ASPIRATOR - Journal of Vector-borne Disease Studies

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ISSN / EISSN : 2085-4102 / 2338-7343
Total articles ≅ 105
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Risda Hartati, Tri Baskoro T. Satoto, Elsa Herdiana Murhandarwati, Mutiara Widawati
ASPIRATOR - Journal of Vector-borne Disease Studies, Volume 13, pp 127-136; https://doi.org/10.22435/asp.v13i2.4441

Abstract:
The incidence rate (IR) of Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever in Papua Province in 2017 was8.04 per 100,000 population, with a case fatality rate (CFR) of 1.12%. In 2016, the Health Offi ce ofJayapura City declared six urban villages as high endemic areas, four urban villages as high sporadicareas, and ten villages as DHF-free areas from a total of 39 urban villages in Jayapura. This studyaims to analyze larval by House index [HI], Container index [CI], Breateu index (BI), and Maya index[MI] as well as the distribution of vector Ae. aegypti in endemic, sporadic and DHF-free areas inJayapura City. The design of this study was a cross-sectional study. This research was conducted fromJanuary to March 2019. Subjects (375 houses) were surveyed according to WHO guidelines basedon its endemicity stratifi cation. Observations of mosquitos’ larvae were done using visual and singlelarvae methods. The result of this research showed that endemic areas had their HI, CI and BI as muchas 43.3%, 16.5%, and 90.0%, respectively, with density fi gure is six. Sporadic areas had their HI,CI and BI as much as 35.4%, 10.9%, and 57.5%, respectively, with density fi gure is fi ve. DHF-freeareas had their HI, CI, and BI as much as 14.8%, 5.7%, and 35.2%, respectively, with density fi gureis fi ve. The Maya index for endemic and sporadic areas was categorized as moderate, while DHF-freeareas were low.
Hubullah Fuadzy, Heni Prasetyowati, Elis Siti Marliyanih, Asep Hendra, Abdulah Mubarok Dadang
ASPIRATOR - Journal of Vector-borne Disease Studies, Volume 13, pp 113-126; https://doi.org/10.22435/asp.v13i2.5241

Abstract:
Tasikmalaya city is a high endemic dengue area which contributes to the high number ofdengue cases in West Java province. This study aims to analyze the geographic distribution patternof dengue infection at the village level and identify high-risk urban villages in Tasikmalaya City. Thisstudy analyzed the surveillance data of dengue cases in 2016–2020 which was routinely managed bythe Tasikmalaya City Health Office. Variables analyzed included date, patient’s name and address(villages). The map data in the form of a shape file (shp.) were obtained from BPS in 2019. The spatialautocorrelation analysis uses two approaches, (the global Moran Index and LISA). The results showedthat DHF cases in the Tasikmalaya city tend to increase in the last 5 years (2016–2020). The highestnumber of annual and monthly dengue cases occurred in 2020, (1,744 cases and 307 cases) withthe incidence rate peaked at 262.6561 per 100,000 population. The global Moran index test using asignificance level of 5 showed that there is a spatial autocorrelation between adjacent sub-districts ofdengue cases in Tasikmalaya city every year for the last 5 years (2016–2020, and cumulative). Thevalue of the global moran index (I) shows a positive correlation between urban villages to the numberof annual dengue cases for the last 5 years and is cumulative. It can be concluded that there aresimilarities in the characteristics of DHF cases in adjacent villages or the relationship between DHFcases tends to be spatially clustered.
Arlina Azka, Fardhiasih Dwi Astuti
ASPIRATOR - Journal of Vector-borne Disease Studies, Volume 13, pp 101-112; https://doi.org/10.22435/asp.v13i2.4798

