Journal of Environmental Protection

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 21522197 / 21522219
Current Publisher: Scientific Research Publishing, Inc, (10.4236)
Total articles ≅ 1,415
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Boluwatife Olusegun Osikanmi, Mohammed Mustapha, Mynepalli Kameswara Chandra Sridhar, Akinwale Oladotun Coker
Journal of Environmental Protection, Volume 11, pp 48-63; doi:10.4236/jep.2020.111005

Abstract:Provision of quality drinking water is paramount for sustaining good public health in urban residents. Packaged water produced and consumed across cities in Nigeria lacks integrity in protecting Health. Water safety plan based on hazard identification and risk assessment in each component of the water production system is essential in providing quality water by packaged water producing companies in Nigeria. This study aims at developing water safety plan for selected packaged water manufacturing companies in Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria. Hazard identification and risk assessment were carried out based on site inspection studies, key informant interview, questionnaire survey and water sample analysis, and risk analysis using semi-quantitative risk matrix approach. The results revealed a total of 26 possible hazardous events which may compromise water quality such as on-site septic tanks and effluents discharged at source water and improper maintenance and hygiene practices within the system. Based on these, appropriate mitigation and monitoring plans were drawn for action. The research found that water safety plan is feasible for the packaged water systems, and therefore calls on the relevant stakeholders for urgent implementation towards ensuring clean drinking water and protecting public health as more and more people are opting for packaged waters due to uncertain public water safety.
Indra S. Singh, Christopher Nyau
Journal of Environmental Protection, Volume 11, pp 1-12; doi:10.4236/jep.2020.111001

Abstract:The mushrooms are highly regarded as one of the most nutritious foods across the globe but also recognized bio-accumulators of heavy metals. The nature and level of industrial activities are continually changing and affecting the environment adversely. The mushrooms are not an exception and may inevitably have heavy metal contaminations. In this vein, this study aimed to determine heavy metal (Cu, Ni, Co, Zn, Pb, and Cd) uptake levels in wild edible mushrooms from the sites with different economic activities. The wild mushrooms considered for this study included Tente (Amanita Zambiana), Ichikolowa (Termitomyces Titaniscus), and Kabansa (Lactarius Tataniscus). The analysis of heavy metal concentration was carried out using atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). For the selected mushrooms, concentration ranges (mg·kg-1 total dry weight (dw)) of 46.90 - 141.80 for Cu, 0.10 - 6.60 for Cd, 1.10 - 2.00 for Pb, 19.00 - 38.90 for Zn, 1.00 - 3.40 for Ni, and 44.80 - 79.70 for Co were obtained. However, for the respective soil samples, concentration ranges (mg·kg-1·dw) of 51.00 - 279.40 for Cu, 1.00 - 99.50 for Cd, 8.00 - 10.00 for Pb, 22.80 - 209.10 for Zn, 9.00 - 33.70 for Ni, and 60.00 - 111.90 for Co were obtained. To a certain degree, the concentrations reflected the impact of diversity in the surrounding activities. This study discovered that for the selected mushrooms, the contamination level of cadmium, cobalt, nickel, and copper exceeded the World Health Organization (WHO)/FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization) recommended limits. Although some minor aberrations from the prescribed limits were also observed in the case of copper and nickel. Further, the data established that the heavy metal concentrations in respective soils are not the sole determinant of concentrations in mushrooms. Thus, these findings merit attention as, in some cases, the extent of contamination has exceeded the WHO permissible limit, and it may pose a health risk to consumers.
Indra Sen Singh, Elasto Nsokolo
Journal of Environmental Protection, Volume 11, pp 13-21; doi:10.4236/jep.2020.111002

Abstract:The food contamination is a critical public health concern at the global level. The aflatoxins are considerable food contaminants and health menace to a sizable world population. Aflatoxins originate from fungi as their toxic secondary metabolites. This study aimed to probe the contamination level of aflatoxins in smoked-dried fish and the extent of the threat it might pose on human health. The study considered five of the regularly consumed species of smoked-dried fish. The study also considered two species of fresh fish. The investigation was carried out using VICAM Series-4EX Fluorometer. The Buka fish sample had the lowest concentration of 1.3 ppb for total aflatoxins, and Bream fish was analyzed to have the highest as 3.84 ppb. As such, the total aflatoxin concentration in this study was found to be between 1.3 and 3.84 ppb. These concentrations can be considered to be a matter of concern. Prolonged intake of the aflatoxins in this range may result in a health hazard to humans. As expected, there was no trace of aflatoxins detected in fresh fish samples.
John Jiya Musa, Otuaro Ebierni Akpoebidimiyen, Mohammed Tanimu Musa, Pius Olusegun Olufemi Dada, Elijah Tsado Musa
Journal of Environmental Protection, Volume 11, pp 22-33; doi:10.4236/jep.2020.111003

