Journal of Environmental Protection

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 21522197 / 21522219
Current Publisher: Scientific Research Publishing, Inc. (10.4236)
Total articles ≅ 1,446
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Daniel Shittu Toyin, Funmilayo Aransiola Elizabeth, Deborah Alabi-Babalola Olajumoke, Toyin Daniel Shittu, Elizabeth Funmilayo Aransiola, Olajumoke Deborah Alabi-Babalola
Journal of Environmental Protection, Volume 11, pp 65-81; doi:10.4236/jep.2020.112006

Abstract:
This study determined the adsorption ability of modified sponge gourd fibre in adsorbing crude oil from simulated oil-water mixture. Modification was done on the adsorbent by treating with hot water and sodium hydroxide. The dependence of the adsorption process on particle size of the fibre was determined using mesh sizes of 4.75, 2.36, 1.18 and 0.85 mm. The hot water treatment significantly increased the adsorbing ability of the sponge gourd, removing 83.3% of the crude oil from the mixture, alkaline treated sample removed 45.1% and the raw sample removed 22.9%. The result of the SEM images shows that hot water treated sample has more pores on the surface which influenced the better performance. The FTIR results obtained after the adsorption show the successful adsorption of crude oil on to the surface of the sponge gourd due to the presence of functional groups characteristics of groups found in crude oil. An optimum particle size for the sponge gourd was found to exist at the value of 1.18 mm, above and below which the crude oil removed was reduced. The modification of sponge gourd promoted the adsorption capacity for crude oil.
Ronald Dikole, Moatlhodi Wise Letshwenyo
Journal of Environmental Protection, Volume 11, pp 110-123; doi:10.4236/jep.2020.112008

Abstract:
The purpose of this case study was to conduct a case study in the generation rate, composition, and characterise solid wastes from low, middle and high income households during weekdays and weekends in Palapye, Botswana. The study was conducted through sampling and analysis of the wastes from sampled households from each of the three categories. Palapye village does not have an engineered solid waste management system in place; hence the study can be used as a starting point. The village is rapidly urbanising with many shopping complexes coming up which will generate high amounts of solid wastes of different compositions. The lowest generation rate was 0.038 kg/capita/day from low income households during weekends and the highest was 0.364 kg/capita/day generated from high income households during weekends. The composition of the wastes was dominated by food wastes ranging from 46.44% to 80.78% with low income households generating the highest percentage during weekdays. The average moisture contents of samples from low, middle and high income households were 71% ± 0.0%, 66.3% ± 1.25% and 74.3% ± 2.2% respectively during weekdays compared to 77% ± 0.0%, 66.5% ± 3.5% and 69.3% ± 3.3% during weekends. The average moisture contents from low, middle and high income households were 71% ± 0.0%, 66.3% ± 1.25% and 74.3% ± 2.2% respectively during weekdays compared to 77% ± 0.0%, 66.5% ± 3.5% and 69.3% ± 3.3% during weekends. The results can be used as part of the waste management planning purpose by the Administrative Council of the area.
Nguyen Thi Minh Phuong, Nguyen Van Song, Tran Xuan Quang
Journal of Environmental Protection, Volume 11, pp 124-151; doi:10.4236/jep.2020.112009

Abstract:
Community-based tourism (CBT) is considered as one of the typical types of tourism towards sustainable development with three important goals such as bringing back economic benefits, protecting natural environment and preserving indigenous cultural values. Therefore, this paper analyzes the factors that affect community ecotourism development associated with environmental protection in emerging economies, including Vietnam, by the method of key and community tourism potential value assessment with 721 sample surveys. In this paper, we have applied to assess the key factors of tourism in Vietnam and other key points to have more comprehensive solutions to promote the development of community-based tourism with environmental protection. The article has used guest-based approach and method of assessing the key success factors. The results of researching factors to develop community tourist (impacting tourist community needs of tourists) by running Logit function have shown the great influence of factors such as: environmental protection (influence factor +3.585780, with a statistical significance of 99%), security and safety (+3.024816—statistical significance 99%) followed by infrastructure conditions & facilities for the community based tourism, the level of information etc… for your community based tourism needs. From the research results, we propose the following policy groups: 1) Developing guidelines for CBT, the first step as a basis for the development of community based tourism laws later; 2) Policies related to the implementation of planning, development of key community tourist areas and destinations; 3) Policies related to the development of community-based tourism associated with the protection of natural and cultural environments; 4) Policies related to tourism management; coordinating monitoring of community tourism resource points; policies related to the local community in community tourism development; 5) Policies related to human resource development; promotion work; developing community based tourism products.
Boluwatife Olusegun Osikanmi, Mohammed Mustapha, Mynepalli Kameswara Chandra Sridhar, Akinwale Oladotun Coker
Journal of Environmental Protection, Volume 11, pp 48-63; doi:10.4236/jep.2020.111005

