Journal of Software Engineering and Applications

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 1945-3116 / 1945-3124
Current Publisher: Scientific Research Publishing, Inc. (10.4236)
Total articles ≅ 926
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Latest articles in this journal

Mohammad Monirujjaman Khan, Rabbi Amin, Abdullah Al Mamun, Ahsan Ahmed Sajib
Journal of Software Engineering and Applications, Volume 14, pp 26-43; doi:10.4236/jsea.2021.141003

Average Bangladeshis spend a significant amount of income on medicine. A reliable and fast online medicine delivery system is not ubiquitous. Most people buy medicine from the local Pharmacies. They need to go to medicine stores to buy the specific medicine prescribed by the specialized doctors. Sometimes all prescribed medicines are not available in local Pharmacies therefore people need to go to other areas to buy the medicines. It is very time consuming and people need to spend money as well for this. In our country, traffic jams are a very big problem. People waste longer time on the road due to traffic jams. Here most of the pharmacies are closed at night time but sometimes in an emergency situation medicine is very essential. In this case an online web based e-commerce medicine delivery system is needed very much. In addition, currently the whole world is suffering due to COVID-19 pandemic. Coronavirus is very contagious which we all know. In this pandemic time it is not risk free to go out to buy medicine from the pharmacies. Due to COVID-19, medicine scarcity is also an important issue. In this situation, an online medicine delivery system can play an important role. By considering the above mentioned facts, a reliable and fast online solution is proposed. This paper presents the development of a web based online medicine delivery system. A reliable, fast, safe and user-friendly online based e-commerce web application has been developed in this paper. Medicine delivery system has also been included with this proposed system. This platform is a dynamic web application built in Hypertext Preprocessor (PHP) based Laravel framework with a powerful back end. It is hosted on a dedicated Virtual Private Server (VPS). This system is lightning fast and optimized very well for searching engines. With the help of the developed platform, drugs will be available at one’s doorstep very fast, safely and reliably. In this system, users can choose a medicine section of their choices and go through all the items that the system provides. Users can then select the desired drug items, add them to cart and then proceed to payment. It has payment integration of Cash on Delivery (COD) systems. After developing the system it has been tested and it works fine. It is a one-stop solution where people can find various medicines including COVID-19 related medicines and other items in this online platform. Besides medicine, here you can also find other health care products like food supplements, birth control products, hair care products, skincare products, beauty products, etc. People can order their required medicines or other medical related available items from online and the delivery support will provide the products door to door for the users. Using this system now users can get their needed medicine without leaving home. They can save money and they do not need to go out in this pandemic situation to buy medicine. In this crucial situation, the online medicine delivery system is very helpful and it will act as a blessing for the people.
Michael A. Dorin, Sergio Montenegro
Journal of Software Engineering and Applications, Volume 14, pp 1-10; doi:10.4236/jsea.2021.141001

Though many different readability metrics have been created, there still is no universal agreement defining readability of software source code. The lack of a clear agreement of source code readability has ramifications in many areas of the software development life-cycle, not least of which being software maintainability. We propose a measurement based on Linguistic Economy to bridge the gap between mathematical and behavioral aspects. Linguistic Economy describes efficiencies of speech and is generally applied to natural languages. In our study, we create a large corpus of words that are likely to be found in a programmer’s vocabulary, and a corpus of existing identifiers found in a collection of open-source projects. We perform a usage analysis to create a database from both of these corpora. Linguistic Economy suggests that words requiring less effort to speak are used more often than words requiring more effort. This concept is applied to measure how difficult program identifiers are to understand by extracting them from the program source and comparing their usage to the database. Through this process, we can identify source code that programmers find difficult to review. We validate our work using data from a survey where programmers identified unpleasant to review source files. The results indicate that source files identified as unpleasant to review source code have more linguistically complicated identifiers than pleasant programs.
Charles W. Butler, Thomas J. McCabe
Journal of Software Engineering and Applications, Volume 14, pp 44-66; doi:10.4236/jsea.2021.141004

