International Journal of Plant & Soil Science

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EISSN : 2320-7035
Published by: Sciencedomain International (10.9734)
Total articles ≅ 1,524
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Neethu Francis, R. Ravikesavan, K. Iyanar, M. Raveendran, T. Chitdeshwari, A. Senthil
International Journal of Plant & Soil Science pp 246-252; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i2330739

Abstract:
Aim: Drought is one of the most important abiotic stresses that affect the yield of crops globally. The present investigation was conducted to identify small millet genotypes tolerant to seedling stage drought stress. Study Design: The experiment was laid out in Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with three replications with genotypes and stress treatments as factors. Place and Duration of Study: It was carried out at Department of millets, Centre for plant breeding and genetics, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore, during 2019. Methodology: Ten varieties of various small millets, CO 7 (foxtail millet), CO 4 and ATL 1 (little millet), CO 15 and CO 9 (finger millet), ATL 1 and CO (PV) 5 (proso millet), MDU 1 and CO 2 (barnyard millet) and CO 3 (kodo millet), were used for the study. In vitro screening of the seedlings in Polyethylene Glycol (PEG)-induced water stress at four levels (0, -3, -5 and -7 bars) were carried out based on germination percent, shoot and root length, plant height stress tolerance index (PHSI), root length stress tolerance index (RLSI) and seedling vigour index (SVI). Results: Analysis of variance of the genotypes and PEG treatments revealed significant variation for genotypes, treatments and genotype x treatment interactions at P< 0.001. A declining trend for germination percent, shoot length and root length was observed as the stress levels were increased. However, at mild and moderate stress root length was slightly increased. Under mild (-3 bars) and high stress (-7 bars), CO 7 (foxtail millet) recorded the highest SVI percent over control values (165% and 65% respectively). Under moderate stress CO 4 (little millet) recorded the highest SVI (191%). The lowest SVI values under high stress, 4% and 8%, were recorded for ATL 1 (little millet) and CO 3 (kodo millet) respectively. Conclusion: Based on invitro screening of small millet varieties for seedling stage water stress, foxtail millet variety CO 7 and kodo millet variety CO 3 can be concluded as the tolerant and susceptible varieties respectively. Further a controlled field experiment may be carried out to understand the field level tolerance of the varieties and their growth stages to drought.
, K. D. Ameta, Mohan Singh, Jitendra Kumar Tak, Ramesh Chand Choudhary
International Journal of Plant & Soil Science pp 219-225; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i2330736

Abstract:
The present investigation was carried out at Hi-Tech Unit, Department of Horticulture, Rajasthan College of Agriculture, MPUAT, Udaipur. The twelve treatments comprising of various combinations of 4 levels of boron, i.e., B 0 - 0, B 1 - 100, B 2 - 150 and B 3 - 200 ppm and three spray application times, i.e., D 1 - 30, D 2 - 45 and D 3 - 60 DAS. The treatments for beetroot crop were evaluated with three replications under factorial randomized block design. The experimental results show that different concentrations of boron, application times and their combinations significantly affected yield and quality of beetroot. Among treatments with different concentration of boron maximum yield per plot (45.44 kg), yield of root (454.45 q/ha), dry matter (18.08 %), protein on dry weight basis (2.54 %), ascorbic acid content (3.48 mg 100g-1), total soluble solids (16.10 oBrix) and beta carotene content (1438.34 IU) were recorded with treatment B3D1 (200 ppm boron spray at 30 DAS) and alsosignificantly produced higher gross return (₹ 238340.00), maximum net return (₹ 170230.00) and benefit cost ratio of 2.50, i.e., generating highest net return of ₹ 2.50 per rupee invested.
, Abdul-Rahaman Issahaku
International Journal of Plant & Soil Science pp 226-245; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i2330737

Abstract:
Aims: To examine the toxic effects of insecticides on bees in farming communities in the Savannah Region of Ghana. Study Design: The study employed five different doses of insecticides to 3 groups of 10 honey bees in each group using 3 types of insecticides. The number of dead bees were registered and used for the estimation of LC50 of each insecticide. Place and Duration of Study: The experiment was conducted at Damongo Agricultural Training College, Ghana, between August 2019 and September 2019. Methodology: We collected bees from farms in the West Gonja District of the Savannah Region of Ghana. Controller Super 2.5 EC, Pyrinex 48 EC and Golan SL were insecticides used for the experiment. Live adult bees were randomly obtained from beehives at 2:00 am from the farms when the bees were not aggressive. The bees were collected by hand and placed into a perforated plastic container and transported from the site of collection to the experimental site. They were allowed to acclimatize to the experimental conditions for a period of three hours under room temperature of 24 °C and a relative humidity of 49 percent throughout the study. Results: Mortalities were recorded 10 minutes after administering the concentrations and thereafter at every 10 minutes continuously till 60 minutes. The LC50 was calculated using Where N is the number of honey bees in each group Controller Supper 2.5 EC at a concentration of 6.7 ml/L gave the highest mean mortality (10 bees) at the 50th minute while the concentration of 1.0 ml/L gave the lowest mean mortality (0.0 bees) in the same 50th minute. Conclusion: The LC50 for the three insecticides used were within the recommended concentrations provided by the Environmental Protection Agency of Ghana. The overall mortalities occurred when honey bees were exposed to different concentrations of all the three insecticides.
A. Senthilkumar, B. Bhakiyathu Saliha, P. Saravana Pandian, R. Thamizh Vendan, A. Gurusamy, P. P. Mahendran
International Journal of Plant & Soil Science pp 200-218; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i2330735

