Journal of Advanced Nursing

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ISSN / EISSN : 0309-2402 / 1365-2648
Published by: Wiley-Blackwell (10.1111)
Total articles ≅ 13,550
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, , Chloe E. Bailey, Emma Apatu,
Published: 23 September 2021
Journal of Advanced Nursing; https://doi.org/10.1111/jan.15015

Abstract:
Aims To determine if there is an association between better County Health Rankings and the increased odds of a hospital gaining Magnet designation in subsequent years (2014–2019) compared with counties with lower rankings. Background The Magnet hospital model is recognized to have a great effect on nurses, patients and organizational outcomes. Although Magnet hospital designation is a well-established structural marker for nursing excellence, the effect of County Health Rankings and subsequent hospital achievement of Magnet status is unknown. Design A descriptive, cross-sectional quantitative approach was adopted for this study. Methods Data were derived from 2010 to 2019 U.S. County Health Rankings, American Hospital Association, and American Nursing Credentialing Center databases. Logistic regression models were utilized to determine associations between county rankings for health behaviours, clinical care, social and economic factors, physical environment and counties with a new Magnet hospital after 2014. Results Counties with the worst rankings for clinical care and socio-economic status had reduced odds of obtaining a Magnet hospital designation compared with best-ranking counties. While middle-ranking counties for the physical environment ranking had increased odds of having Magnet designation compared with best-ranking counties. Additionally, having an increased percent of government non-federal hospital or a higher percentage of critical access hospitals in the county reduced the odds of having a Magnet-designated facility after 2014. Conclusion The findings underscore the important associations between Magnet-designated facilities’ location and the health of its surrounding counties. This study is the first to examine the relationship between County Health Rankings and a hospital's likelihood of obtaining Magnet status and points to the need for future research to explore outcomes of care previously identified as improved in Magnet-designated hospitals. Implications Recognizing the benefits of Magnet facilities, it is important for health care leaders and policy makers to seek opportunities to promote centres of excellence in higher need communities through policy and financial intervention.
, Rebecca A. Abbott, Alison Bethel, David A. Richards, Ruth Garside, Emma Cockcroft, Heather Iles‐Smith, Pip A. Logan, Ann Marie Rafferty, Maggie Shepherd, et al.
Published: 23 September 2021
Journal of Advanced Nursing; https://doi.org/10.1111/jan.15047

Abstract:
Aim This systematic review identifies, appraises and synthesizes the evidence on the provision of fundamental nursing care to hospitalized patients with a highly infectious virus and the effectiveness of adaptations to overcome barriers to care. Design Systematic review. Data Sources In July 2020, we searched Medline, PsycINFO (OvidSP), CINAHL (EBSCOhost), BNI (ProQuest), WHO COVID-19 Database (https://search.bvsalud.org/) MedRxiv (https://www.medrxiv.org/), bioRxiv (https://www.biorxiv.org/) and also Google Scholar, TRIP database and NICE Evidence, forwards citation searching and reference checking of included papers, from 2016 onwards. Review Methods We included quantitative and qualitative research reporting (i) the views, perceptions and experiences of patients who have received fundamental nursing care whilst in hospital with COVID-19, MERS, SARS, H1N1 or EVD or (ii) the views, perceptions and experiences of professional nurses and non-professionally registered care workers who have provided that care. We included review articles, commentaries, protocols and guidance documents. One reviewer performed data extraction and quality appraisal and was checked by another person. Results Of 3086 references, we included 64 articles; 19 empirical research and 45 review articles, commentaries, protocols and guidance documents spanning five pandemics. Four main themes (and 11 sub-themes) were identified. Barriers to delivering fundamental care were wearing personal protective equipment, adequate staffing, infection control procedures and emotional challenges of care. These barriers were addressed by multiple adaptations to communication, organization of care, staff support and leadership. Conclusion To prepare for continuation of the COVID-19 pandemic and future pandemics, evaluative studies of adaptations to fundamental healthcare delivery must be prioritized to enable evidence-based care to be provided in future. Impact Our review identifies the barriers nurses experience in providing fundamental care during a pandemic, highlights potential adaptations that address barriers and ensure positive healthcare experiences and draws attention to the need for evaluative research on fundamental care practices during pandemics.
Published: 23 September 2021
Journal of Advanced Nursing; https://doi.org/10.1111/jan.15046

