that important part of official ideological concept of Tajikistan was the appeal in way of Aryan origin of Tajiks, the heritage of government of the Samanids and the losses of the “original” Tajik’s territories. It was state that during 1990s until 2010s, doctrine understanding of Tajikistan about their place in the evolutionary region in the spot of the mission of historical civilization of Tajik’s nation regarding to other population of the region. Important elements of the ideology of Tajikistan’s foreign policy positioning in the 1990s were the secular nature of the development of this Muslim state, elected during the 1992-1997 civil war, and the need for international assistance due to the country’s poverty and underdevelopment. In the doctrinal documents of the first half of the 2000s, the provision on poverty was combined with the thesis of the injustice of world development, which is dominated by the West, and the negative impact of globalization, which fuels the confrontation of civilizations. Since the mid-2000s, there has been a doctrinal rethinking of the role and place of Central Asia in the world - from a backward and troubled region to a clash of global interests and an economically important region of the world, dominance of great powers. By proclaiming a multi-vector open door policy in 2002, Tajikistan has doctrinally broadened its horizons of engagement with the world, going beyond the discourse of cooperation only with neighboring Muslim countries and Russia.
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