Abstract:
Phytoliths are formed from silica carried up from groundwater and some plants. The weathering of silicate minerals at the Earth’s surface provides large amounts of soluble silica, some of which is absorbed by growing plants. In solution, silica exists as mono silicic acid Si (OH4) with pH values of 2–9. It is carried upward in the vascular system and becomes concentrated during transpiration around the leaf stomata. The supersaturated solution begins to polymerize or gel then solidifies and forms solid opaline silica (SiO2:nH2O) bodies (phytoliths) within and between some of the plant cells. Phytoliths were extracted from the 7.4 meter loess core and analyzed morphologically and isotopically from the occluded carbon. Rates of isotopic fractionation between plant and phytolith were determined by measurements from many modern tree, fern, and grass species. The use of phytolith biochar as a Si fertilizer offers the undeniable potential to mitigate desilication and to enhance Si ecological services due to soil weathering and biomass removal. Silicon is accumulated at levels equal to or greater than essential nutrients in plant species belonging to the families Poaceae, Equisetaceae, and Cyperaceae. However, the abundance of silicon in soils is not an indication that sufficient supplies of soluble silicon are available for plant uptake.
S. Selvamani, B. Sushmitha, R. Kowsalya, , S. Venkatesan
International Journal of Plant & Soil Science pp 189-199; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i2330734

Abstract:
Paddy is cultivated on a large scale in Cauvery delta region of Tamil Nadu. Due to non-availability of adequate quantity of certified seeds at their village level most of the farmers of this region using their farm saved seeds to raise the next season crop. In order to know the quality of farm-saved paddy seeds of delta region, a total of 20 seed samples from 17 distinct varieties were collected from various villages in the Thanjavur district of Tamil Nadu during Rural Agricultural Work Experience programme. The samples were subjected to physical and physiological seed quality parameters evaluation at Seed Science and Technology laboratory of Anbil Dharmalingam Agricultural College and Research Institute, Thiruchirappalli. Only 15% of samples such as Seeraga samba, Karuppukavuni and RNR 1548 alone showed 80% seed germination. The average germination percent was 50.05. Based on our observations, farmers of this region store their seeds in gunny bags without proper drying and not following any pre-storage seed treatment to protect the seeds against storage pathogens and insects. Hence, awareness should be made among the farmers of this region regarding post harvest handling and management of farm produce harvested and stored for seed purpose. The government of Tamil Nadu should educate farmers about post-harvest handling of seeds through the Department of Agriculture to increase productivity and production of our country.
Asha T, , B. D. Biradar, Mahabaleshwar G Hegde
International Journal of Plant & Soil Science pp 159-177; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i2330732

Abstract:
The present study was conducted to compare the genetic variability parameters among selfed lines of population A (PDM 53 x PDM 4441) and population B (HKI 1105 x HKI 323) and also random mated population A (PDM 53 x PDM 4441) and random mated population B (HKI 1105 x HKI 323) using original inbred parents and three commercial checks, HM-4 (National check), CPB 468 and TENDER (Private check). High heritability coupled with high genetic advance was observed for number of cobs per plant, husked cob weight, dehusked cob weight, baby corn yield with and without husk per plant among selfed populations and a similar trend was observed in random mated populations except for ear length and days to 50 % silking. In total the variability observed was more in random mated populations than selfed lines because allelic frequency differences occur in random mated populations and the pool of gametes originating from male and female is different when compared to the pollen source in selfed populations. The frequency of transgressive segregants were more in random mated Population A (PDM 53 x PDM 4441) and the most promising transgressive segregant identified can be used in the further breeding programmes.
Rakesh Kumar Rout, Abhiram Dash
International Journal of Plant & Soil Science pp 178-188; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i2330733

