ASPIRATOR - Journal of Vector-borne Disease Studies

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ISSN / EISSN : 2085-4102 / 2338-7343
Total articles ≅ 93
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Asti Tri Pramadani, Upik Kesumawati Hadi, Fadjar Satrija
ASPIRATOR - Journal of Vector-borne Disease Studies, Volume 12, pp 123-136; doi:10.22435/asp.v12i2.3269

Dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) is still a problem in some countries, resulting in 390 millioninfections a year in the world. DHF vaccine has not found so the treatment is focused on vector controls.Entomological data describing the bio ecology of vectors in the region can help vector control diseases moreeffectively. The study aims at assessing distribution, characteristic and risk factors in the habitat of Aedes larvain the DHF endemic region of West Ranomeeto subdistrict of Southeast Sulawesi province. This study is ananalytic observational study with a sectional study approach. Data collection was carried out using singlelarva method in 600 houses by purposive sampling. Data analysis uses chi square’s descriptive analysis andlogistics multinomial regression. The result shows larva density in Sindangkasih higher than Jati Bali. Ae.aegypti dominated in Sindangkasih and Ae. albopictus dominated in Jati Bali. Buckets, dispenser tray,refrigerator tray, container made of cements and plastics and container with volume
Lukman Hakim, Endang Puji Astuti, Heni Prasetyowati,
ASPIRATOR - Journal of Vector-borne Disease Studies, Volume 12, pp 73-84; doi:10.22435/asp.v12i2.3140

One House One Jumantik Programme (G1R1J) has been launched by the Indonesian governmentsince 2015. This programme emphasizes the participation of family members as jumantik rumah bymonitoring and controlling larvae in their houses. Family’s coaching in the G1R1J’s programme is carried outby each jumantik coordinator. Tasikmalaya and Cimahi were Dengue endemic areas with high cases in thelast five years. This study aimed to determine the effect of family empowerment by the Jumantik Coordinatorin reducing the density of Aedes spp. larvae, reducing the number of DHF cases and increasing familyparticipation in vector surveillance. The study was located in the Tasikmalaya and Cimahi areas andconducted with an intervention. The interventions included RW-level workshops, coaching, and observationby jumantik coordinator. The sample unit is a family, consist of 400 unit in the intervention area and 200unit in the comparison area. The results showed that there were significant differences in the status ofcommunity participation in eradicating mosquito nests (PSN). The presence of dengue patients and thepresence of Aedes spp mosquito larvae were different between before and after the intervention both inTasikmalaya and Cimahi. In addition, there are significant differences in the status of communityparticipation in PSN, the presence of dengue cases, the presence of Aedes spp. larvae and theimplementation of vector surveillance by families in the intervention and comparison areas. The resultsconcluded that family coaching interventions and observations by the Jumantik Coordinator, proved to havean effect on community participation in PSN, decreasing dengue cases, increasing larvae free index (ABJ)and vector surveillance implementation by families.Keywords: Society participation, Dengue cases, Jumantik House, One House One Jumantik
Aryo Ginanjar, Laksono Trisnantor, Dwi Handono Sulistyo
ASPIRATOR - Journal of Vector-borne Disease Studies, Volume 12, pp 63-72; doi:10.22435/asp.v12i2.3109

Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF) is still a public health problem that is difficult to deal with inTasikmalaya City, West Java Province. In 2019, the region experienced very significant cases increase leadingto an Outbreak. Various attempts have been made without optimal results. DHF control program managersexpressed the urgent need for strong policies, but no empirical studies have been carried out. It is importantto analyze evidence as justification for urgency and impetus in the policy agenda. This policy research withnaturalistic qualitative research with Analysis for Policy approach aims to explore evidence on the urgency ofDHF control regional regulations at policy stakeholders’ aspect. The results of this study revealed the evidenceof DHF Control Regional Regulation’s establishment urgency. Those are increasing community endangeringsituation of DHF cases; the urgent need of policies for program managers; and the corroborating evidence, asthe results of stakeholder analysis, in the form of majority stakeholder are the main policy stakeholder whohave the power and strong interest in supporting the policies’ urgency. The urgency level of DHF controlRegional Regulation based on this research has reached an emergency level, so there should be efforts toestablish DHF control Regional Regulation in Tasikmalaya City.Keywords: Stakeholders, Policy Urgencies, Regional Regulations, DHF
Nurminha Nurminha, Tori Rihiantoro, Mara Ipa
ASPIRATOR - Journal of Vector-borne Disease Studies, Volume 12, pp 85-92; doi:10.22435/asp.v12i2.3095

