Journal of Environmental Protection

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 21522197 / 21522219
Current Publisher: Scientific Research Publishing, Inc. (10.4236)
Total articles ≅ 1,431
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Daniel Shittu Toyin, Funmilayo Aransiola Elizabeth, Deborah Alabi-Babalola Olajumoke, Toyin Daniel Shittu, Elizabeth Funmilayo Aransiola, Olajumoke Deborah Alabi-Babalola
Journal of Environmental Protection, Volume 11, pp 65-81; doi:10.4236/jep.2020.112006

Abstract:
This study determined the adsorption ability of modified sponge gourd fibre in adsorbing crude oil from simulated oil-water mixture. Modification was done on the adsorbent by treating with hot water and sodium hydroxide. The dependence of the adsorption process on particle size of the fibre was determined using mesh sizes of 4.75, 2.36, 1.18 and 0.85 mm. The hot water treatment significantly increased the adsorbing ability of the sponge gourd, removing 83.3% of the crude oil from the mixture, alkaline treated sample removed 45.1% and the raw sample removed 22.9%. The result of the SEM images shows that hot water treated sample has more pores on the surface which influenced the better performance. The FTIR results obtained after the adsorption show the successful adsorption of crude oil on to the surface of the sponge gourd due to the presence of functional groups characteristics of groups found in crude oil. An optimum particle size for the sponge gourd was found to exist at the value of 1.18 mm, above and below which the crude oil removed was reduced. The modification of sponge gourd promoted the adsorption capacity for crude oil.
Ronald Dikole, Moatlhodi Wise Letshwenyo
Journal of Environmental Protection, Volume 11, pp 110-123; doi:10.4236/jep.2020.112008

Abstract:
The purpose of this case study was to conduct a case study in the generation rate, composition, and characterise solid wastes from low, middle and high income households during weekdays and weekends in Palapye, Botswana. The study was conducted through sampling and analysis of the wastes from sampled households from each of the three categories. Palapye village does not have an engineered solid waste management system in place; hence the study can be used as a starting point. The village is rapidly urbanising with many shopping complexes coming up which will generate high amounts of solid wastes of different compositions. The lowest generation rate was 0.038 kg/capita/day from low income households during weekends and the highest was 0.364 kg/capita/day generated from high income households during weekends. The composition of the wastes was dominated by food wastes ranging from 46.44% to 80.78% with low income households generating the highest percentage during weekdays. The average moisture contents of samples from low, middle and high income households were 71% ± 0.0%, 66.3% ± 1.25% and 74.3% ± 2.2% respectively during weekdays compared to 77% ± 0.0%, 66.5% ± 3.5% and 69.3% ± 3.3% during weekends. The average moisture contents from low, middle and high income households were 71% ± 0.0%, 66.3% ± 1.25% and 74.3% ± 2.2% respectively during weekdays compared to 77% ± 0.0%, 66.5% ± 3.5% and 69.3% ± 3.3% during weekends. The results can be used as part of the waste management planning purpose by the Administrative Council of the area.
Nguyen Thi Minh Phuong, Nguyen Van Song, Tran Xuan Quang
Journal of Environmental Protection, Volume 11, pp 124-151; doi:10.4236/jep.2020.112009

