Journal of Environmental Protection

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2152-2197 / 2152-2219
Published by: Scientific Research Publishing, Inc. (10.4236)
Total articles ≅ 1,586
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Abdulrasheed Abidemi Adio, Abiola Omolewa Saliu, Mariam Abiola Akanbi-Gada, Bolaji Abiodun Najeemdeen
Journal of Environmental Protection, Volume 13, pp 220-232; https://doi.org/10.4236/jep.2022.132014

Abstract:
Charcoal production is a major economic activity in rural Kwara State, North-Central Nigeria. Given that it generally involves the use of traditional earth kilns, this study was designed to investigate the effects of charcoal production on the physical and chemical properties of soil. Replicate soil core samples were collected within a depth of 0 - 20 cm from 19 charcoal kiln sites (CKS) and 19 adjacent control sites (ACS) across five administrative districts in the study area. These samples were subjected to laboratory analysis to determine their physical and chemical qualities and then t-test was used to statistically compare the CKS and ACS soils. There was no significant difference in soil texture between both sites. However, CKS soil pH and electrical conductivity significantly increased (p 0.05) due to charred biomass introduced to soils by the process of charcoal production. The CKS cation exchange capacity, Ca and Mg increased significantly (p < 0.0001) by 40.11%, 57.15% and 89.16%, respectively. Charcoal production significantly reduced Fe by 28.54%, while the concentration of other heavy metals remained similar between both sites. The findings showed that charcoal production using traditional earth kilns improves soil physical and chemical properties for agriculture purposes. However, further studies are suggested to understand its effects on vegetation cover and soil biota.
Lucio Laureti, Alberto Costantiello, Angelo Leogrande
Journal of Environmental Protection, Volume 13, pp 299-314; https://doi.org/10.4236/jep.2022.134019

Abstract:
In the following article, the “Satisfaction with the Environmental Condition” in the 20 Italian regions between 2004 and 2020 was estimated using ISTAT-BES data. The data were analyzed using the following econometric techniques, namely: Panel Data with Random Effects, Panel Data with Fixed Effects, Dynamic Panel, Pooled OLS, WLS. The results show that satisfaction with the environmental situation is positively associated with the following variables “People with at least high school diploma”, “Satisfaction with leisure time”, “Concern for the deterioration of the landscape” and negatively associated with “Gross disposable income per capita”, “Dissatisfaction with the landscape of the place of life”, “Perception of the risk of crime”. A cluster analysis was then carried out using the unsupervised k-Means algorithm optimized through the Silhouette coefficient and 3 clusters were found. A comparative analysis was then carried out between eight different machine learning algorithms to predict the trend of satisfaction by environmental situation. The analysis showed that the Tree Ensemble Regression algorithm is the best predictor and estimates a reduction of the variable of 0.05%. Subsequently, using augmented data, a further prediction was made with an estimated result equal to -1.93%.
Asime Oba, Barka John, Jamilu Garba, Asitonka James Oba, Kwata Veronica John, Stephen Bitrus Balami, Okeke Uchechukwu, Jasini Athanda Musa, Anthony Ofili
Journal of Environmental Protection, Volume 13, pp 449-458; https://doi.org/10.4236/jep.2022.136029

Abstract:
This study was designed and carried out to characterize hydrocarbonoclastic microbial communities in soil polluted with artisanal refined hydrocarbon at Trans Amadi, Phalga Local Government Area of Rivers State, Nigeria. Heterotrophic bacteria count ranged from 8.0 × 105 cfu/gm for sample TSAS1, and 2.1 × 106 cfu/gm for sample TSAS2 while TSAS3 was too numerous to count (TNTC). Hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria count ranged from 1.1 × 105 cfu/gm for TSAS1, and 5.9 × 104 cfu/gm for TSAS2, while TSAS3 was 5.4 × 104 cfu/gm. Physiochemical parameters of the soil were determined. The ranges obtained were pH 6.6, conductivity 125 μs/cm, temperature 27.3°C, moisture 7.72, total nitrogen 0.056%, phosphate 1.554 ppm, potassium 145.87 ppm, lead 7.02 ppm, cadmium 0.41 ppm, nickel 1.96 ppm, copper 1.14 ppm, total petroleum hydrocarbon 1487.24181 ppm, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon 12.85287 ppm. Isolates of hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria characterized belonged to the genera Escherichia coli, Klebsiella sp., Lactobacillus sp., Enterobacter sp., Serratia sp., and Proteus sp. The findings in this study have revealed the abilities of these groups of bacteria to be employed in bioremediation/biodegradation clean-up practices. Thus the polluted soil may harbour important genera of bacterial species that may have beneficial applications in environmental microbiology for future remediation processes.
Alloman Joseph Popouen, Abdelfettah Benchrif, Ponaho Claude Kezo, Djama Djoman Alfred Agbo, Aka Antonin Koua, Moussa Bounakhla, Alain Georges Monnehan
Journal of Environmental Protection, Volume 13, pp 385-397; https://doi.org/10.4236/jep.2022.136024