Clinical symptoms of dengue virus (DENV) infection range from asymptomatic mild dengue fever(DF), more severe dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) up to dengue shock syndrome. One of the determinantsof dengue infection severity was virus virulence. This study aimed to determine the clinical and virologicalcharacteristics of dengue virus infection patients based on the severity degree. A cross-sectional study wasconducted in RSUD Dr. H. Abdul Moeloek, Lampung Province between July-November 2016 with 56 denguepatients as samples selected using purposive sampling. The serological test was done using a rapiddiagnostic test. Blood samples for DENV serotype identification were examined using reverse-transcriptionpolymerase chain reaction. Classification of DENV infection severity was obtained from the patient’s medicalrecord. The results showed that the most common clinical manifestations were fever, headache, and retroorbitalpain, appearing in all patients from every degree of severity. There were Grade I DHF patients whoexperienced Myalgia (15.6%) and petechiae (22.2%). Laboratory results showed that thrombocytopeniaappeared in every grade, even though 13.3% of grade I patients did not experience it. Secondary infectionwas found in 92.9% of samples, and all DENV serotype can be detected in 39.2%samples: DENV-1 (46.7%),DENV-2 (6.7%), DENV-3 (26.7%), and DENV-4 (20%). This study concluded that the majority of clinicalcharacteristics in DHF patients are in line with the degree of severity, with the bleeding as the dominantmanifestation in patients with grade II-IV. Virological characteristics of DENV-1 are dominant in all patientswith DHF grade I-IV.Keywords: dengue virus, serotype, severity, secondary infection, Bandar Lampung
Arda Dinata, Endang Puji Astuti, Suwarno Hadisusanto
ASPIRATOR - Journal of Vector-borne Disease Studies, Volume 12, pp 105-114; doi:10.22435/asp.v12i2.2270

The vector-borne disease remains a health problem in Pandeglang District. Entomological data isimportant in the strategy of controlling the vector-borne disease. This study aimed to determine thedistribution of mosquito larvae based on specific habitat and ecosystem typea. This research is a secondarydata analysis of Rikhus Vektora 2016 in Pandeglang, Banten Province. This type of observational researchwith cross-sectional study design. The purposive sampling technique is used based on geographical andecosystem stratification. We found 12 types of environments of the six types of ecosystems (HDP, HJP, NHDP,NHJP, PDP, and PJP) that had larvae: forest (secondary, homogeneous, and coastal); lagoon; brackish waterswamp; bamboo clumps; rice fields; plantations; and residential areas. The most ecosystem types werelarvae in HJP (160 larvae) and the least larvae in NHDP (9 larvae). Species of larvae are 16 types: rice fields(Cx. vishui, Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, An. barbirostris); small hole in the ground (Anopheles sp., Culex sp.);coconut shell (Ae. albopictus, Ar. malayi, Ar. kuchingensis, Malaya sp, Culex sp.); armpit taro leaves andbanana leaves (Ae. albopictus, Malaya genurostris); freshwater swamp (Cx. vishnui, Cx. gelidus) andbrackish water (Anopheles sp.); riverside (Anopheles sp., Cx. quinquefasciatus); ditch (Culex sp.); pool (Cx.quinquefasciatus); lagoon (Anopheles sp., Culex sp.); bamboo stumps (Ae. albopictus); Limnocharis flavagarden (Culex sp.); and used bottles (Ae. albopictus). The characteristics of larvae habitat: temperature (25-33oC); pH 8-9 (67.3%); light intensity (115-32,000 lux); vegetation (12.7%); algae (3.6%); water istemporary (61.6%), inundated (78.2%) and clear (50,9%).Keywords: Habitat, Ecosystem, Larvae Vector, Pandeglang
Muhammad Nirwan, Upik Kesumawati Hadi, Susi Soviana, Surachmi Setyaningsih, Fadjar Satrija
ASPIRATOR - Journal of Vector-borne Disease Studies, Volume 12, pp 93-104; doi:10.22435/asp.v12i2.2710

