Problems of World History

Journal Information
ISSN : 2707-6776
Total articles ≅ 173
Filter:

Latest articles in this journal

O. Shmorhun
Problems of World History pp 9-52; https://doi.org/10.46869/2707-6776-2021-15-1

Abstract:
The article is devoted to the study of the role of historical tradition and national memory in the formation of modern types of ethno-national identity and mechanisms of consolidation of citizens at the stage of formation of the French state of the modern type. In this regard, various versions of French history were analyzed by representatives of historical and historiographical schools, which still compete with each other for the status of creators of a generally accepted interpretation of important historical events. It was found that consistently patriotic motivation, which ensures the formation and realization of the innovative potential of the people and social activity of this creative core of the nation, aimed at overcoming any crisis challenges, is formed only on the basis of maximum meaningful synthesis of existing interpretations of French history. In particular, the effectiveness of memory policy is ensured by the fact that symbols, traditions and historical monuments that positively influence the dynamics of national-patriotic motivations and feelings are inevitably (and often, quite consciously) filled with qualitatively new meanings and values. The complete failure of neoliberal and left-wing radical critiques of Holism's theory and practice has been proved, the conservative elements of which, in particular the appeal to the heroic past, are not at all identical with medieval archaism and almost neo-Nazi political preferences. On the contrary, the typological similarity of Bonapartism and Hollism is due precisely to their ability to effectively oppose reactionary and revolutionary extremism, which is equally destructive to the nation-state. In this regard, the exceptional relevance of the use of historical memory to form their own traditionalist and authoritarian charisma (in their relationship) by the creator and first president of the Fifth Republic Charles de Gaulle in the process of his opposition to anti-national provocations of far-right and far-left.
Problems of World History pp 74-91; https://doi.org/10.46869/2707-6776-2021-15-3

Abstract:
The article focuses on Hungary’s relations with Slovakia and Ukraine. It is concluded that the foreign policy of Hungary is radicalized at the beginning of the XXI century, which is manifested in the growing pressure on neighboring countries, in particular Ukraine, in order to provide autonomy to members of the Hungarian ethnic minority. It was found that this policy implements the idea of “Greater Hungary”, which must ensure the dominance of the unification and re-assimilation processes and the integration of the Hungarian nation in Eastern Europe around Budapest. It is proved that the preconditions for its development established the Treaty of Trianon, as a result of which the country lost two thirds of its territory and one third of its population. It was found that the antagonism inherent in the disregard of ethnic principle during the establishment of borders after the World War I prompted Hungary to resort to a forceful scenario of resolving territorial disputes, which dominated in the first half of the XX century. It was revealed that the change in the geopolitical situation in the second half of the XX century made it impossible to implement thus scenario, which led to a change in Hungary’s strategy and tactics to return the territories lost as a result of the World War I, II,. So Hungary transfers the solving of disputes with neighboring countries in the legal field, on a bilateral basis. Hungary has relied on the cultural and linguistic unification of the nation, based on the preservation of national traditions. The author concludes that, despite the differences in the situation with the Hungarian community in Slovakia and Ukraine, Hungary uses similar tools to promote the idea of a “Greater Hungary” and pressure on neighboring countries. Hungary’s policy poses a threat to Ukraine’s national security. Its methods lead to periodic interference in the policies of neighboring countries. This should be considered as one of the elements of the policy of “soft accession” of the Hungarian-speaking part of Transcarpathia to Hungary, which can be regarded as one of the elements of hybrid wars of the early XXI century.
E.G. Amirov
Problems of World History pp 172-192; https://doi.org/10.46869/2707-6776-2021-15-9

Abstract:
The article analyzes one of the fundamental issues of Islamic political thought - the origin of the military-political actions of the Prophet Muhammad. This is an issue that has been the subject of serious debate and controversy among Muslim thinkers for many centuries. The author compares two opposing points of view of Muslim scholars of different eras on this issue. According to the first – the political decisions of the Prophet Muhammad must be perceived as the fruit of revelation, according to the second – they are still the result of a bright political talent. Having decided on the arguments of each of the parties and as an arbiter, the author turns to the Holy Quran. Various examples from the scriptures of Muslims lead to the conclusion that political and military decisions made as a result of revelation occupy a significant place in the Sunnah of the Prophet Muhammad. However, the author cites the example of a case when the Prophet Muhammad made important military-political decisions at his own discretion or as a result of a meeting with his companions. Summarizing the examples, taking into account the lessons of Islamic history and the modern political process, the author comes to the conclusion that the fundamental principles of Islamic rule established by the Prophet Muhammad are of Quranic origin, and they are mandatory for Muslim leaders. Guided by these principles, Muslim leaders are free to make decisions in one form or another, depending on the prevailing circumstances. The Quran and Sunnah of the Prophet Muhammad reflect the principles and essence of Islamic politics. External forms are seen as a changeable phenomenon, and in traditional Islamic discourse, the interest in understanding them is usually not so great.
V. Rozumyuk
Problems of World History pp 92-105; https://doi.org/10.46869/2707-6776-2021-15-4