Abstract:
Aims To validate the ‘safe and effective staffing tool’ and explore the impact of COVID-19 on the quality of Australian primary health care (PHC). Design A national survey was conducted from October to December 2020. Methods The online survey was distributed via social media and professional organisations to PHC nurses. Results Three-hundred fifty-nine PHC nurses participated. A two-factor solution was found with factors named; ‘Perception of quality of care provided’ and ‘Personal satisfaction with care delivered’. Cronbach's alpha demonstrated good internal consistency for the total scale (α = .915) and each subscale (α = .879/α = .864). Nearly three-quarters of participants (71.3%) were satisfied with the quality of care they delivered. Participants working in general practice, and those with more nursing experience had significantly higher scores in the factor ‘perceptions of quality of care provided’ and the total ‘quality and satisfaction with care’. A lack of time, inadequate supervision and support, and performing non-nursing duties were reported to be impacting care quality. Most participants (80.5%) reported that COVID-19 had impacted negatively on the detection and management of non-COVID related health conditions. Conclusion The ‘safe and effective staffing tool’ is a valid and reliable measure of perceived quality of care and satisfaction with care delivered. Many PHC nurses perceive that there has been an overall reduction in the quality of care delivered due to COVID-19 and feel that there is a lack of adequate supervision and workplace support. Given the limited baseline data, further research is required to understand the extent that COVID-19 impacts these findings. However, this study demonstrates that strategies need to be implemented to support PHC nurses to provide high-quality care to optimise health outcomes and maintain nurse satisfaction. Impact This is the first attempt to evaluate care quality in Australian PHC. Policymaking requires this evidence to drive changes to better support PHC nurses.
, Tanya McCance, Donna Brown
Published: 21 September 2021
Journal of Advanced Nursing; https://doi.org/10.1111/jan.15049

Abstract:
Aims To scope the key performance indicators (KPIs) used in nursing and midwifery across the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland and explore how they influence practice in healthcare organizations. Design The study adopted a sequential, exploratory mixed-methods design. Methods Phase 1 incorporated a multiple-choice questionnaire completed by 77 Directors of Nursing recruited using voluntary response sampling. In phase 2, 35 nurses and midwives who were working at executive, senior manager and clinical levels, participated in semi-structured interviews. Data collection of both phases was conducted from January 2016 to October 2016. Findings Quantitative data revealed over 100 nursing and midwifery-specific KPIs. National requirements were a deciding factor in KPI selection, while clinical involvement was mainly through data collection. Respondents stated that they used patient experience KPIs, but only one was assessed as valid. Thematic analysis identified two themes: The leadership challenge (including ‘voiceless in the national conversation’, ‘aligning KPIs in the practice context’ and ‘listening to those who matter’); and taking action (including ‘establishing ownership and engaging staff’, ‘checks and balances’ and ‘closing the loop’). Conclusion The large volume of KPI measurement taking place makes meaningful evaluation of performance and quality of care difficult, both in and across organizations. Nurses and midwives require enhanced knowledge of the nature and purpose of KPIs, as evidence gained from KPI data collection is insufficient to lead to improvements in practice. A practice context that encourages collective leadership, where multiple sources of evidence are gathered and everyone is included in KPI evaluation and subsequent decision-making, is key. Impact This study adds to the body of evidence on KPI understanding. It informs the future effective management of indicators that will facilitate the delivery of meaningful care and reduce the cost, time and effort invested in the implementation of KPIs and data management.
, Dietmar Ausserhofer, Serena Sibilio, Rupert Paulmichl, Elia Toccolini, Norbert Pfeifer, Francesco Brigo, Gianni Turcato
Published: 17 September 2021
Journal of Advanced Nursing; https://doi.org/10.1111/jan.15048