Three design principles are prominent in software development-encapsulation, data hiding, and separation of concerns. These principles are used as subjective quality criteria for both procedural and object-oriented applications. The purpose of research is to quantify encapsulation, data hiding, and separation of concerns is quantified using cyclomatic-based metrics. As a result of this research, the derived design metrics, coefficient of encapsulation, coefficient of data hiding, and coefficient of separation of concerns, are defined and applied to production software indicating whether the software has low or high encapsulation, data hiding, and separation of concerns.
Richard Hurley, Jamie Mitchell
Journal of Software Engineering and Applications, Volume 14, pp 67-81; doi:10.4236/jsea.2021.142005

Over the last decade, many universities/colleges have developed formal agreements which permit students from recognized college programs to be able to seamlessly transfer to a closely-related university program with advance standing. There has been some concerned raised that students that come to university from college may not be academically (or emotionally) prepared for the faster-paced university programs. This research, which was funded by an Ontario Council on Articulation and Transfer Faculty Fellowship, examines the academic performance of students in computer-related disciplines with a focus on comparing students who come to a university through a formalized college-to-university transfer agreement relative to students who enroll directly from high school. The comparisons will be based on metrics such as graduation rates, course failure rates, overall averages, course-level averages, and course-subject averages.
Kodai Sugisaki, Yoshinobu Tamura, Shigeru Yamada
Journal of Software Engineering and Applications, Volume 14, pp 11-25; doi:10.4236/jsea.2021.141002

Various open source software are managed by using several bug tracking systems. In particular, the open source software extends to the cloud service and edge computing. Recently, OSF Edge Computing Group is launched by OpenStack. There are big data behind the internet services such as cloud and edge computing. Then, it is important to consider the impact of big data in order to assess the reliability of open source software. Various optimal software release problems have been proposed by specific researchers. In the typical optimal software release problems, the cost parameters are defined as the known parameter. However, it is difficult to decide the cost parameter because of the uncertainty. The purpose of our research is to estimate the effort parameters included in our models. In this paper, we propose an estimation method of effort parameter by using the genetic algorithm. Then, we show the estimation method in section 3. Moreover, we analyze actual data to show numerical examples for the estimation method of effort parameter. As the research results, we found that the OSS managers would be able to comprehend the human resources required before the OSS project in advance by using our method.
Tasfiqul Ghani, Nusrat Jahan, Mohammad Monirujjaman Khan, S. M. Tahsinur Rahman, Sabik Tawsif Anjum Islam
Journal of Software Engineering and Applications, Volume 14, pp 83-94; doi:10.4236/jsea.2021.143006

Amid the Covid-19 widespread, it has been challenging for educational institutions to conduct online classes, facing multiples challenges. This paper provides an insight into different approaches in facing those challenges which includes conducting a fair online class for students. It is tough for an instructor to keep track of their students at the same time because it is difficult to screen if any of the understudies within the class are not present, mindful, or drowsing. This paper discusses a possible solution, something new that can offer support to instructors seeing things from a more significant point of view. The solution is a facial analysis computer program that can let instructors know which students are attentive and who is not. There’s a green and red square box for face detection, for which Instructors can watch by seeing a green box on those mindful students conjointly, a red box on those who are not mindful at all. This paper finds that the program can automatically give attendance by analyzing data from face detection. It has other features for which the teacher can also know if any student leaves the class early. In this paper, model design, performance analysis, and online class assistant aspects of the program have been discussed.
Yasser Ali AlShehri
Journal of Software Engineering and Applications, Volume 13, pp 91-103; doi:10.4236/jsea.2020.136007