Abstract:
Provision of quality drinking water is paramount for sustaining good public health in urban residents. Packaged water produced and consumed across cities in Nigeria lacks integrity in protecting Health. Water safety plan based on hazard identification and risk assessment in each component of the water production system is essential in providing quality water by packaged water producing companies in Nigeria. This study aims at developing water safety plan for selected packaged water manufacturing companies in Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria. Hazard identification and risk assessment were carried out based on site inspection studies, key informant interview, questionnaire survey and water sample analysis, and risk analysis using semi-quantitative risk matrix approach. The results revealed a total of 26 possible hazardous events which may compromise water quality such as on-site septic tanks and effluents discharged at source water and improper maintenance and hygiene practices within the system. Based on these, appropriate mitigation and monitoring plans were drawn for action. The research found that water safety plan is feasible for the packaged water systems, and therefore calls on the relevant stakeholders for urgent implementation towards ensuring clean drinking water and protecting public health as more and more people are opting for packaged waters due to uncertain public water safety.
Anna Koonce, Edward Bush, David Creech
Journal of Environmental Protection, Volume 11, pp 408-420; doi:10.4236/jep.2020.115024

Abstract:
Saltwater intrusion is a major cause of coastal erosion. New hybrid bald cypress species have been shown to exhibit salinity tolerance compared to native bald cypress species. Planting these hybrids, or Nanjing Bot Garden genotype (NBG), trees where their roots can stabilize soil and preserve land may reduce coastal erosion in areas subjected to saltwater intrusion. The purpose of this experiment was to determine whether or not selected bald cypress NBG genotype tree species survive better than native bald cypress trees in areas inundated with saline water. Leaves were harvested, dried and analyzed for their elemental concentration. NBG genotype trees excluded more sodium than native bald cypress trees. NBG genotype tree roots were also less effected by brackish water. Finally, the growth of the NBG genotype trees and the control were measured. All NBG genotype trees tested showed growth while the control trees maintained little or no growth, and a decrease in tree height in sodic soil. If these NBG genotype trees are subjected to a surge of brackish water, NBG genotype bald cypress trees may be used to stabilize soil that may be otherwise subject to coastal erosion.
Zolhizir Daud, Che Abd Rahim Mohamed
Journal of Environmental Protection, Volume 11, pp 421-440; doi:10.4236/jep.2020.115025

Abstract:
Sampling of surface water at seven stations along the Sungai Balok, Pahang was conducted from 2013 to 2015 to investigate the distribution of dissolved rare earth elements (REE) in river systems. The whole concentration of ΣREE in the dissolved phase recorded during this study ranged from 368 to 9121 pmol•L−1 with a mean of 2328 ± 1442 pmol•L−1 that was dominantly influenced by the concentration of Ce ranging from 84 to 3237 pmol•L−1. Similarly, the large ranged value of La/YbN (0.69 - 11.57) might be due to the fluctuating rainfall events during samplings as well as input from lithogenic sources that suggests the influence of monsoon events. The highly significant statistical correlation of Al and Fe (R2 = 0.65; p th January 2014 and 1st November 2014 with 586.5 pmol•cm−2 and 643.4 pmol•cm−2, accordingly. Subsequently, results showed an increasing flux of Ce occurring in the dissolved phase from November 2013 to January 2014 and November 2014 to January 2015, with 39.14 nmol•cm−2•yr−1 and 59.78 nmol•cm−2•yr−1, respectively.
Robert Mendelsohn, Andry Rajaoberison, Jonghyun Yoo
Journal of Environmental Protection, Volume 11, pp 441-456; doi:10.4236/jep.2020.116026

Abstract:
This paper develops a fine-scaled analysis in order to determine the cost and benefit of flood protection using hardened coastal structures within a large coastal segment. The probability distribution of surges and the relative rate of sea level rise are estimated from local tidal data and combined with detailed GIS data of all buildings to compute flood damage. Examining a heterogeneous suburban coastline of 110 km length (Branford, Connecticut), the paper defines a complete set of small segments along the coast between high elevation points. For each segment, the study determines whether the benefit of seawalls exceeds the cost and the optimal height for each wall. The analysis compares a uniform wall across the entire town, a uniform wall across only the low lying parts of the coastline, and a unique wall in each micro segment that maximizes net benefits. The uniform wall across the entire town fails a benefit cost analysis. By simply restricting the wall to the 30% of the coastline that is low lying, the flood benefits begin to exceed the cost of the walls. By carefully identifying just the low lying segments where the benefit exceeds the cost, the overall benefit to cost ratio can be increased to 3 to 1. The optimal flood protection program builds walls along only 10% of the coastline. These optimal micro segments are dispersed throughout the entire town including inland along a coastal river. The optimal elevation of the top of the walls is 2.3 m which is well below the 1/100 year storm height of 3.2 m. The benefit versus cost does not justify protection against rare but locally catastrophic storms such as hurricanes. Sea level rise increases the benefits of protection but plays only a small role in current protection decisions.
Gabriel Etienne Ake, Anowa Evrade Larissa Eba, Louan Odile Ble, Aïchatou Adebayo, Jean Jaurès Assi, Mahaman Bachir Saley, Jean Biemi
Journal of Environmental Protection, Volume 11, pp 470-490; doi:10.4236/jep.2020.116028

