Journal of Alternative and Renewable Energy Sources

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Devasis Pradhan, Samrat Ray, A. Dash
Abstract:
This paper expects to dissect logical investigations zeroing in on both ecological maintainability and shrewd city ideas to discover the connection between these two. To do so, the review distinguishes data about scientists, models, structures, and devices zeroed in on the picked subjects. This examination utilizes a subjective strategy, through a precise survey of the writing, which looks at the terms, 'smart city and its sustainability', focused on maintainable improvement of smart urban communities. As per the 2030 Plan is a reasonable improvement achievement for humankind in its desire to focus on our people in the future really. Smart Urban areas assume a fundamental part in this turn of events, the turn of events heading is based, among different elements, on the satisfaction of the models set by the different Sustainable Development Objectives (SDOs). The motivation behind the ebb and flow research is to check the present status of science concerning the improvement of the SDOs in smart cities to lay out a hypothetical structure for the turn of events and mix of information well defined for a Smart City to partake in homogeneous observing of these pointers.
Melanie Ecalnea Ricardo
Abstract:
One of the dire consequences of Philippine economic advancement is environmental deterioration due to unfavorable upshots brought by fossil fuels as the main drivers of its electricity generation. To thwart this impeding dilemma, the Philippines is currently decarbonizing its system and transitioning into a more sustainable renewable energy (RE) game plan conforming to United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals. This review article discusses the Philippine government's enablers, challenges, and initiatives toward its goal of a 50% renewable energy power mix by 2040. It also delineated the impacts of significant government renewable energy laws and programs on the current setting. A semi-systematic review was conducted among the peer-reviewed research articles and substantial private and government assessment reports relative to renewable energy development in the Philippines, with the date of publishing from 2016 to the present. Results showed that significant roadblocks to renewable energy deployment are political impediments, government support for coal, policy implementation, permitting process, environmental setbacks, foreign ownership, grid connection challenges and misperceptions. On the contrary, major drivers are depreciating cost, intermittency and seasonality solutions, investment risks on fossil fuel technology, employment creation, streamlined regulatory processes, and absence of transportation cost, among others. Initiatives were taken to strengthen domestic and foreign partnerships to maximize subsidies, grants, donations and investments. Given the enabling factors and current government mechanisms, the country has great potential to attain its 35% renewable energy target by 2030 and 50% by 2040 through a coordinated national RE target.
Wodi E. I., Akpiri B. F., Chikere N. C., Azubuike C. O.
Abstract:
In most nonlinear systems, not all the states are available for measurement. In such instances, an observer is utilized to estimate the unavailable states. Designing observers for nonlinear systems has received widespread attention owing to its utmost significance and intensive mathematical computations generally, an observer is used to calculate approximately the mechanical quantities from the identified electrical variables in an energy harvesting system. In the past, several estimations remained a challenge because of the rigorous computational techniques involved. In this work, we present a means of designing an observer by using the algebraic Ricatti equation.
Ms. Purva Trivedi
Abstract:
This is the era of urbanization and industrialization. Since the beginning of industrialization and urbanization the energy demand has increased because energy consumption has also increased and it is increasing every day. For electrical energy generation world is still more dependent on fossil fuels. In the process of electricity generation, fossil fuels are burned, they release large amount of harmful pollutants in atmosphere which disturbs ecosystem and habitat on earth. Hence renewable energy expected to play vital role in preventing environmental pollution. In this paper, the impact of using wind energy source for electricity generation has been analyzed.
Akinwale Eso, Omorogiuwa Eseosa
Abstract:
Pipeline leakage detection, if not addressed swiftly/promptly, could result to loss of lives and properties. Researches have shown that the best means of curbing or drastically minimizing these losses is through real time monitoring using DCS and CAO-SCADA Technology as the management tool. This tool was adopted in this work and then applied to a particular oil and gas terminal in Nigeria. Research questions were generated and data obtained as well as the research instrument used were validated. A total of one hundred and thirty-five respondents were used for the study. From the formulated testing based on z-test, three hypotheses were investigated termed as HO1, HO2 and HO3. HO1 test hypothesis of pipeline failure as a result of leakages along it and if the leakage detection is because there is no DSC, CAO-SCADA management tool along the pipeline. The result obtained showed that z-calculated is less than the critical value of 1.96 with a significant level of 0.05. From the results obtained, the hypothesis HO1 is accepted, thus failure of this pipeline is because the DSO, CAO-SCADA is not present in the system. HO2 testing determined if there exists any difference significantly between the DSC and CAO-SCADA system. From the result, the z-calculated which is 0.0065 is less than the critical value which is 1. This implies that the null hypothesis (HO2) is accepted. Meaning that there is no significant difference between CAO-SCADA and the DCO for the effective management and monitoring and safety operations in the pipeline. The last hypothesis is to test if there exists significant difference between DCS and CAO-SCADA system for effective industrial system control of leakages in pipeline. Out of the 135(100%) respondents, 106(78.52%) agreed with the recommendations made by the researchers while 12.59% partially agreed. 4(5.18%) have a clear understanding and 5(0.0370%) are indifferent about the recommendations made.