Abstract:
Pulses are considered to be important crop for ensuring nutritional security in Odisha. Proper estimation of growth rate in production of pulse crops allows for more effective cropping system planning and formulation of the agricultural policy of the state. To capture any abrupt changes and the variation in data in different phases of a long time period, spline regression technique is used as it can fit different models in different segments of the time period as necessary without losing the continuity of the model. The present study deals with the estimation of growth rate of area, yield and production of all rabi pulses in Odisha by using best fit spline regression model. To fit the spline regression model, the entire period of study is divided into different segments based on the scatter plot diagram which is further confirmed by testing the significance of change in coefficient of variation between the consecutive segments by chi square test. The regression model found to be suitable from the study of scatter plot of data are linear, compound, logarithmic, power, quadratic and cubic model. The best fit model is selected on the basis of error assumption test and model fit statistics such as R2, adjusted R2 and Mean Absolute Percentage error (MAPE). The respective selected best fit model is used for the estimation of growth rates of area, yield and production of rabi pulses in Odisha for each segment and the whole period of study. Among the spline regression models, the respective linear spline regression model is found to be best fit for area, yield and production of rabi pulses and are used for growth rate estimation of these variables. It is found that though the growth rate in area and yield of rabi pulses are not significant, the growth rate of production is found to be significant for the whole period of study which shows that the interaction effect of area and yield on production seems to dominate.
, M. K. Mahanti
International Journal of Plant & Soil Science pp 151-158; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i2330730

Abstract:
Sometimes, yield from a commercial plantation is reduced because of inadequate availability of fertilisers to the plant due to various reasons such as poor quality of fertilizers used, loss of fertilizers in the field during cultivation due to natural causes etc. One way of preventing such loss in yield is to apply remedial fertiliser doses in the field in an intermediate stage of cultivation. To implement such a method effectively, a mathematical model has been proposed in this work. The model first determines the amount of fertilisers needed at the beginning of cultivation to optimize yield. It then ascertains at an intermediate stage of cultivation whether the plant receives adequate fertilisers for producing optimum yield. In case it is found out that required fertilisers are not available to the plant, the model decides how much more remedial fertilizer doses should be applied at the intermediate stage so that yield will not be affected. A potato plantation has been considered to illustrate the applicability of the proposed mathematical model.
, Franceline Doh, Ekien Alloua A. Bertille Kadio, Kindo Yves-Joël Boko, Alexandre Moïse Akpa Akpesse, Kouassi Philippe Kouassi
International Journal of Plant & Soil Science pp 140-150; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i2330729

Abstract:
Aims: This study aimed to assess the impact of human activities on termites in teak plantations in the Korhogo communal area. Methodology: Termites were sampled from October to November 2020 using the transect method recommended by Jones and Eggleton (2000). The study was carried out in three teak plantations undergoing different levels of human activities, with a forest fragment as reference area. Five types of human activity were assessed and the overall proportion of human pressure on each habitat was calculated. The species richness (S), Shannon index (H'), Evenness (E) and the relative abundance were calculated of termites for each habitat type. Analyses of variance (ANOVA) were used to compare the species richness and abundance of termites. Results: The results showed that the village plantation of teak (PVT) had the highest degree of human pressure (50.94%), followed by the teak plantation of the forest of Mount Korhogo (TFMK) (29.24%). The teak plantation of Botanical Garden (TJB) was under low pressure (6.60%). A total of 30 species grouped in 19 genera and 8 sub-families of termites were identified in all plots. Termite diversity was high in the forest fragment (19.67 ± 1.15) and in the teak plantation of Botanical Garden (21.33 ± 2.08), but low in the village teak plantation (11 ± 1). The abundance of termites evolves in the same direction as the species richness. Conclusion: Anthropogenic activities affect the trophic composition of termites, particularly the humivore group. Reconstruction of the fauna and flora of the teak forests would be beneficial for the conservation of termite species. In this region, teak forests would thus play a role as a refuge for termite communities, which are recognised as the main soil fertilising organisms in the tropics.
Rudoviko Galileya Medison, Milca Banda Medison, Litao Tan, Zhengxiang Sun, Yi Zhou
International Journal of Plant & Soil Science pp 119-139; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i2330728

Abstract:
The soil inhabits many microbes, including plant parasitic nematodes. Plant parasitic nematodes are reported to cause substantial damage to crops which results in yield and economic losses. Chemical control is the most widely used method to control plant parasitic nematodes. However, the consequences of synthetic chemicals are detrimental to human health, animals, and the environment and face so many strict regulatory measures. Synthetic chemicals are also not reliable with their inability to provide long-term protection. Many studies have shown that the use of beneficial fungi and bacteria has the potential to prevent and suppress plant parasitic nematodes while keeping the environment safe. Several experiments have demonstrated that bioproducts of microbial origin are cheap, safe, and provide long-lasting biocontrol effects against pathogens both in vitro and field conditions. Therefore, this review aims to discuss mechanisms that beneficial microbes and their products use to successfully suppress plant parasitic nematodes. The review also explains the importance of using commercial bionematicides in the sustainable management of plant parasitic nematodes. The existing challenges that are limiting the full application of beneficial microbes, and what needs to be done to fully utilize biocontrol agents in the management of plant parasitic nematodes have also been discussed. To the best of our knowledge, this review has come at the right time to give researchers and plant growers more options when several synthetic chemical nematicides are being banned by regulatory authorities due to their hazardous effects.
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