Abstract:
The use of household insecticides is an alternative solution to prevent mosquito bites.Most of the household insecticides sold in Indonesia have pyrethroid active ingredients, permethrin,which is available in the aerosol formulation. Inappropriate use of household insecticides can reducemosquito susceptibility. The objectives of this study are to describe the use of household insecticidesand susceptibility of Aedes sp. against permethrin in Sorosutan Yogyakarta. This study used a crosssectionalsurvey design. This study was conducted in December 2018–April 2019 in 354 householdsin Sorosutan which were randomly selected based on proportional sampling. Interviews about thehousehold insecticides were conducted with the owner or resident of the house. The susceptibilitytests used impregnated paper with permethrin 0.75%. The survey results showed that 25.14% ofthe houses use household insecticides. The insecticide used were aerosol, electric mosquito repellents,and mosquito coils containing active ingredients of the pyrethroid group, namely dimefl uthrin,transfl uthrin, prallethrin, cypermethrin, and metofl uthrin. The susceptibility test results showed adecrease in mosquito susceptibility where the population of Aedes sp. in Sorosutan has been resistantagainst permethrin. The continuous use of insecticides with pyrethroid active ingredients can developmosquito resistance against permethrin because all pyrethroids have the same mode of action. Thisstudy concludes that only a small proportion (25,14%) of the households used insecticides with theactive ingredients used mainly in the pyrethroid group (dimefl uthrin, transfl uthrin, prallethrin,cypermethrin, and metofl uthrin) and the population of Aedes sp. in Sorosutan has been resistant topermethrin.
Rizki Awaluddin, Binti Sholihatin, Nurul Marfu'Ah, Solikah Ana Estikomah
ASPIRATOR - Journal of Vector-borne Disease Studies, Volume 13, pp 137-146; https://doi.org/10.22435/asp.v13i2.4823

Abstract:
Aedes sp. is a vector of the dengue virus that causes Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF).Larvicides are the optimal method for controlling mosquito development. Temephos is a larvicidalagent of the organophosphate group which is reported to cause side eff ects and ecological hazards,as well as resistance based on reports in several country. This study aims to determine the larvicidalactivity of the n-hexane fraction of Morinda citrifolia leaf ethanol extract on Aedes sp. The compoundgroups in the fraction were identifi ed using TLC through UV light and spray reagents. There were sixtypes of treatment including four concentration fractions (400, 600, 800, and 1000 ppm) as treatment,positive control (temephos 1%) and negative control 1% acetone solution. Twenty-fi ve mosquito larvaeof Aedes sp. tested for each treatment. Larval mortality was recorded and LC50 and LC99 values wereanalyzed using the probit. The results showed that the TLC test of the n-hexane fraction was positivefor terpenoids, anthraquinones, phenols, tannins, and fl avonoids. The results showed that the LC50 andLC99 values were 1040 ppm and 2439 ppm. Therefore, the n-hexane fraction of the ethanol extract hadlarvicidal activity on Aedes sp with li le toxicity.
Zata Ismah, Tri Bayu Purnama, Dyah Retno Wulandari, Ema Rizka Sazkiah, Yulia Khairina Ashar
ASPIRATOR - Journal of Vector-borne Disease Studies, Volume 13, pp 147-158; https://doi.org/10.22435/asp.v13i2.4629

Abstract:
Tropical countries are the largest contributor to the incidence of Dengue HemorrhagicFever (DHF), but research on risk factors is still independent in various countries, it cannot beconcluded holistically. Through the research design, a systematic review is able to summarize andanswer the causes of DHF in this tropical country. This research method is a systematic review withguidelines following the 2009 PRISMA Checklist. In the initial search, 1,680 articles were foundusing the keyword “risk factors for Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever”, reduced to 274 article titles afteradding the keyword “tropical country”. Furthermore, the relevant abstracts were fi ltered and found37 selected article items. Through critical appraisal of the full text of the article, it was found that 17articles met the selection criteria for further review in this study. The results showed that there were5 major groups of risk factors that were widely studied, namely sociodemography, climatology, placeof dwelling, environment, and behavior. The sociodemographic factor associated with the incidenceof DHF in tropical countries is age. In terms of climatology, temperature and rainfall are importantfactors in the vector breeding process. Rural areas (rural areas) are the place of dwelling with the mostcases of DHF found. The environmental aspect that has been widely studied is mosquito breeding. Themost signifi cant risk behavior factor in transmission was the behavior of hanging clothes. Of the 17articles, it was found that 77.8% of the articles examined environmental variables.
Sunaryo Sunaryo, Bina Ikawati, Tri Wijayanti
ASPIRATOR - Journal of Vector-borne Disease Studies, Volume 13, pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.22435/asp.v13i1.4023