Abstract:
The present study aims to delimit protection perimeters around the “Agbo” river in Agboville in order to reduce the risks of pollution of this water resource. The methodological approach consisted first all in assessing the vulnerability of the resource and then in determining the protection perimeters based on the vulnerability map and previous studies. Five parameters (slope, land use, soil type, annual runoff and drainage density) were used. These parameters were then weighted using the Saaty multicriteria analysis method. The vulnerability map reveals four classes (very low, low, medium and high) with a dominance of the low class (41.35% of the area). Three protection perimeters were delineated (immediate, close and remote). The immediate protection perimeter is delimited at a distance of 200 m around the SODECI water intake on the “Agbo” river and covers the areas with a strong influence on the vulnerability to pollution of the river. The closer protection perimeter at a distance of 1000 m, is represented by the zones with strong influence on the vulnerability of the resource and the direction of water flow in the watershed. Finally, the remote protection perimeter covers a large part of the catchment area with a surface area of 510.36 km2 and takes into account the zones that have an influence on the vulnerability to pollution of the resource. These delimited protection perimeters can serve as a guide for the management and protection of the water intake in Agboville as well as for land use planning in this area.
Johnson Kayode Adewumi, John Jiya Musa, Olayemi Johnson Adeosun, Otuaro Ebierin Akpoebidimiyen, Adebola Adekunle, Babafemi Sunday Adewumi
Journal of Environmental Protection, Volume 11, pp 457-469; doi:10.4236/jep.2020.116027

Abstract:
The impact of raindrop on sandy soil was studied using rainfall simulator and natural rainfall to determine average soil detached. Erosion by rainfall is one of the major hazards threatening the productivity of farmlands. This study determined the rate of soil detachment in comparison between natural rainfall and simulated rainfall for effective soil conservation measure. The height of the simulator was varied considering the diameter of the nozzles which were considered during the design stage of the rain simulator. Two plots of dimensions 2 m × 2 m each were cleared with one considered for bare and treated soils for both the natural rainfall and simulated rainfall. Splash cups were installed on each of the plots at half depth of the cup after the clearing of the area at 0.4 m × 0.4 m apart. Two sets of rain gauge were placed at the experimental site to note the volume of natural rainfall on the farm. The average soil detached was analysed using statistical analysis where t-test was also carried out to know the difference in mean. There was a significant difference in the degree of soil detachment between bare and treated soil under natural rainfall experiment; t(18) = 8.917, p η2) = 0.8154) reveals that the nature of soil accounted for 81.5% variance in the average detachment rate. For simulated experiments with a mean value of 7.3360 have higher tendency of detachment than treated soil with a mean value of 4.2240. Size of effect (Eta-square (η2) = 0.630) reveals that the soil types accounted for 63% variance in the average detachment. It was concluded that 40.33% soil was found to be conserved using the cow dungs mixed with bare soil to compact the soil. The nozzle size, simulator height, rainfall intensity and other rainfall parameters all contributed to the amount of average soil detached.
Benjian Mao, Zhiwei Huang, Fantang Zeng, Hongwei Du, Huaiyang Fang, Shu Lin, Yuyu Zhang, Lei Shi
Journal of Environmental Protection, Volume 11, pp 509-530; doi:10.4236/jep.2020.116030

Abstract:
The paper aimed to investigate the concentration variations and evaluate the bioaccumulation as well as the health risk of Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd and Pb in the aquaculture pond ecosystem during a complete breeding cycle. The samples of water, sediment and aquatic organisms were collected from the pond of gull island in the Pearl River Delta, China. In the breeding cycle, the results revealed the metal concentration in the water increased, while the sediment metal concentration showed no significant difference. The heavy metal concentrations in the water were higher than the background values (December 2017) which related to the input of feeds. Sediment metal concentrations (Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, As and Cd) in the sediment were higher than the background values of Guangdong Province, China, indicating these metal pollutions came from anthropogenic activities. While the concentration of Pb was comparable to the background value, implying that the Pb was mainly from the earth crust. In addition, various metals showed different affinity to fish organs (muscle, skin, bladder, gill, heart, kidney and liver). Zinc was abundant in skin, while As and Cd concentrations were highest in kidneys; Cu was accumulated highest in liver; Cr concentrations was highest in hearts; and Ni was mainly found in bladders, and the Pb was most commonly found in gills. The distribution of heavy metals in the tissues organs was in the sequence of: Zn > Cu > Cr > Ni > Pb > As > Cd. As the fish ages, the Cu and Zn concentration in tissue organs declined, while the Cr, Ni, As, Cd and Pb increased slightly. Estimations of health risks showed no evidence of potential threats to consumers.
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