Filariasis is still a health problem in Bogor Regency. The discovery of filariasis sufferers hasgrowing during the year since 2004 until now with a total of 117 people. The mass prevention drugadministration program (POPM) has been implemented since 2015. This study aims to identify theepidemiological distribution of clinical filariasis sufferers and an overview of the achievement of filariasiselimination program in Bogor district. The research using descriptive design with a quantitative approach.The data in this study used secondary data from Bogor District Health Office and Bogor Central Bureau ofStatistics. Data were analyzed descriptively and identify differences and relationships between variablesused the chi-square test. The results of the study showed the epidemiological distribution of filariasis inBogor Regency with predominantly female patients (59.8%) and productive age (36-45 years). The resultsfrom chi-square test showed that there was a significant difference between the age groups and theincidence of filariasis from year to year with a P value (0.000) 0.05. The spread of filariasis tends to fluctuate and continues to increase (75%). The results of therelationship test showed that there was no significant relationship between the number of cases and the levelof family welfare with a P value (0.279)> 0.05. The implementation of POPM, both treatment outcomes andtreatment success rates, has exceeded the national target.Keywords: Epidemiology, Filariasis, POPM, Bogor, Indonesia
Zainul Ambiya, Martini Martini, Firda Yanuar Pradani
ASPIRATOR - Journal of Vector-borne Disease Studies, Volume 12, pp 115-122; doi:10.22435/asp.v12i2.1440

Tembalang Village is one of the endemic areas of DHF in the city of Semarang (IR 479,6/100.000population). The discovery of chemical resistance cases in mosquitoes requires another alternative as an effortto control dengue that is environmentally friendly, cheap and effective, namely by using mosquito traps withattractants. This study aims to determine the differences in the types of effective attractant materials to beused in mosquito traps as an effort to control mosquitoes. This type of research is experimental with the Post-Test Only Control Group Design method. The sample of this study was 64 houses with repetitions of 6 times.Testing of attractants was carried out on 3 types of attractants, namely brown sugar yeast, sugar yeast, strawsoaking water and PAM water as a control. Environmental observations were carried out to determine thedensity of mosquitoes in Tembalang Village. The results showed that the type of attractant most favored bymosquitoes was brown sugar yeast (73,37%) and sugar yeast (26,62%). Meanwhile, the mosquito density inTembalang sub-district was low at 1.375 with the most found mosquito population being Culex (55.7%) andthe highest fishing place in the house (59%). Keywords: Tembalang Village, Vector Control, Attractant, Mosquito Density
, Fadhli Gunarto
ASPIRATOR - Journal of Vector-borne Disease Studies, Volume 12, pp 27-36; doi:10.22435/asp.v12i1.1288

Mosquitoes are insects that can transmit diseases to humans through their bites. Dengue haemorrhagic fever is one of the diseases that could be transmitted by Aedes aegypti mosquito. The use of insecticides to control the occurrence of dengue haemorrhagic fever builds resistance of the mosquito towards the chemical substance. Therefore, natural larvicide was used as an alternative to chemical insecticides. This research was conducted to study the effectiveness of larvicides from the ethyl acetate fraction of Bangun-bangun leaves (Plectranthus amboinicus) in killing the Aedes aegypti larvae and to identify the active larvicide compounds. This laboratory experiment research tested six extract concentrations (0.0; 1.0; 1.8; 3.2; 5.6; 10.0%) in three replications. Observations were administered for 48 hours to count the number of the dead Aedes aegypti instar III larvae obtained from the Entomology Laboratory of the Faculty of Veterinary, IPB. The results showed that the larvae mortality increased as the extract concentration increased. The percentage of Aedes aegypti killed reached 96% at an extract concentration of 10%. Meanwhile, the probit analysis showed that LC50 was found at a concentration of 5.56%. The identification of active compounds using GCMS revealed that the larvicidal compounds in ethyl acetate fraction were the ones from an organic acid group which were, stearic acid, and palmitic acid. Keywords: Aedes aegypti, identification, larvacidal, mortality Abstrak. Nyamuk merupakan serangga yang dapat menularkan penyakit melalui gigitannya. Salah satu penyakit yang ditularkan adalah demam berdarah dengue yang dibawa oleh nyamuk Aedes aegypti. Pengendalian demam berdarah dengue menggunakan insektisida berbahan kimia dapat menyebabkan resisten nyamuk terhadap insektisida meningkat, oleh karena itu larvasida alami diharapkan dapat menjadi alternatif pengganti insektisida kimia. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah mengetahui afektifitas larvasida dari fraksi etil asetat daun Bangun-bangun (Plectranthus amboinicus) terhadap mortalitas larva Aedes aegypti dan mengidentifikasi jenis senyawa aktif yang berperan sebagai larvasida. Penelitian ini merupakan eksperimen laboratorium dengan enam konsentrasi ekstrak (0,0; 1,0; 1,8; 3,2; 5,6; 10,0%) dan tiga kali ulangan. Pengamatan dilakukan selama 48 jam terhadap jumlah kematian larva Aedes aegypti instar III yang diperoleh dari Laboratorium Entomologi Fakultas Kedokteran Hewan, IPB. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kematian larva meningkat seiring dengan meningkatnya konsentrasi ekstrak. Kematian Aedes aegypti mencapai 96% pada konsentrasi ekstrak 10% dan hasil analisa probit menunjukkan LC50 terdapat pada konsentrasi 5,56%. Identifikasi senyawa aktif menggunakan GCMS menunjukkan bahwa senyawa yang bersifat larvasida dalam fraksi etil asetat ini adalah senyawa dari golongan asam organik yaitu, asam stearate, dan asam palmitat. Kata Kunci: Aedes aegypti, identifikasi, larvasida, mortalitas
Lisa Hidayati, Seli Suprihatini
ASPIRATOR - Journal of Vector-borne Disease Studies, Volume 12, pp 45-52; doi:10.22435/asp.v12i1.2171