Abstract:
Malaria merupakan masalah kesehatan utama di Purworejo terutama pada daerah perbukitan yang berbatasan dengan Kabupaten Magelang, Provinsi Jawa Tengah dan Kabupaten Kulonprogo, Provinsi Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta. Daerah perbukitan tersebut merupakan daerah reseptif malaria. Keberadaan dari habitat perkembangbiakan vektor malaria yang berdekatan dengan pemukiman serta terjadi setiap musim, menyebabkan penularan malaria terjadi sepanjang tahun. Pemetaan spasial tempat perkembangbiakan vektor malaria dapat membantu penelusuran dan tindak lanjut intervensi terhadap pengendalian vektor malaria. Survei dan pemetaan tempat perkembangbiakan vektor malaria dilakukan menggunakan Global Positioning System (GPS) dan hasilnya diolah dengan ArcGIS. Penelitian dilakukan pada bulan April-November 2018 di Purworejo. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa tempat perkembangbiakan vektor malaria pada musim kemarau adalah genangan air di sepanjang aliran sungai dan mata air di sekitar pemukiman; dalam bentuk genangan-genangan kecil yang terisi sedikit air. Tempat perkembangbiakan dalam kondisi terlindung dengan adanya tanaman atau pepohonan. Tindakan intervensi yang tepat adalah dengan mengeringkan tempat perkembangbiakan vektor, membuat perlindungan mata air, larvasidasi pada musim kemarau serta penggunaan kelambu berinsektisida pada masyarakat di sekitar tempat perkembangbiakan vektor. Penelitian menyimpulkan bahwa identifikasi tempat perkembangbiakan vektor malaria pada musim kemarau di sepanjang aliran sungai dan mata air.
Nissa Noor Annashr, Fathi Muhamad Rahmadi
ASPIRATOR - Journal of Vector-borne Disease Studies, Volume 13, pp 23-36; https://doi.org/10.22435/asp.v13i1.4621

Abstract:
Lymphatic filariasis is a chronic infectious disease caused by parasitic nematodes. The worm can damage the human lymphatic system gradually then causing enlargement of the limbs, breasts and genitalia. Kuningan is an endemic regency for filariasis in West Java Province. Cilimus District was in the 2nd position as a district with the highest filariasis cases in Kuningan in 2017. This research was conducted in Cilimus District from May to June 2018 using a cross-sectional design. The population was all households in the Cilimus District with a sample size of 106 people who were taken using a simple random sampling technique. The independent variables studied were knowledge and attitudes regarding the prevention of filariasis, the dependent variable was the filariasis prevention practices. Data collection was carried out by interview using a questionnaire. Data analysis was performed by univariate and bivariate (chi-square test). The results showed that some respondents had good knowledge and positive attitudes about the prevention of filariasis (50%). The description of respondent practices showed that 82.1% of respondents took filariasis drug, 62.3% of respondents had the habit of using mosquito repellent, only 4.7% of respondents used mosquito nets, 49.1% of respondents put gauze wire, 47.2% of respondents did not have a habit of hanging clothes. The results of categorizing behavioral variables were found that more than half of the respondents (52.8%) had implemented good prevention practices. The results of the bivariate analysis showed that there was a significant relationship between knowledge and attitude with filariasis prevention practices (p <0.05).
Anna Yuliana, Rusdi Aris Rinaldi, Nur Rahayuningsih, Firman Gustaman
ASPIRATOR - Journal of Vector-borne Disease Studies, Volume 13, pp 69-78; https://doi.org/10.22435/asp.v13i1.4042

Abstract:
Musa x paradisiaca L. leaves are known to contain phenols, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, and other compounds that can be used as larvicides. This study aims to determine the effect of Musa x paradisiaca L leaves’ ethanol extract granules on the mortality of Aedes aegypti larvae. The Research was experimental in two stages of effectiveness testing, that are extract and granule formula effectiveness test. Data were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test and the Mann-Whitney test. The extraction method used was maceration using 96% ethanol. The concentration of the extract dosage used were 0.2; 0.5; 1; 2; and 4%, with control (+) temephos and control (-). Repetitions were carried out 3 times with a sample total of 675 larvae. Observations were made for 12 and 24 hours. Preparation of granules using 2 formulas, formula 1 granules without extract and formula 2 granules with the extract. To fulfill the granule formulation criteria, the preparation was evaluated. The results showed that the concentration of 4% extract was the most effective at 98.7%, as stated by the Kruskal-Wallis test result,p-value <0.05, which means that there was an effect on the effectiveness of larvicide. The percentage of mortality of larvae given formula 2 is 100% and based on the Mann-Whitney test with value p<0.05, there is a difference between granule 1 and 2 formula. Criteria of granule including moisture content (1.72 %), angle of rest 240, flow velocity (50 gr/sec), and dispersion time (2.25 minutes). The granular formula of Musa x paradisiaca L leaves can make the application easier and hopefully can be used as effectively as synthetic larvicide in the community.
Nissa Kusariana, Praba Ginandjar, Vivi Septi Ariyani, Moh Arie Wurjanto
ASPIRATOR - Journal of Vector-borne Disease Studies, Volume 13, pp 47-54; https://doi.org/10.22435/asp.v13i1.4161