Abstract:
Aim To establish how the Manchester Triage System can correctly prioritize patients admitted to the emergency department for transitory loss of consciousness in relation to their risk of presenting severe acute disease. Design A observational retrospective study. Methods A total of 2291 patients who required a triage evaluation for a transitory loss of consciousness at the emergency department of Merano Hospital between 1 January 2017 and 30 June 2019 were considered. Transitory loss of consciousness was classified according to European Society of Cardiology guidelines. The baseline characteristics of the patients were collected and divided according to the priority level assigned at triage into two different study groups: high priority (red/orange) and low priority (blue/green/yellow). The composite outcome of the study was defined as the diagnosis of a severe acute disease. Results Of the patients enrolled, 17% (390/2291) had a high-priority code and 83% (1901/2291) received a low-priority code. Overall, a severe acute disease was present in 16.9% of patients (387/2291). The Manchester Triage System had a sensitivity of 42.4%, a specificity of 88.1% and an accuracy of 80.4% for predicting severe acute disease. The discriminatory ability had an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.651 (CI 95%: 0.618–0.685). Conclusions Despite the good specificity, the low sensitivity does not currently allow the Manchester Triage System to completely exclude patients with a severe acute disease who presented in the emergency department for a transitory loss of consciousness. Therefore, it is important to develop precise nursing tools or assessments that can improve triage performance. Impact The assessment of a complex symptom can create difficulties in the stratification of patients in triage, assigning low-priority codes to patients with a severe disease. Additional tools are needed to allow the correct triage assessment of patients presenting with transitory loss of consciousness.
, Ibtisam Marey‐Sarwan, Yaira Hamama‐Raz, Bothaina Nakad, Ahamd Asadi
Published: 17 September 2021
Journal of Advanced Nursing; https://doi.org/10.1111/jan.15041

Abstract:
Aims The study examined self-reported job-related stressors induced by the COVID-19 pandemic and psychological distress among hospital nurses and physicians. In addition, we explored the role of negative affect (NA) and background variables in relation to COVID-19-related job stressors and psychological distress. Background During COVID-19 pandemic, hospital nurses and physicians were exposed to highly enduring occupational stress, that stem from subjective appraisal of inadequate job resources (i.e., personal protection equipment, information on how to manage safely in the ongoing work and organizational attention to the needs arising from the ongoing work). Design Cross-sectional design. Methods Between May and July 2020, 172 nurses and physicians working at a medical centre in Israel filled in self-report questionnaires about sociodemographic data, COVID-19-related job stressors, psychological distress and NA. Results Our results confirmed the positive direct link between perceived COVID-19-related job stressors and psychological distress among hospital nurses and physicians. NA was found to serve as a mediator in this association (indirect link). Furthermore, nurses and physicians' seniority was related positively to psychological distress and also played a moderator role in the indirect link. Conclusion We recommend to monitor the mental health of hospital nurses and physicians and to provide a platform to address their job stressor concerns related to COVID-19, and share helpful coping strategies. Impact statement During the abrupt COVID-19 outbreak, hospital nurses and physicians face challenges that might raise NA and psychological distress. Our study revealed that among hospital nurses and physicians, COVID-19-related perceived job stressors and psychological distress were positively linked, and NA plays a mediating role in this association. Among nurses and physicians with moderate or high years of seniority (>11 years), higher COVID-19-related perceived job stressors associated with higher NA, which in turn was associated with greater psychological distress. Policymakers would be wise to provide a platform to address hospital nurses and physicians' mental health.
Published: 17 September 2021
Journal of Advanced Nursing; https://doi.org/10.1111/jan.15043