Abstract:
Community-based tourism (CBT) is considered as one of the typical types of tourism towards sustainable development with three important goals such as bringing back economic benefits, protecting natural environment and preserving indigenous cultural values. Therefore, this paper analyzes the factors that affect community ecotourism development associated with environmental protection in emerging economies, including Vietnam, by the method of key and community tourism potential value assessment with 721 sample surveys. In this paper, we have applied to assess the key factors of tourism in Vietnam and other key points to have more comprehensive solutions to promote the development of community-based tourism with environmental protection. The article has used guest-based approach and method of assessing the key success factors. The results of researching factors to develop community tourist (impacting tourist community needs of tourists) by running Logit function have shown the great influence of factors such as: environmental protection (influence factor +3.585780, with a statistical significance of 99%), security and safety (+3.024816—statistical significance 99%) followed by infrastructure conditions & facilities for the community based tourism, the level of information etc… for your community based tourism needs. From the research results, we propose the following policy groups: 1) Developing guidelines for CBT, the first step as a basis for the development of community based tourism laws later; 2) Policies related to the implementation of planning, development of key community tourist areas and destinations; 3) Policies related to the development of community-based tourism associated with the protection of natural and cultural environments; 4) Policies related to tourism management; coordinating monitoring of community tourism resource points; policies related to the local community in community tourism development; 5) Policies related to human resource development; promotion work; developing community based tourism products.
Boluwatife Olusegun Osikanmi, Mohammed Mustapha, Mynepalli Kameswara Chandra Sridhar, Akinwale Oladotun Coker
Journal of Environmental Protection, Volume 11, pp 48-63; doi:10.4236/jep.2020.111005

Abstract:
Provision of quality drinking water is paramount for sustaining good public health in urban residents. Packaged water produced and consumed across cities in Nigeria lacks integrity in protecting Health. Water safety plan based on hazard identification and risk assessment in each component of the water production system is essential in providing quality water by packaged water producing companies in Nigeria. This study aims at developing water safety plan for selected packaged water manufacturing companies in Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria. Hazard identification and risk assessment were carried out based on site inspection studies, key informant interview, questionnaire survey and water sample analysis, and risk analysis using semi-quantitative risk matrix approach. The results revealed a total of 26 possible hazardous events which may compromise water quality such as on-site septic tanks and effluents discharged at source water and improper maintenance and hygiene practices within the system. Based on these, appropriate mitigation and monitoring plans were drawn for action. The research found that water safety plan is feasible for the packaged water systems, and therefore calls on the relevant stakeholders for urgent implementation towards ensuring clean drinking water and protecting public health as more and more people are opting for packaged waters due to uncertain public water safety.
John Jiya Musa, Otuaro Ebierni Akpoebidimiyen, Mohammed Tanimu Musa, Pius Olusegun Olufemi Dada, Elijah Tsado Musa
Journal of Environmental Protection, Volume 11, pp 22-33; doi:10.4236/jep.2020.111003

Abstract:
The research work was carried out in Igabi Local Government of Kaduna State. Thirty water samples from boreholes were randomly collected within the major towns in November to April (Dry), and May to October (Rainy season). The samples were analyzed for physical, chemical, and bacteriological parameters and to observe any changes in the groundwater quality of the area. Analysis of variance (ANOVA), Pearson Correlation were performed on the data obtained using SPSS 10.0 for a window for significant variations and inter-element relationship. High mean turbidity was recorded in boreholes in Danfili (12.2 NTU), Kwarau (6.2 NTU). Mean turbidity of 4.3 NTU was recorded in Dry season for wells with Rigachikun having 5.1 NTU. It was observed that a negative correlation exists between well depth and heavy metal concentration. There was also a linear relationship of 0.686 between well distance and nitrate (faecal contaminant). Mean value for Fluoride (0.22 mg/l), Sodium (20.78 mg/l), Calcium (15.7 mg/l), Iron (0.013 mg/l), Nitrate (3.69 mg/l), Cadmium (0.00102 mg/l) Chloride (22.107 mg/l) recorded for sampled wells were all within WHO standard. A high value of 24 mg/l and 25 mg/l for Nitrate was recorded in Saminaka Road and Danfili. An indication of contamination during the rainy season indicates surface-groundwater intrusion (influx). The results of the bacteriological analysis indicated that most wells sampled have a range of 1 cfu/100 ml to 7 cfu/100 ml with Danfili Mani having the highest value (7 cfu/100 ml) which make it unsaved (not Potable).
Manal G. Mahmoud, Ehsan Abu El-Khir, Mahmoud H. Ebeid, Laila A. Mohamed, Mamdouh A. Fahmy, Kholoud S. Shaban
Journal of Environmental Protection, Volume 11, pp 34-47; doi:10.4236/jep.2020.111004