Abstract:
This paper describes the evaluation of trace element composition of atmospheric aerosol particles (PM2.5 and PM10) and their influence on air quality in the largest industrial area of Abidjan city, Côte d’Ivoire. Multi-week sampling was conducted in an urban site (industrial area) in Abidjan from April 2018 to July 2019. The mean mass concentration was 48.83 ± 15.24 μg/m3 for PM2.5 and 77.34 ± 10.91 μg/m3 for PM10, with significant temporal variability. The average ratio of PM2.5/PM10 was 0.64 ± 0.21. The concentration of BC in PM2.5 and PM10 was respectively 52.32 ± 7.48 μg/m3 and 52.26 ± 12.07 μg/m3. Twenty-two elements: Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr, Zr and Pb were analysed by Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF). Elemental composition data were modeled using principal component analysis (PCA) with varimax rotation to determine two (2) and four (4) dominant source categories contributing to PM2.5 and PM10 respectively. In the case of fine particles PM2.5, the possible sources were Industrial activities and non-exhaust emissions, exhaust emissions. The PM10 sources were industrial activities and non-exhaust emissions, industrial processes, mineral dust, and waste combustion.
Taku Sylvie Nteping, Mofor Nelson Alakeh, Njoyim Estella Buleng Tamungang, Tita Margaret Awah
Journal of Environmental Protection, Volume 13, pp 331-343; https://doi.org/10.4236/jep.2022.135021

Abstract:
The increased use of pesticides in crop production, especially in Santa, has left consumers with great fear and uncertainty regarding the fate of residues after consumption in the human body. This study was aimed at performing a multi-residue analysis of crop samples to detect and quantify pesticide residues present, and thus determine their level of contamination. Twelve (12) crop samples (4 samples each of Solanum tuberosum (Irish potato), Solanum lycopersicum (tomato), Capsicum annum (sweet pepper) and Apium graveolens (celery)), were randomly collected from four villages in Santa. The samples were analyzed using the QuEChERS Buffered AOAC 2007.01 method. The results showed the presence of pesticide residues in 58.3% of the samples. Cypermethrin and chlorpyrifos insecticides were detected, though cypermethrin was found in traces. After quantification, the concentration of chlorpyrifos was determined to be far above the CODEX Maximum Residue Limits (MRLs) in 28.6% of the samples. Samples with this high concentration of chlorpyrifos were: tomato from Pinyin and Baligham (2.0 and 1.8 μg/g respectively), whereas the Codex MRLs for tomato is 1.0 μg/g. This study raised concerns on the contamination of some garden crops by pesticide residues and calls for the assessment of the health situation of consumers and the analysis of pesticide residues in drinking water resources in this area.
Jenny Zhang, Danqing Yuan
Journal of Environmental Protection, Volume 13, pp 527-538; https://doi.org/10.4236/jep.2022.137033

Abstract:
The pathogen plays an important role in spreading infection and bad impact on the public health of the river. Therefore, water quality as a model is used to simulate the spreading and fate of the pathogen in Lijiang River, it is located in Lijiang City, Yunnan Province, China (100°25'E, 26°86'N). Even at low bacterial levels, there is a risk of pathogens in the Lijiang River ecosystem. The water quality model results showed that the spatiotemporal (space and time) migration of pathogenic bacteria in Lijiang River from 2005 to 2015 was quantitatively revealed by the model simulation. The simulation results also showed that the transports of pathogenic bacteria in Lijiang River are extremely sensitive to the speed distribution and seasonal temperature characteristics. The study found that the rising water temperature in spring leads to a sharp rise in the concentration of pathogenic bacteria. When the water temperature is low in winter, the simulated pathogenic bacteria are relatively stable, which is lower than the concentration of pathogenic bacteria at high temperature. If the spring water temperature rises, the flow rate increases, the concentration of pathogenic bacteria accordingly increases. This research recommends the development of best management practices to control microbial growth in river basins.
Halidou Alassane Hado, Adamou Mahaman Moustapha, Guillaume Favreau, Karmadine Hima, Ibrahim Dan Dano, Abdourhamane Amadou Toure, Nafissa Saidou
Journal of Environmental Protection, Volume 13, pp 459-489; https://doi.org/10.4236/jep.2022.137030