Abstract:
Aim To synthesize evidence on the ability of specialist care home support services to prevent hospital admission of older care home residents, including at end of life. Design Systematic review, without meta-analysis, with vote counting based on direction of effect. Data sources Fourteen electronic databases were searched from January 2010 to January 2019. Reference lists of identified reviews, study protocols and included documents were scrutinized for further studies. Review methods Papers on the provision of specialist care home support that addressed older, long-term care home residents’ physical health needs and provided comparative data on hospital admissions were included. Two reviewers undertook study selection and quality appraisal independently. Vote counting by direction of effect and binomial tests determined service effectiveness. Results Electronic searches identified 79 relevant references. Combined with 19 citations from an earlier review, this gave 98 individual references relating to 92 studies. Most were from the UK (22), USA (22) and Australia (19). Twenty studies were randomized controlled trials and six clinical controlled trials. The review suggested interventions addressing residents’ general health needs (p < .001), assessment and management services (p < .0001) and non-training initiatives involving medical staff (p < .0001) can reduce hospital admissions, while there was also promising evidence for services targeting residents at imminent risk of hospital entry or post-hospital discharge and training-only initiatives. End-of-life care services may enable residents to remain in the home at end of life (p < .001), but the high number of weak-rated studies undermined confidence in this result. Conclusion This review suggests specialist care home support services can reduce hospital admissions. More robust studies of services for residents at end of life are urgently needed. Impact The review addressed the policy imperative to reduce the avoidable hospital admission of older care home residents and provides important evidence to inform service design. The findings are of relevance to commissioners, providers and residents.
Published: 17 September 2021
Journal of Advanced Nursing; https://doi.org/10.1111/jan.15044

Abstract:
Aim To develop a conceptual framework of the core qualities and competencies of the intensive and critical care nurse based on the experiences of intensive care patients, their relatives and the intensive and critical care nurses. Design Meta-ethnography. Data sources A comprehensive, systematic search in seven databases supplemented with hand, citation and reference search. Sources published from 2007 to 2019 were included. Review Methods Noblit and Hare's understanding of meta-ethnography and the work of the eMERGE project have directed the synthesis. Results Nineteen studies were included and synthesized into a conceptual framework. Overarching theme: ‘feeling safe and being safe’, subtheme: ‘creating confidence and motivation’ and conceptual categories (CCs): ‘technical skills and biophysical knowledge’; ‘inter/intra professional teamwork skills’; ‘communication skills (with patients and their relatives)’; ‘constant and attentive bedside presence’; ‘creating participative care’; ‘creating confidence through daily care’; ‘creating a good atmosphere and having a supportive and encouraging attitude’; and ‘building relationship to maintain self-esteem’. Conclusion By including the perspectives of intensive care patients, their relatives and intensive and critical care nurses, the core qualities and competencies comprise elements of both patient safety and the feeling of safety. The framework outlines concepts necessary to ensure person-centred and safe intensive care. Further research should involve each perspective to validate and strengthen the findings. Impact The development of standards and competence guidelines expressing the learning outcomes and qualification of intensive and critical care nurses should be based on input from intensive care patients, their relatives and intensive and critical care nurses. A variety of core qualities and competencies are necessary to create confidence and motivation, and to make the patient feel safe and be safe. This conceptual framework might form a basis for development of a program or assessment tool to facilitate excellence in education and practice in intensive care.
Published: 15 September 2021
Journal of Advanced Nursing; https://doi.org/10.1111/jan.15040

Abstract:
Aim To provide a timely analysis around the concept of stigma among transgender and gender-diverse people accessing healthcare. Background While research on stigma has been prolific in other disciplines, the literature on stigma—especially among transgender and gender-diverse people—have been limited in nursing. A clear definition of stigma among transgender/gender-diverse people is also lacking in the nursing literature. Design Walker and Avant's method of concept analysis. Data sources PubMed and CINAHL databases were used to retrieve English language records from February 2016 to February 2021. Influential literature from sociology and psychology and an online dictionary and thesaurus were also used to clarify the concept. Methods Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis was used to search the scientific literature to clarify and describe the antecedents, defining attributes, consequences and empirical referents of stigma among transgender/gender-diverse people accessing healthcare. Results A clear definition of stigma was identified. The defining attributes of stigma—labelling, stereotype, separation, status loss and discrimination—reflect its definition. Without asymmetrical power relationships, stigma will not exist. The consequences of stigma include negative and positive outcomes. Conclusion While this concept analysis provides clarification of stigma, further exploration of the concept is needed. Furthermore, this concept analysis illustrates how nurses are strategically positioned to disrupt the power structures that allow stigma to operate. Understanding the concept of stigma also enables nurses to create equitable and multifaceted inventions to improve healthcare access among transgender and gender-diverse people.
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