Abstract:
The present study focused on water quality assessment of 14 hotspot locations in the Gulf of Suez by measuring the physicochemical parameters seasonally during 2016. The results of investigated area revealed that, the annual mean range of water was: temperature (21.91°C - 29.22°C), pH (7.64 - 7.78), salinity (38.71‰ - 42.74‰), dissolved oxygen (6.09 - 8.78 mgO2/l,) oxidizable organic matter (1.4 - 5.4 mg/l), biological oxygen demand (1.14 - 3.94 mgO2/l), total suspended solids (18.56 - 37.69 mg/l), ammonia (13.51 - 494.41 μg/l), nitrite (1.261 - 151.76 μg/l), nitrate (7.11 - 487.85), dissolved inorganic phosphate (2.22 - 53.26) and silicate (19.83 - 347.61 μg/l). The N:P ratio fluctuated between 4.21 and 1214.61 with the main value of 81.16 indicating that the different sites in the northern part of the Gulf of Suez are P-limited. Based on the Principal Component Analysis Data, the stations locating in the Northern and Southern side of the Gulf of Suez are relatively good water quality; meanwhile, water quality of the other stations locating in the northern side of the Gulf of Suez is found slightly polluted to a different degree co-incided with an increase in the human activities in each of these locations.
Indra Sen Singh, Elasto Nsokolo
Journal of Environmental Protection, Volume 11, pp 13-21; doi:10.4236/jep.2020.111002

Abstract:
The food contamination is a critical public health concern at the global level. The aflatoxins are considerable food contaminants and health menace to a sizable world population. Aflatoxins originate from fungi as their toxic secondary metabolites. This study aimed to probe the contamination level of aflatoxins in smoked-dried fish and the extent of the threat it might pose on human health. The study considered five of the regularly consumed species of smoked-dried fish. The study also considered two species of fresh fish. The investigation was carried out using VICAM Series-4EX Fluorometer. The Buka fish sample had the lowest concentration of 1.3 ppb for total aflatoxins, and Bream fish was analyzed to have the highest as 3.84 ppb. As such, the total aflatoxin concentration in this study was found to be between 1.3 and 3.84 ppb. These concentrations can be considered to be a matter of concern. Prolonged intake of the aflatoxins in this range may result in a health hazard to humans. As expected, there was no trace of aflatoxins detected in fresh fish samples.
Jing Sun, Ali Cheshmehzangi, Sisi Wang
Journal of Environmental Protection, Volume 11, pp 82-109; doi:10.4236/jep.2020.112007

Abstract:
In recent years, the Sponge City program (SCP) of China, as a sustainable stormwater management approach, has been strengthened as a national strategic level program. The Green Infrastructure (GI), due to its multi-objective and multi-benefits, has been adopted as an important measure of this new nationwide initiative. However, there is a lack of a comprehensive quantitative evaluation system for neighbourhood scale SCP. Hence, in the process of GI plan optimization, selection of implementation methods to balance its multi-benefits has become one of the key obstacles in the practice of SCP. To support robust decision making on multi-objective GI planning and comprehensive assessment, the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) has been used as a structural and systematic technique. In addition, a set of sustainability key performance indicators (KPIs) including requisite dimensions is the foundation for neighbourhood scale sustainability. Hence, AHP-based evaluation system including selection, weighting and ranking of the KPIs, is defined as a key performance indicator framework (KPIF), which is still in need for further development. Taking the GI planning for the Liangnong, Siming Lake sponge node restoration as an example, this paper develops KPIF with a comprehensive evaluation system for high-quality “Sponge Node” transitional construction. This KPIF consists of three basic criteria: “Environmental Performance”, “Economic and Adaptability Performance”, and “Social-cultural Performance and Wellbeing Performance”. In addition, 15 weighted KPIs are concluded and amongst them, the followings were relatively high: weight of the ATRCR, the promotion of biodiversity, the construction cost saving, the maintenance cost saving, and the level of recreational and wellbeing improvements for all people. In addition, the developed KPIF provides a reference for similar program’s decision-making, not only for the Jiangnan area of China, but also for quantitatively comprehensive evaluations of SCP in other regions.
Indra S. Singh, Christopher Nyau
Journal of Environmental Protection, Volume 11, pp 1-12; doi:10.4236/jep.2020.111001