Ms. Purva Trivedi
Abstract:
Biomass is a non-conventional energy source. The research in the area of non-conventional energy sources has been increased over past years especially after the awareness about limited stock of conventional sources and the harmful impact on environment due to the burning of fossil fuels. Energy plays an important role in the social and economic growth of the nation and its citizen. The main focus of this paper is to give a review of biomass energy, its benefits and its conversion process.
Samhar Saeed Shukir
Abstract:
Concentrated solar power (CSP) is the conversion of the sun's energy into thermal energy by concentrating the solar radiation by means of mirrors or any other optical element such as lenses on a receiver containing a liquid such as water, molten salt, industrial oil or compressed gas to provide heat for heating and for industrial purposes or to generate steam that rotates a turbine to produce electricity. CSP plants may contain thermal storage units to provide electrical and thermal energy during the night or when the weather is cloudy. Concentrated thermal and electrical energy generation requires high direct solar radiation (DNI) which represents 90% of the sunlight on a sunny day and its value is neglected on a cloudy day, so (CSP) is effective in the sun belt regions, which are located at latitudes between 15 and 40 degrees north and south of the equator, these regions include: the Middle East, North Africa, South Africa, India, southwestern United States, Mexico, Chile, Peru, eastern China, Australia, southern Europe and Turkey. Also, solar radiation is high at high latitudes, as dispersion is low. The best areas to install CSP plants are the areas where direct solar radiation (DNI) is greater than (2800 kwh/m2 per year). The time taken to build CSP plants is from (1-3) years depending on the size of the plant, and its operational life is more than 30 years. The area needed by these plants is 2 hectares per megawatt. This article highlights on the systems for generating electric power from concentrated solar energy and presents the different fluids used in heat transfer, as well as the methods of thermal storage.
A. Kanni Raj, Ms. K. Uma Sudan
Abstract:
Scientists are being pushed to find more sustainable energy conversion and storage solutions as pollution levels rise, oil costs rise, and climate change becomes more problematic. Devices such as fuel cells, redox flow batteries, and electrolyzers are examples of devices that may significantly cut greenhouse gas emissions. These devices rely on ionic conductive polymers or ionomers (protonic, anionic, and amphoteric). For a variety of applications ranging from mobile to automotive and cogeneration systems, such ionomers must have high chemical and mechanical stability, performance and durability, low reagent permeability, and weight, volume, and current density. Unfortunately, the expensive cost of perfluorinated ionomers, as well as anionic polymers' low stability in alkaline settings, limit their usage.
Ogbonna Nnaemeka Richard, Omorogiuwa Eseosa
Abstract:
Solar energy as a means of power generation is yet to be fully utilized in Nigeria even if there is abundance of it all over the country. This work investigated the availability and utilization of solar energy resources in some selected geopolitical zones of the country. These include the north-west (Gumel), North-East (Maiduguri, Kumagunnam, Gamboru and Baga), North-Central (Pankshin and Biu), South-West (Lagos), South East (Ihiala) and South-South (Buguma). The annual solar radiation potentials from January-December 2021 as well as the air temperatures were determined for the seven locations under study. Retscreen-a renewable energy software was used for the simulation and analysis. The investigation revealed the annual electricity that can be generated for these Gumel located in North-West had 338,463MWh, while Maiduguri, Kumagunnam, Gamboru and Baga all located in North-East had 158,445MWh, 343,964MWh, 300,927MWh and 317,968MWh respectively. North-Central were Pankshin and Biu are located recorded 149,665MWh and 318,416MWh. South-West, South-East and South-South recorded 128,349MWh, 252,174MWh and 230,209MWh. The investigation has also revealed that of all the seven geographical locations under study, the North-Eastern part of the country is more favourable in terms of value obtained and the least favourable is South-West. The work has further shown that the abundance of electricity in these regions if fully tapped can be a huge source of income to even the neighbouring state or country.
Ogbonna Nnaemeka Richard, Omorogiuwa Eseosa
Abstract:
Wind energy is one of the cleanest sources of renewable energy sources (RES) in Nigeria but among the least utilized even with its enormous abundance. This work investigates wind energy availability and its utilization in some selected areas of the six geopolitical regions. The area under study is part of North-West (Gumel, in Jigawa State), Part of North-East (Maiduguri, Gamboru and Baga in Bornu State and Kumagunnam in Yobe State), Part North Central (Pankshin and Biu in Plateau State), Part of South-West (Lagos State), Part of South-East (Ihiala in Anambra State) and Part of South-South (Buguma in Rivers State). Rescreen (renewable energy) software was used to analyse the data obtained from Nigeria meteorological agency (NIMET). The result obtained showed the average wind speed for the various locations under study and it was found that there was drastic fluctuation of the speed of wind between June and October, and this was decreasing in this order. Furthermore, Kumagunnam and Gamboru has a high wind speed from January to march. This could be attributed to climatic/seasonal changes in weather pattern and it was also found that this is proportional to the cube of wind speed which is not linearly related to wind speed.
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