Global Journal of Health Science

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 1916-9736 / 1916-9744
Current Publisher: Canadian Center of Science and Education (10.5539)
Total articles ≅ 2,383
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Dian Perwitasari, Oster Suriani Simarmata, Lamria Pangaribuan, Teti Tejayanti, Dina Bisara Lolong, Kristina Kristina, Qian Long
Global Journal of Health Science, Volume 13; doi:10.5539/gjhs.v13n6p36

OBJECTIVE: The number of tuberculosis (TB) cases in Indonesia is currently very high, so the analysis is needed to describe the environmental conditions at risk of TB disease. The aim of the study was to look at the prevalence of pulmonary TB in 2013-2014 in Indonesia based on the area of residence of the respondents and to see the relationship between the environmental conditions of the prevalence of TB in Indonesia. MATERIAL & METHODS: The Prevalence SPTB 2013-2014 was used cross-sectional design with national coverage. Sampling selection used multi-staged cluster sampling in the population aged 15 years and above. The analysis data used SPSS program; first analysis was used bivariate and continuing to multivariate analysis. RESULT: Tb prevalence rate with bacteriological confirmed was 759 [95% CI: 590, 961] per 100,000 population in aged 15 years and above. The bivariable analysis shown those participant who live at house with floor <8m2/person [95% CI:1,053,1,710] and those participant who lived in house with kitchen was not separated from the main living area in the house [95% CI: 1,034,1,669], that was significant related with TB. In the multivariable model, the density characterized by family members with a floor surface <8m2/person [95% CI: 1,017,1,671]is at risk of developing TB. CONCLUSION: This study shows that the effect of the physical environment of living in a crowded household can be a risk factor for TB transmission. The other factor might be influence of infection Tb in the community.
Keresi Rokorua Bako, Masoud Mohammadnezhad, Sabiha Khan
Global Journal of Health Science, Volume 13; doi:10.5539/gjhs.v13n6p91

BACKGROUND: More than 60% of the world’s population is not physically active. Physical inactivity affects all sectors of the population including among healthcare professionals (HCPs). The objective of this study was to determine the level of knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) regarding the concept, benefits and health consequences of physical activity (PA) among HCPs in Suva, Fiji. METHODS: This quantitative, cross-sectional study was conducted among HCPs in Suva, Fiji between 1 July 2017 and 22 September 2017. All available HCPs including doctors, nurses and paramedics who were willing to take part in the study were included. A validated self-administered questionnaire was used to assess the level of KAP regarding PA. Data was analysed with Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) 25. RESULTS: 126 HCPs participated in this study with the majority being female (73.8%), in the age range of 33 – 42 years (47.6%), married (81.7%), from the nursing profession (54.0%) and within 0-5 years of experience (27.0%). The results showed that most of the participants (96.8%) had a high level of knowledge, positive attitudes (100%) and good practice (95%) regarding PA. CONCLUSION: Although the study participants had high levels of knowledge and positive attitudes towards PA, it is important to promote their practice. Using tailored behavioural change theories that focus on perceived benefits and barriers of PA may help decision-makers to promote PA in the workplace and among HCPs in Fiji.
Ekowati Rahajeng, Nunik Kusumawardani, Rika Rachmawati, Fitrah Ernawati
Global Journal of Health Science, Volume 13; doi:10.5539/gjhs.v13n6p49

INTRODUCTION: Excess salt intake is known to raise blood pressure and turn increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. Data and information on sodium consumption in Indonesia based is limited, while examination method using 24-hour urine examination is a complex method to apply in population based survey. Objective: to estimate value of spot urinary excretion against 24-hour urine values ​​and correction factors. METHOD: Validation was carried out through 24-hour urine and spot urine examination, in 423 individual aged 25-65 years in t Kebun Kelapa Village, Bogor City, Indonesia in 2017. Urine sodium examination method was carried out by laboratory examination inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). Accuracy and precision are valued by paired test correlations and mean differences. The coefficient of determination (R Square) of is calculated for sodium intake estimation and correction factors. RESULTS: The morning value of sodium spot urine has better precision and a stronger correlation with the 24-hour sodium urine than the afternoon spot urine. The difference in average morning sodium urine with 24-hour urine sodium according to age and sex was not significantly different (t test 0.30 and p = 0.77), had a positive and moderate correlation (paired r = 0.50 and p = 0.00). The average difference between the estimated evening urine sodium spot was different (t test = 7.32 and p = 0.00), and the correlation was very weak (r = 0.25; p = 0.00). CONCLUSION: The urine content / sodium spot level was accurate to estimate urine sodium value / content 24 hours.
Phatchanun Vivarakanon
Global Journal of Health Science, Volume 13; doi:10.5539/gjhs.v13n6p81