Abstract:The research work was carried out in Igabi Local Government of Kaduna State. Thirty water samples from boreholes were randomly collected within the major towns in November to April (Dry), and May to October (Rainy season). The samples were analyzed for physical, chemical, and bacteriological parameters and to observe any changes in the groundwater quality of the area. Analysis of variance (ANOVA), Pearson Correlation were performed on the data obtained using SPSS 10.0 for a window for significant variations and inter-element relationship. High mean turbidity was recorded in boreholes in Danfili (12.2 NTU), Kwarau (6.2 NTU). Mean turbidity of 4.3 NTU was recorded in Dry season for wells with Rigachikun having 5.1 NTU. It was observed that a negative correlation exists between well depth and heavy metal concentration. There was also a linear relationship of 0.686 between well distance and nitrate (faecal contaminant). Mean value for Fluoride (0.22 mg/l), Sodium (20.78 mg/l), Calcium (15.7 mg/l), Iron (0.013 mg/l), Nitrate (3.69 mg/l), Cadmium (0.00102 mg/l) Chloride (22.107 mg/l) recorded for sampled wells were all within WHO standard. A high value of 24 mg/l and 25 mg/l for Nitrate was recorded in Saminaka Road and Danfili. An indication of contamination during the rainy season indicates surface-groundwater intrusion (influx). The results of the bacteriological analysis indicated that most wells sampled have a range of 1 cfu/100 ml to 7 cfu/100 ml with Danfili Mani having the highest value (7 cfu/100 ml) which make it unsaved (not Potable).
Manal G. Mahmoud, Ehsan Abu El-Khir, Mahmoud H. Ebeid, Laila A. Mohamed, Mamdouh A. Fahmy, Kholoud S. Shaban
Journal of Environmental Protection, Volume 11, pp 34-47; doi:10.4236/jep.2020.111004

Abstract:The present study focused on water quality assessment of 14 hotspot locations in the Gulf of Suez by measuring the physicochemical parameters seasonally during 2016. The results of investigated area revealed that, the annual mean range of water was: temperature (21.91°C - 29.22°C), pH (7.64 - 7.78), salinity (38.71‰ - 42.74‰), dissolved oxygen (6.09 - 8.78 mgO2/l,) oxidizable organic matter (1.4 - 5.4 mg/l), biological oxygen demand (1.14 - 3.94 mgO2/l), total suspended solids (18.56 - 37.69 mg/l), ammonia (13.51 - 494.41 μg/l), nitrite (1.261 - 151.76 μg/l), nitrate (7.11 - 487.85), dissolved inorganic phosphate (2.22 - 53.26) and silicate (19.83 - 347.61 μg/l). The N:P ratio fluctuated between 4.21 and 1214.61 with the main value of 81.16 indicating that the different sites in the northern part of the Gulf of Suez are P-limited. Based on the Principal Component Analysis Data, the stations locating in the Northern and Southern side of the Gulf of Suez are relatively good water quality; meanwhile, water quality of the other stations locating in the northern side of the Gulf of Suez is found slightly polluted to a different degree co-incided with an increase in the human activities in each of these locations.
Obenne Pearl Gopolang, Moatlhodi Wise Letshwenyo
Journal of Environmental Protection, Volume 10, pp 993-1005; doi:10.4236/jep.2019.108059

Romaric K. Lalèyè, Hyppolite Agadjihouèdé, Antoine Chikou, Hamed Adjagbo, Crépin Assogba, Djiman Lédéroun, Philippe A. Lalèyè
Journal of Environmental Protection, Volume 10, pp 473-487; doi:10.4236/jep.2019.104027

Hussein Hayicho, Mersha Alemu, Haji Kedir
Journal of Environmental Protection, Volume 10, pp 672-693; doi:10.4236/jep.2019.105040

Abstract:This study was conducted in Melka Wakena catchment; south eastern Ethiopia to assess land use/cover change (LULCC) and topographic elevation effect on selected soil quality/fertility parameters. 144 soil samples collected from 0 - 30 cm depth under three land cover types across three elevation gradients were analysed for selected soil quality/fertility parameters. Data were statistically analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and mean comparisons were made using Least Significant Difference (LSD). The soil properties examined generally showed significant variations with respect to land-use/land cover changes and elevation. Soil particles, soil organic carbon, total N, pH, available phosphorus, potassium and calcium content significantly decreased as forestland is converted into cropland/grassland. Heaviest soil deterioration was recorded in soils under cropland and followed by grassland soils. The conversion of natural forest to different land uses without proper soil conservation and management practices resulted in the overall decline of soil fertility quality. Thus, integrated land resource management approach is indispensable for sustaining agricultural productivity and the environmental health of the Melka Waken a catchment.
Daewuk Kim, Kyungsu Son, Sanghun Baek, Eungho Jung
Journal of Environmental Protection, Volume 10, pp 1391-1406; doi:10.4236/jep.2019.1011082

Abstract:This study is intended to recognize the importance of cold-wind, which is one of the solutions to improve urban amenity, and verify the model that can analyze creation and flow of cold-wind. For this reason, KLAM_21 Model, which was developed by the German’s Meteorological Service, was selected and used for assessment of cold-wind creation and flow. As a result, the followings have been drawn through comparison with measured data and simulated data in the study area; for a mountain area, the simulation result of velocity and direction of wind has been indicated as similar as those in measured data. For a stream area in the city, only wind direction from simulation has been consistent with measured data whereas wind velocity showed a large difference between measurement and simulation. Finally, for the downtown area, wind velocity has shown a lot of differences between simulation result and measured data. Wind direction has also shown a large difference until midnight. But after midnight, model data have become similar as measured data. According to the verification of this study, the model used in this study for using urban-amenity improvement through assessment of creation and flow of cold wind is suitable to analyze the direction of cold wind that is generated in the periphery of the city and the overall flow within the existing urban area. But the results of wind velocity have shown the uppermost limit of the modeling in the simulation. That is, it could not reflect the site characteristics sufficiently. Therefore, if parameters considering the specific regional characteristics are sufficiently reflected, the result of simulations for reliability can be substantially improved.