Abstract:
Program eliminasi filariasis belum menunjukkan hasil maksimal di Provinsi Jawa Tengah. Perubahan perilaku vektor nyamuk terutama waktu aktif menghisap darah sangat mempengaruhi penularan penyakit filariasis. Salah satu perubahan perilaku vektor tersebut adalah aktivitas nyamuk Aedes spp. yang aktif di pagi hari menjadi aktif di malam hari. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mendeskripsikan aktivitas nokturnal nyamuk Aedes spp. di daerah endemis filariasis di Jawa Tengah. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian observasional dengan desain cross-sectional yang dilakukan di dua desa endemis filariasis yaitu Desa Tegal Dowo, Kecamatan Tirto, Kabupaten Pekalongan dan Desa Ujung-Ujung, Kecamatan Pabelan, Kabupaten Semarang. Penangkapan nyamuk dilakukan selama 2 malam di rumah penderita filariasis atau rumah di sekitar rumah kasus (Jarak ± 200 meter) dengan menggunakan teknik purposive sampling. Penangkapan nyamuk berlangsung pada pukul 18.00 - 24.00 WIB dengan jumlah penangkap nyamuk 3 orang di dalam dan 3 orang di luar rumah. Pengumpulan nyamuk dilakukan dengan metode Human Landing Collection (HLC) dan resting collection. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan peningkatan aktivitas nokturnal Aedes aegypti dan Aedes albopictus di daerah endemis filariasis di Jawa Tengah. Total nyamuk Aedes spp. yang ditemukan yaitu sebanyak 124 nyamuk, dengan 121 Ae. aegypti ditemukan di dalam rumah dan 2 nyamuk diluar rumah. Di dua wilayah penelitian ditemukan waktu aktif Ae. aegypti berada pada pukul 18.00-19.00 WIB. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan adanya aktivitas nokturnal dari Aedes spp. di wilayah endemis Filariasis di Provinsi Jawa Tengah
Tri Wahono, Endang Puji Astuti, , , Muhammad Umar Riandi
ASPIRATOR - Journal of Vector-borne Disease Studies, Volume 13, pp 55-68; https://doi.org/10.22435/asp.v13i1.4683

Abstract:
The government targets malaria elimination in Java and Bali by 2023. But until 2020, Pangandaran and Pandeglang Regency haven’t received malaria-free certification. This qualitative study was conducted to provide an overview of Pangandaran and Pandeglang malaria control implementation by comparing it to Activity Indicators based on the Indonesian Minister of Health Decree on malaria elimination. In-depth interviews, using thematically interview guidelines, were conducted to 48 key informants such as policyholders and people in charge of health programs and cross-sectoral at the provincial, district, sub-district, and village levels. Thematic analysis was used in the theme of policy implementation, budget, facilities and infrastructures, human resources, and cross-sector cooperation. The result shows that malaria control is implemented according to the decree, but some activities haven’t been done. The analysis on policy implementation theme shows that both districts have carried out according to the guidelines, with innovation in the form of establishing Posmaldes (village malaria post) in Ujung Kulon National Park in Pandeglang. APBD, APBN, and Global Fund are used as budget sources. Both districts stated that facilities and infrastructures are sufficiently available, but there is a lack in human resources’ quantity and varying degrees of competencies. There is also a lack of cross-sector cooperation because malaria control hasn’t become a priority in those sectors and they are only acting as supports to the health sector. Efforts to control malaria are considered less optimal due to the absence of malaria elimination regulations, varied human resource capabilities, and the limitation in the duties and functions of cross-sectors.
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