Globally, aging individuals who live independently facing various problems in maintaining their health and well-being. Understanding the capability of personal well-being is an important consideration in promoting healthy behaviors and lifestyles in aging individuals. This paper aimed to more deeply explore, from self-care experiences of aging individuals living independently in the community, from their perspective. The study used the inductive approach of focused ethnography which is based on Orem’s Theory of Self-Care. Data collection consisted of participant observation with field notes and semi-structured interviews with 25 aging individuals living independently in the northern part of Thailand. Three themes were followed as protocol of the data collection plan and used the identification and classification of transcription, coding, and thematic analysis as perspectives of self-care experiences of aging individuals living independently in the community setting: 1) continuing habits of healthcare practices, 2) maintaining positive emotional adaptation, 3) and having reasonable social and life adjustments. These themes exemplified the practice of activities that aging individuals initiated and performed as their daily and routine activities with the intention of maintaining life health and well-being. Consideration of aging individuals living independently self-care experiences assisted nurses and provided greater perspectives in providing actual needs and reduced resources of nursing care and healthcare system.
Evridiki Kaba, Areti Stavropoulou, Martha Kelesi, Aikaterini Triantafyllou, Aspasia Goula, Georgia Fasoi
Global Journal of Health Science, Volume 13; doi:10.5539/gjhs.v13n6p58

Writing a well-structured research protocol is a critical component of any research activity. It is a demanding task that requires rigor and strenuous effort especially for the novice researchers in all disciplines. The aims of the present paper are a) to demonstrate the key steps required towriting a protocol for a qualitative research study b) to assist nurses and other health professionals in effectively developing protocols on qualitative research. For this purpose, an example qualitative research protocol was used entitled “Investigating nurses’ views on care of mentally ill patients with skin injuries”. This protocol was chosen because it provides a reasonable model of proposing a qualitative research design within the field of nursing. Results of this process led to the development of a 10 key-step guide to writing a protocol for a qualitative research study. A thorough analysis of how each step of the protocol must be undertaken and accomplished is presented and supported by the relevant literature. This paper provides an informative guide for novice researchers and/or nurse students, on how to develop successful protocols on qualitative research studies that guide research and decision making in naturalistic settings.
Lyla S. Yang, Susan S. Witte, Carolina Vélez-Grau, Tara McCrimmon, Assel Terlikbayeva, Sholpan Primbetova, Gaukhar Mergenova, Nabila El-Bassel
Global Journal of Health Science, Volume 13; doi:10.5539/gjhs.v13n6p69

INTRODUCTION: Despite growing attention to structural approaches to HIV prevention, including economic empowerment interventions for key populations, few studies examine the financial lives of women engaged in sex work (WESW) and even fewer examine the financial lives of those who also use drugs. The purpose of this paper is to examine the financial status, sex work involvement, and individual and structural vulnerabilities of women involved in sex work and drug use in Kazakhstan. METHODS: We used baseline data from Project Nova, a cluster-randomized controlled trial that tested the efficacy of a combined HIV risk reduction and microfinance intervention for WESW in two cities in Kazakhstan. We collected data on income, savings, debt, sex work, drug use, homelessness, food insecurity, HIV status, attitudes towards safety, and financial knowledge from 400 participants through computer-assisted self-interview techniques. Descriptive statistics were utilized to describe and characterize the sample and aforementioned measures. RESULTS: Findings illustrate the paradoxical nature of sex work, wherein women may achieve economic independence despite the great adversities they encounter in their daily lives and work. The majority of women (65%) in this study reported being the highest income earner in the household, caring for up to 3 dependents, and demonstrated entrepreneurial characteristics and aspirations for the future. However, many were still living below the poverty line (72.5%), as well as experiencing high levels of homelessness (58%) and food insecurity (89.5%). CONCLUSION: Study findings underscore the need for better understanding of the existing capabilities of WESW and those who use drugs, including financial autonomy and community supports, that may guide the design of programs that most effectively promote women’s economic well-being and ensure that it is not at the expense of wellness and safety. Designing such programs requires incorporating a social justice lens into social work and public health interventions, including HIV prevention, and attention to the human rights of the most marginalized and highest risk populations, including WESW and those who use drugs.
Yen Yen Sally Rahayu, Tetsuya Araki, Dian Rosleine
Global Journal of Health Science, Volume 13; doi:10.5539/gjhs.v13n6p24

Background: Indonesia has committed to achieving Universal Health Coverage (UHC) and introduced national health insurance (JKN) to meet that commitment. Despite the increasing availability of healthcare services under the JKN scheme, traditional medicine (TM) continues to be a significant part of healthcare for Indonesians. In the context of the UHC system, this study aims to examine the predictors of TM use among urban and rural communities in Indonesia. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted using a semi-structured questionnaire targeting urban and rural communities. A total of 926 households were randomly selected to participate in the survey. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify the significant predictors of TM use. Results: Multivariate analysis revealed the following variables to be predictive of TM use, namely, rural residence, being more educated, experiencing some health problem, demonstrating ethnomedical knowledge, having a favourable opinion about the safety and efficacy of TM and holistic orientation to health.  On the other hand, working in the formal sector was associated with lower odds of using TM compared to those who were employed in the informal sector. Conclusion: People’s experience, personal attributes, and attitude towards TM, rather than dissatisfaction with healthcare service, predicted the likelihood of using TM in the UHC system in Indonesia. This finding also implies the underutilisation of JKN services by the insured TM users living in rural areas. Considering the community’s strong preferences for TM, this paper argues that its inclusion in the JKN system may increase the utilisation of the JKN service.
John O. Olawepo, Jennifer R. Pharr, Chad L. Cross, Babayemi O. Olakunde, Chinedu Aniekwe, Mercy Niyang, Raisa Kabir, Ayodotun Olutola
Global Journal of Health Science, Volume 13; doi:10.5539/gjhs.v13n6p14