Mahogany seed extract (Swietenia mahagoni) is a natural larvacidal material which contains limonoid, flavonoid, saponins and alkoloid. Mahogany seed extract can kill Culex sp larvae, which known as filariasis vectors. There are several mosquitoes control are used to pressing Culex sp larvae growth, such as using larvacidal and fogging but have bad impact on the circumtances The study observed effect of mahogany seed extract on Culex sp. larvae mortality. This study utilized an experimental method with ANOVA and probit analysis to determined LC50 and LT50. Extraction method were used in this study was maceration method. This research used some variation of mahogany seed extract concentration, consist of 8%, 10%, 20%, 50%, with negative control (-) used distilled water. Research repetition was carried out 3 times with a total sample of 325 larvae. Observations were made at 15, 60, 120, 240, 420 and 720 minutes (12 hours). This study found that there was a significant effect between the concentration of mahogany seed extract on larval mortality with Fcount > Ftable (0.05 ≥ 0.01). The concentration that effectively kills 50% of Culex sp (LC50) larvae was 10%. the time which was needed to kill 50% of Culex sp (LT50) larvae was 204,230 minutes. The higher the concentration level of mahogany seed extract were used, so that more larval mortality rates. The morphology or larvae body structure after administration of mahogany seed extract was damaging in the abdomen and thorax, allegedly inhibited growth hormone due to the mechanism of action of mahogany seed extract as an antifeedant This reaserch can be using mahogany seed extract with different methods and larvae. Mahogany seed extracts are expected to be applied in society as a vector control and this research can be developed using mahogany seed extract with different methods and larvae. Keywords: Mahogany seeds, Extract, Culex sp, larvacidal, Maceration, Abstrak. Ekstrak biji mahoni (Swietenia mahagoni) merupakan bahan larvasida alami yang mengandung limonoid, flavonoid, saponin dan alkoloid. Ekstrak biji mahoni diduga bisa membunuh larva Culex sp, yang berperan sebagai vektor filariasis. Ada beberapa cara penanggulangan nyamuk yang digunakan untuk menekan pertumbuhan larva Culex sp, seperti penggunaan larvasida dan fogging tetapi memiliki dampak yang buruk untuk lingkungan. Tujuan dari penelitian ini untuk melihat pengaruh ekstrak biji mahoni terhadap kematian larva Culex sp. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode eksperimental dengan analisis ANOVA dan analisis probit untuk menentukan LC50 dan LT50 . Metode ekstraksi yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah modifikasi maserasi. Konsentrasi ekstrak biji mahoni yang diujikan yaitu 8%, 10%, 20%, 50%, dengan kontrol (-) menggunakan aquadest. Pengulangan dilakukan sebanyak 3 kali dengan total sampel 325 larva. Pengamatan dilakukan pada menit ke 15, 60, 120, 240, 420 dan 720 menit (12 jam). Penelitian ini memperoleh hasil bahwa adanya pengaruh yang signifikan antara konsentrasi ekstrak biji mahoni terhadap kematian larva dengan Fhitung > Ftabel (0,05 ≥ 0.01). Konsentrasi yang efektif membunuh 50% larva Culex sp (LC50) adalah 10%. waktu yang dibutuhkan untuk membunuh 50% larva Culex sp(LT50 ) adalah 204,230 menit. Semakin tinggi tingkat konsentrasi ekstrak biji mahoni semakin tinggi pula tingkat kematian larva. Morfologi atau struktur tubuh larva setelah pemberian ekstrak biji mahoni mengalami kerusakan di bagian abdomen dan toraks, diduga mengalami penghambatan hormonpertumbuhan karena mekanisme kerja ekstrak biji mahoni sebagai antifeedant. Ekstrak biji mahoni diharapkan dapat diaplikasikan di dalam masyarakat sebagai pengendalian vector dan Penelitian ini bisa dikembangkan dengan menggunakan ekstrak biji mahoni dengan metode dan larva yang berbeda. Kata Kunci: Biji mahoni, Ekstrak, Culex sp, Larvasida, Maserasi
Acivrida Mega Charisma, Elis Anita Farida, Farida Anwari
ASPIRATOR - Journal of Vector-borne Disease Studies, Volume 12, pp 11-18; doi:10.22435/asp.v12i1.2366