Abstract:
The Gounti Yéna valley is the main watercourse that divides the left bank of the city of Niamey into two unequal parts. The area of its watershed is estimated at about 62 km2. The objective of this study is on the one hand to evaluate the current state of the physico-chemical and bacteriological quality of the water of the Gounti Yéna basin and on the other hand to define the risks of water pollution and its origin in the face of the phenomenon of the rise in the water table of this basin by defining some health risks linked to these impacts. In order to properly carry out this work, we carried out a study of the evolution of the physicochemical and bacteriological parameters of the water of the Gounti Yéna basin during the period from November 2020 to October 2021, at three sampling points chosen from upstream to downstream of the basin then entomological surveys and among the health centers of the capital. The results obtained showed that the physico-chemical quality of water in the Gounti Yéna basin is influenced by climatic factors (precipitation and temperature) and anthropogenic actions. This study also highlighted the presence of faecal contamination in the water of the Gounti Yéna basin with a greater degree during the rainy season. This contamination remains worrying and constitutes a health risk causing waterborne diseases. The stagnation of the various bodies of water is also a favorable place for the development and spread of vector-borne diseases.
Alexander A. Tyovenda, John A. Ocheje, Sombo Terver, Effiong U. Uttah
Journal of Environmental Protection, Volume 13, pp 1-14; https://doi.org/10.4236/jep.2022.131001

Abstract:
The activity concentrations of radionuclides, absorbed dose rate, excess lifetime cancer risk, and soil-to-plant transfer factor have been evaluated in soil and crop samples from Jalingo and Wukari Local Government Area of Taraba State, Nigeria. The activity concentrations were determined with the aid of High Purity Germanium detector. The absorbed dose and excess lifetime cancer risk were evaluated and forecasted for 60 years using the ResRad off-site model. The average activity concentration of 40K, 232Th, and 238U in the soil samples were 633.13, 141.15, and 71.20 Bq·kg-1 respectively, for the Jalingo study area, and while that of the Wukari study area was; 199.21, 87.23, and 25.37 Bq·kg-1 respectively. The average soil-to-plant transfer factors for 40K, 232Th, and 238U were 0.51, 0.10, and 0.27 respectively for the Jalingo study area while that of Wukari are 0.40, 0.57, and 0.74 respectively. The mean annual effective dose equivalent for the study area is higher than the world average of 0.07 mS·vy-1. The excess lifetime cancer risk for the study areas has values that are higher than the safety limit. The ResRed model showed that direct radiation from the crops is the major contributor to excess cancer risk among other pathways. The radiological hazard indices reveal health risks to farmers, especially in the Jalingo area.
Ying-Yang Li, Che-Ya Wu, Tzu-Ying Lin, Jenq-Gong Duh
Journal of Environmental Protection, Volume 13, pp 150-160; https://doi.org/10.4236/jep.2022.131009

Abstract:
Silicon (Si) is regarded as a promising material for lithium-ion battery anode because of high theoretical capacity. Nevertheless, Si faces particle pulverization and rapid capacity fading due to serious volume change during the lithiation and the delithiation process. In this work, a silicon/carbon composite constituted to Si powder and carbon nanofiber (CNF) is produced to solve the above issues as a new design structure of anode material. The Si powder was recycled from the silicon slicing waste in photovoltaic industry and the CNF was from dry rice straws. By mixing the purified Si powder with CNF, the composite was synthesized by the freeze-drying method and calcination. In the cyclic test, Si adding with 1 wt% CNF showed 3091 mAh/g capacity in the first cycle and 1079 mAh/g capacity after 100 cycles at the current density of 0.5 A/g, which were both better than pristine Si. SEM images also show the composite structure can eliminate cracks on the surface of the electrode during cycling. CNF attaching on Si particles can increase specific surface area, so binder can easily combine the active materials and the conductive materials together. This strategy enhances the structure stability and prevents the electrode from delamination.
Rakib Ahmed Chowdhury, Nwadiuto Esiobu, Daniel E. Meeroff, Fred Bloetscher
Journal of Environmental Protection, Volume 13, pp 126-149; https://doi.org/10.4236/jep.2022.131008

Abstract:
Entamoeba histolytica is an anaerobic parasitic protozoan and well known as a human pathogen, while its close relative, Entamoeba dispar, also possesses similar characteristics as an infectious agent. These microorganisms are generally transmitted in fecal-contaminated water. However, E. dispar present in industrial wastewater is also capable of creating biofilms that can cause adverse impacts in piping networks. Therefore, it is important to detect both of these protozoan species in water and to find a cost-effective technique for inactivation or management control. This review article summarizes the available detection methods in water and wastewater matrices along with feasible disinfection techniques.
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