Abstract:
The article examines Serbo-Croatian conflict in the XX - early XXI centuries. The history of the formation of the Serbian and Croatian statehood is analyzed; the reasons for the confrontation between two close Slavic peoples are determined and the evolution of their relationship is highlighted; clarified the determinants that determine the antagonistic nature and demonstrative cruelty of the Serbo-Croatian confrontation. The formation after the “Patriotic War” of 1991-1995 of two parallel “worlds” was stated, as a result of which the Croatian and Serbian communities hardly intersect in everyday life. Constant quarrels and fights on ethnic grounds, burning of flags and desecration of state symbols have been and remain daily occurrences from the very beginning of reintegration, and war criminals convicted by an international tribunal are perceived by the two communities as national heroes and defenders of the Motherland. It points to the gradual aggravation of interethnic confrontation in Croatia and the growth of xenophobic sentiments, which has been observed recently. The conclusion about the failure of past and modern attempts to establish Serbo-Croatian cooperation in building a common future has been substantiated. It is emphasized that the Serbo-Croatian conflict does not look exhausted, not only because of the heavy burden of the past, which causes mutual accusations and long-standing hatred. Attention is drawn to the fact that this confrontation is primarily about the future - about the fate of various national projects. The mirage of “Greater Serbia” still tempts a significant part of the Serbs, who are hatching revanchist intentions, while the Croats are determined to defend their won independence. Accordingly, under certain international conditions, the confrontation of political ambitions in the Balkans can easily flare up with renewed vigor, once again confirming the reputation of this region as a “powder keg” of Europe.
A. Kudryachenko
Problems of World History pp 209-217; https://doi.org/10.46869/2707-6776-2021-15-11

Abstract:
Interview of the Director of the Institute of World History of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Corresponding Member of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor Kudryachenko Andriy Ivanovych with Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor Hasanov Hasan Aziz oglu.
O. Mitrofanova
Problems of World History pp 106-124; https://doi.org/10.46869/2707-6776-2021-15-5

Abstract:
The article is devoted to the study of the experience and peculiarities of reconciliation of contradictions between Germany and France. The positions of the Presidents of France and Chancellors of the Federal Republic of Germany regarding the theoretical foundations and practical steps of the implementation of French-German reconciliation are studied. This paper deals with the problem of Alsace-Lorraine, a region with a border identity, which repeatedly became the cause of Franco-German disputes and passed from one state to another. The role of the individual in overcoming the contradictions between Germany and France is highlighted. The factor of European integration is considered, which not only contributed to the reconciliation of contradictions between Germany and France, but also turned the two states into leaders of a united Europe. The Elysee Treaty and its implementation were analyzed. The military cooperation between France and Germany is investigated. The problem of historical memory and the desire to reconcile the contradictions between Germany and France are revealed. It is proved that the experience and peculiarities of reconciliation of contradictions between Germany and France testify to the fact that the real reconciliation of the two leading states directed their efforts towards a more global goal – the creation of a common Europe. It was concluded that the mechanisms for achieving Franco-German reconciliation are interesting for studying and borrowing, taking into account national characteristics in the reconciliation of other European countries, and regions with borderline identities. The French-German experience may be useful for application in Polish-Ukrainian relations. The main conclusion from the analysis of the experience and the peculiarities of reconciling the contradictions between Germany and France is that their implementation led to unexpected and far-reaching consequences that once seemed just a dream. At the beginning of European integration in the 50s of the twentieth century, it was difficult to imagine the contemporary EU with its common currency, the Schengen area, developed economy, social programs. Franco-German reconciliation was transformed into the fruitful work of the Franco-German tandem, on the success of which depends not only the future of France and Germany, but the evolution of the entire united Europe.
V. Shved
Problems of World History pp 140-150; https://doi.org/10.46869/2707-6776-2021-15-7

Abstract:
The article is devoted to the study of the issue of the historical foundations of the existing border conflicts between India and Pakistan and the latest efforts of these two states and the international community in relation of resolving them. The roots of the existing Indian-Pakistani border conflicts go back to the time when India was a part of British colonial empire. To a decisive extent, such conflicts were a consequence of the British authority’s policy, which, in an effort to weaken the liberation movement in India, incited enmity between the largest ethno-religious groups of the population – Hindus and Muslims. This policy eventually led to the formation of two separate neighboring states – India and Pakistan, and these countries inherited numerous border conflicts. The largest among them is Kashmir, due to the gap of this territory between India and Pakistan. For several decades, the state of Jammu and Kashmir, according to Article 370 of the Indian Constitution, had a special status and broad autonomy.However, the Indian government, headed by N. Modi, eliminated this special status by removing this article from the country’s constitution in August 2019. Over the past year, under the influence of serious geopolitical changes in the Indo-Pacific region and South Asia, the government of N. Modi initiated a return to the consideration of the status of the former state of Jammu and Kashmir, and also seeks to develop an updated format for his stay in India. On June 25, 2021 the prime minister of India held an important meeting with a group of prominent politicians from Kashmir, which was the first public event by the Indian government after the liquidation of the Kashmir autonomy. During the meeting, a number of issues were discussed about the preparation for the future elections in the region. N. Modi described the meeting as “an important step towards increasing efforts in the development and progress of the territory of Jammu and Kashmir”.
A. Zelinskyi
Problems of World History pp 151-171; https://doi.org/10.46869/2707-6776-2021-15-8