Software programs are always prone to change for several reasons. In a software product line, the change is more often as many software units are carried from one release to another. Also, other new files are added to the reused files. In this work, we explore the possibility of building a model that can predict files with a high chance of experiencing the change from one release to another. Knowing the files that are likely to face a change is vital because it will help to improve the planning, managing resources, and reducing the cost. This also helps to improve the software process, which should lead to better software quality. Also, we explore how different learners perform in this context, and if the learning improves as the software evolved. Predicting change from a release to the next release was successful using logistic regression, J48, and random forest with accuracy and precision scored between 72% to 100%, recall scored between 74% to 100%, and F-score scored between 80% to 100%. We also found that there was no clear evidence regarding if the prediction performance will ever improve as the project evolved.
Paul Kwabena Tano Marfo, Emmanuel Quansah
Journal of Software Engineering and Applications, Volume 13, pp 161-178; doi:10.4236/jsea.2020.138011

Electronic ticketing (E-ticketing), an innovative mode of issuing and delivering tickets, is becoming prevalent and is employed by many transport companies in Europe, America, Asia, and some parts of Africa to reduce the cost that goes with printing tickets. This study investigated E-ticketing adoption in the bus transport sector in the Kumasi Metropolis of Ghana. The study applied the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), and the Structural Equation Modelling technique was used to analyse the factors affecting the intention to use the E-ticketing system. In that regard, the study was based on perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, subjective norms, and demographic variables. Quantitative research approaches were used by distributing questionnaires to 392 passengers, employing the cluster and random sampling techniques. Findings from the study showed that perceived usefulness and subjective norm were the significant factors affecting passengers’ intention to adopt the E-ticketing system. Besides, perceived ease of use and subjective norms were significant in predicting passengers’ perceived usefulness of adopting E-ticketing system. The findings of this research will provide the government, industrial players, and the entire public a better understanding of the perceived factors that could enhance or serve as a barrier to passengers’ adoption of the E-ticketing system. This can also lead to the development of effective E-ticketing marketing strategies.
Yimer Amedie Muhie, Cheru Haile Tesfay, Biniyam Wondie Tamirat
Journal of Software Engineering and Applications, Volume 13, pp 219-244; doi:10.4236/jsea.2020.1310015

Supporting higher education with modern technologies like E-Learning is very important for one country to improve quality of education, to meet student’s expectations and to continue teaching-learning and training when face to face education is impossible. However, it is in its preliminary stage in developing countries like Ethiopia. This study examined the enabling factors, difficulties and opportunities of E-Learning implementation in Assosa University (ASU), Ethiopia. Its purpose is to find the enabling factors, difficulties and opportunities of E-Learning implementation in ASU and developing prototype of E-Learning system to show its practicality and to identify approaches of students’ and lecturers towards E-Learning. The study employed questionnaires, observation and interview to gather the required information. A sample of 309 students and 64 Lecturers randomly selected from 7 colleges and two schools as well as ICT workers and other concerned bodies in the university. Also prototyping as a methodology was used to implement and test the proposed system for proof of concept. This study investigating the possibility of implementing E-Learning in ASU and important enablers, difficulties and opportunities is identified. Also the E-Learning platform of the university is developed and introduced for students and lecturers to show its practicality. Most students and lecturers showed good motivation in E-Learning implementation and they assumed that it is useful for the university. The result shows that although there are difficulties to implement E-Learning in ASU, the possibility of fully implementing E-Learning in the University is relatively high with mixed method. With this, the approaches of students and lecturers are positively viewed and the opportunities are very noticeable in the University. So, conventional higher education can practically implement E-Learning with mixed approach to use as supportive tool for educational improvements and to reduce physical presence.
Christian Walker Dawson
Journal of Software Engineering and Applications, Volume 13, pp 327-347; doi:10.4236/jsea.2020.1312022

Sensitivity analysis of neural networks to input variation is an important research area as it goes some way to addressing the criticisms of their black-box behaviour. Such analysis of RBFNs for hydrological modelling has previously been limited to exploring perturbations to both inputs and connecting weights. In this paper, the backward chaining rule that has been used for sensitivity analysis of MLPs, is applied to RBFNs and it is shown how such analysis can provide insight into physical relationships. A trigonometric example is first presented to show the effectiveness and accuracy of this approach for first order derivatives alongside a comparison of the results with an equivalent MLP. The paper presents a real-world application in the modelling of river stage shows the importance of such approaches helping to justify and select such models.
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