Abstract:
The mushrooms are highly regarded as one of the most nutritious foods across the globe but also recognized bio-accumulators of heavy metals. The nature and level of industrial activities are continually changing and affecting the environment adversely. The mushrooms are not an exception and may inevitably have heavy metal contaminations. In this vein, this study aimed to determine heavy metal (Cu, Ni, Co, Zn, Pb, and Cd) uptake levels in wild edible mushrooms from the sites with different economic activities. The wild mushrooms considered for this study included Tente (Amanita Zambiana), Ichikolowa (Termitomyces Titaniscus), and Kabansa (Lactarius Tataniscus). The analysis of heavy metal concentration was carried out using atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). For the selected mushrooms, concentration ranges (mg·kg-1 total dry weight (dw)) of 46.90 - 141.80 for Cu, 0.10 - 6.60 for Cd, 1.10 - 2.00 for Pb, 19.00 - 38.90 for Zn, 1.00 - 3.40 for Ni, and 44.80 - 79.70 for Co were obtained. However, for the respective soil samples, concentration ranges (mg·kg-1·dw) of 51.00 - 279.40 for Cu, 1.00 - 99.50 for Cd, 8.00 - 10.00 for Pb, 22.80 - 209.10 for Zn, 9.00 - 33.70 for Ni, and 60.00 - 111.90 for Co were obtained. To a certain degree, the concentrations reflected the impact of diversity in the surrounding activities. This study discovered that for the selected mushrooms, the contamination level of cadmium, cobalt, nickel, and copper exceeded the World Health Organization (WHO)/FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization) recommended limits. Although some minor aberrations from the prescribed limits were also observed in the case of copper and nickel. Further, the data established that the heavy metal concentrations in respective soils are not the sole determinant of concentrations in mushrooms. Thus, these findings merit attention as, in some cases, the extent of contamination has exceeded the WHO permissible limit, and it may pose a health risk to consumers.
J. Khan A., Bari A., A. Torres M., K. Haines D., J. Hoffman T., M. Semkow T., A. J. Khan, A. Bari, M. A. Torres, D. K. Haines, et al.
Journal of Environmental Protection, Volume 11, pp 257-268; doi:10.4236/jep.2020.114015

Abstract:
The Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) mandates that the drinking water should be monitored for 226Ra and 228Ra isotopes and establishes the Maximum Contaminant Level of 185 mBq/L (5 pCi·L-1) for the sum. In addition, SDWA regulates the Detection Limit (DL) of 37.0 mBq/L (1 pCi/L) for each isotope. The purpose of this work is to develop a working method for the determination of radium isotopes in drinking water satisfying the regulatory requirements of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency by utilizing our extensive experience in low-background gamma spectrometry at this laboratory. Two versions of the method were studied: destructive and non-destructive. Destructive method used the BaSO4 coprecipitation as well as 133Ba tracer for chemical recovery. We have used three gamma spectrometers: low-background 102% and 134% efficient with top muon guards, as well as an ultralow-background 140% efficient with full muon guard. We obtained a range of DLs from 5.3 to 22.6 mBq/L for 226Ra and from 7.4 to 30.4 mBq/L for 228Ra using the destructive method. For non-destructive method, the DL range was 26.0 to 26.9 mBq/L for 226Ra and 27.6 to 28.6 mBq/L for 228Ra using the 140% detector. To verify the methods, 7 to 10 laboratory control samples were spiked with both 226Ra and 228Ra at two different activities of 37.0 and 185 mBq/L. The results were evaluated by performing a combined location/variance chi-square test at a right-tail significance of 0.01 (99% Confidence Level), as stipulated by EPA. The verification results passed the chi-square tests at both activity levels. The destructive method can be accomplished using low-background gamma spectrometry, whereas non-destructive method requires ultralow-background gamma spectrometry.