Dengue is a disease caused by dengue virus infection. Diagnosis of the disease is often difficult to be upheld just by the symptoms. Therefore, laboratory diagnostics is required. The general objective of this study was to detect dengue IgG in serum samples with rapid tests and in urine samples of suspected dengue patients using ELISA. The procedure of this study consisted of three stages. First, collecting urine samples from healthy individuals and collecting blood and urine samples from suspected dengue patients; second, examining dengue IgG in serum samples of suspected dengue patients with rapid tests; and third, examining dengue-specific IgG in urine samples from suspected dengue patients and from healthy individuals with ELISA technique. Data analyzed using experimental analytics to determine the cut off point used to interpret laboratory diagnostic results. The results showed that patients with positive serum dengue IgG test at the same time also showed positive results on the examination of dengue-specific IgG in their urine samples while patients with negative serum at the same time showed negative results on the examination of dengue-specific IgG in urine samples. Dengue-specific IgG examination in urine samples with ELISA technique can be used as an alternative examination in establishing the diagnosis of dengue, in which urine samples are taken from patients with more than 4 days fever. Keywords: Dengue, IgG, Urine, ELISA Abstrak. Dengue merupakan penyakit yang disebabkan virus dengue. Diagnosis penyakit ini sering sulit ditegakkan jika hanya melihat dari gejala. Oleh karena itu, diperlukan pemeriksaan laboratorium untuk penegakkan diagnosis. Tujuan umum penelitian ini adalah untuk mendeteksi IgG dengue dalam sampel serum dengan rapid tes dan pada sampel urine pasien terduga dengue dengan menggunakan metode ELISA. Prosedur penelitian ini terdiri dari tiga tahap. Pertama, pengumpulan sampel urine individu sehat dan pngumpulan sampel darah dan urine pada pasien terduga dengue; kedua, pemeriksaan IgG dengue dalam sampel darah pasien terduga infeksi dengue dengan rapid tes; dan ketiga, pemeriksaan IgG spesifik dengue pada sampel urine pasien terduga dengue dengan teknik ELISA, yang sebelumnya sudah dikelompokkan sesuai dengan hasil pemeriksaan IgG dengue pada sampel serum dengan rapid tes, dan pemeriksaan IgG spesifik dengue sampel urine individu sehat dengan teknik ELISA. Analitik eksperimental digunakan untuk menentukan cut off dari data yang kemudian digunakan untuk menafsirkan hasil diagnostik laboratorium. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pada pasien dengan hasil pemeriksaan IgG dengue serum positif menunjukkan hasil positif juga pada pemeriksaan IgG spesifik dengue pada sampel urinnya, sedangkan pada hasil pemeriksaan serum yang negatif menunjukkan hasil negatif pula pada pemeriksaan IgG spesifik dengue di sampel urinnya. Pemeriksaan IgG spesifik dengue pada sampel urine dengan teknik ELISA dapat digunakan sebagai pemeriksaan alternatif dalam penegakan diagnosis dengue, di mana sampel urine diambil dari pasien dengan demam lebih dari 4 hari. Kata Kunci: Dengue, IgG, Urine, ELISA
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