Abstract:
One of the most interesting phenomena, that were associated with the functioning of the Lebanese power structures, is the principle of consociative (consociational) democracy in the country. It is expressed in the form of political confessionalism. At the same time, the principles of the functioning of political system of Lebanon have experienced and continue to experience significant changes during the almost 80 years of the history of Lebanese Republic. The understanding of the nature and the definition of the stages of this evolution will allow us to get the understanding of the prospects for further political development of this country, which is important for a Middle East region. The author of the articles hares the opinion of the researchers who believe that Lebanon is gradually transforming from a consociational to a majority democracy. Already at the time of the formation of the Lebanese Republic on the basis of a confessional principle, a declarative recognition of the temporary nature of the using of this principle was announced. In 1990, the amendments made to the Lebanese constitution contained provisions that are creating real opportunities for the implementation of the course of the deconfessionalization. In 2005, a radically new political system of Lebanon was formed on the wave of the Cedar Revolution. Although in the basis, it retains a confessional aspect, however, at the same time it represents a confrontation between wopoly-confessional political blocs. This (2021) year, a very small, but real, anti-confessional opposition political bloc has formed on the wave of mass dissatisfaction with the existing political system in Lebanon. This block plans to take part in the parliamentary elections in 2022. At the same time, the use of a anti-confessional rhetoric is often practiced in the highest political circles of the country. This phenomenon testifies to the growth of the popularity of a above-stated rhetoric. Finally, the influence of the external factors often promotes the overcoming the interfaith barriers by local political elites. Today, a Lebanese society finds itself half way between a traditional political confessionalism and a non-confessional political pragmatism. This political modus vivendi can be defined as a pragmatic confessionalism.
T. Orlova
Problems of World History pp 193-208; https://doi.org/10.46869/2707-6776-2021-15-10

Abstract:
The present article is aimed at demonstrating the importance of new for Ukrainian historiography direction of public history, for the country’s development and for strengthening its stance at the international arena. Australia is taken for an example, as it has turned from once remote Terra Incognita into one of the leading nations of the modern world. It is emphasized that, regardless of attainments, the identity issue is still as urgent as to other countries in the conditions of a global crisis. The sources of the public history trend are revealed, explained are the factors conducive to its spread planet-wise, attention is brought to the fact that this trend has become a natural result of developments in the science of history in the Western civilization, encompassing countries of Europe, the Americas, and Australia. The latter, being a ramification of the Western civilization branch, has adopted the guidelines outlined by American scholars, driven by pragmatic considerations. Steps are determined in the institutionalization of the said direction, a characteristic is given to the activities of the Australian Center of Public History at Sydney Technology University, of the journal “Public History Survey”, as well as to the specifics of their work in the digital era under the motto: “History for the public, about the public, together with the public”. The same motto is leading the historians working with local and family history, cooperating with the State in the field of commemoration, placing great importance on museums, memorials, monuments. Considering national holidays, particular attention is given to the National Day of Apology, reflecting the complications of Australian history. Like American public history, the Australian one began to give much attention to those groups of population that were previously omitted by the focus of research, namely, the aborigines. A conclusion is made regarding the importance of history in general and public history in particular for the implementation of the national identity policy – an important token of the nation’s stable and successful progress.
O. Lysenko, O. Fil, L. Khoynatska
Problems of World History pp 53-73; https://doi.org/10.46869/2707-6776-2021-15-2

Abstract:
Discussions around various aspects of World War II in the world’s scientific space and memory field have continued throughout the postwar decades. Initially, they were determined by polar and antagonistic ideological paradigms, and after the end of the Cold War – the discovery and introduction into scientific circulation of previously classified sources, testing of avant-garde methods of scientific knowledge, the development of interpretive tools. In the late 1930s, the Soviet Union found itself virtually isolated, alone with the Axis bloc and their allies. It was difficult for the Soviet leadership to overcome the existing threats on its own, especially after the German attack. Only the realization by the Western Allies that Berlin’s aggressive course had become a global challenge made it possible to find a constructive way to join forces in the fight against a common enemy. One of the channels of cooperation between the states of the Anti-Hitler Coalition was the organization of supplies to the USSR of military equipment, ammunition, food, and materials necessary for the facilities of the Soviet military-industrial complex within the framework of the land lease program. Until recently, the problem of land lease was more in ideological discourse than in purely scientific. The currently available source base allows for an unbiased analysis of this phenomenon and elucidation of the place and role of foreign revenues to the USSR in strengthening its defense capabilities during the war against Germany and its allies. However, to this day, the researchers look out of focus, because of the perception of this phenomenon by veterans who fought on foreign military equipment, ate food from overseas. The authors of the article sees their task as combining these two dimensions of the lend-lease and finding out its impact not only on the scale of the large-scale armed confrontation, but also on the moral and psychological condition of the Red Army, for whom the war was an extremely difficult test.
Back to Top Top