The proportion of people living with HIV (PLHIV) who are overweight or obese is rising, leading to a double epidemic of HIV and obesity. The purpose of this retrospective longitudinal study was to examine changes in body mass index (BMI) among PLHIV who were new to antiretroviral therapy (ART) in two states in Southeastern Nigeria. The BMI at baseline and 12 months were compared and the difference in proportions in each BMI category was tested. The association between the BMI at 12 months and the demographic and/or clinical variables was examined using multiway analysis of covariance. The study included 2,146 participants. After 12 months on ART, the number of participants who were obese increased by 135% (81 to 190), while those who were underweight decreased by 130% (306 to 133). Overall, the BMI increased in 30.2% of the participants. Further analysis showed that age (p=.009; η2=.005), baseline BMI (p<.001; η2=.435), baseline regimen (p<.001; η2=.031), HIV stage (p=.039; η2=.007) and CD4 category (p<.001; η2=.012) were all associated with increased BMI after 12 months of ART. Healthcare providers should be mindful of the likelihood of excess weight gain among PLHIV who are on ART and develop a plan to proactively address it.
Sandra M. Skerratt, Olivia G. Wilson
Global Journal of Health Science, Volume 13; doi:10.5539/gjhs.v13n6p1

Ghana is experiencing an increase in cardiovascular (CVD) -related mortality with poor rural communities suffering greater complications and premature deaths. The point of this exploratory research is to evaluate the prevalence of CVD risk factors and to calculate the cardiovascular risk among adults aged > 40 years in Ghana’s Northern Region. A cross-sectional study was performed with 536 subjects. A pre-tested questionnaire, anthropometric measurements, and standardized WHO/ISH risk prediction charts assessed for 10-year risk of a fatal or non-fatal major cardiovascular event according to age, sex, blood pressure, smoking status, and diabetes mellitus status. Low, moderate and high CVD prevalence risk in females was 88.4%, 7.1%, and 4.5% while in males the prevalence was 91.3%, 5.8%, and 2.9%, respectively. Hypertension was noted as a clinically significant risk factor with females at 37.3% versus males at 32%. The 10-year risk of a fatal or non-fatal cardiovascular event was statistically significant for females according to age group. A moderate to high CVD risk of a fatal or non-fatal cardiovascular event was found in 10.4% of subjects. Notable CVD risk factors included a high prevalence of hypertension. Decentralizing care to local village healthcare facilities is one way to tackle cardiovascular risk reduction. Task shifting of primary care duties from physicians to nurses in terms of cardiovascular (CV) risk assessment and management of uncomplicated CV risk factors is a potential solution to the acute shortage of trained health staffs for the control and prevention of CVD in Northern Ghana.
Funmito O. Fehintola, Akintunde O Fehintola, Taiwo A. Olowolaju, Idowu O. Oluwagbamila, Ayobode A. Omidiji, Caleb A. Adegbenro, Olapeju A. Esimai
Global Journal of Health Science, Volume 13; doi:10.5539/gjhs.v13n5p53

Adolescents in communicating about their sexual and reproductive health (SRH) issues are faced with the obstacles created by expected social norms and taboos related to sexuality and gender. This study aims to determine the relationship between adolescent-parent communication and its relationship with safe sex behaviour among adolescents. The study was a descriptive cross-sectional. Data was collected from 400 adolescents in Ife-East local government using a pre-tested semi-structured questionnaire. We used a multistage sampling technique to select the required study subjects. We carried out simple frequencies and chi-square.  Fifty –five percent (55.3%) of the respondents were females, while 44.8% are males. The mean age (±SD) of the participants was 15.50 ±1.55years. Of the respondents, only 37% had good knowledge of sexual and reproductive health issues, while 63% had poor knowledge of sexual and reproductive health issues. The predictors of adolescent parent communication among respondents are private schools (OR=2.546, P = 0.005, CI=1.327-4.885), Female sex (OR=12.128, P<0.001, CI=11.590 – 25.534),   family size (OR=14.772, P= 0.003, CI=13.037 –20.015) and good knowledge of sexual and reproductive health issues (OR=19.521, P= 0.007, CI=19.521 –29.078).  There is a statistically significant relationship between adolescent parent communication and safe sexual behaviour (X²=152.998, P <0.001, df = 1). The findings of our study revealed that adolescents were not communicating much with parents about sexual and reproductive health issues; and that there is an association between adolescent parent communication and safe sexual behaviour.
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