Alzheimer's & Dementia
ISSN / EISSN : 1552-5260 / 1552-5279
Published by: Wiley-Blackwell (10.1002)
Total articles ≅ 38,740
Latest articles in this journal
Alzheimer's & Dementia; https://doi.org/10.1002/alz.12492
Introduction Lifestyle interventions may prevent cognitive decline, but the sufficient dose of intervention activities and lifestyle changes is unknown. We investigated how intervention adherence affects cognition in the FINGER trial (pre-specified subgroup analyses). Methods FINGER is a multicenter randomized controlled trial examining the efficacy of multidomain lifestyle intervention (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01041989). A total of 1260 participants aged 60 to 77 with increased dementia risk were randomized to a lifestyle intervention and control groups. Percentage of completed intervention sessions, and change in multidomain lifestyle score (self-reported diet; physical, cognitive, and social activity; vascular risk) were examined in relation to change in Neuropsychological Test Battery (NTB) scores. Results Active participation was associated with better trajectories in NTB total and all cognitive subdomains. Improvement in lifestyle was associated with improvement in NTB total and executive function. Discussion Multidomain lifestyle changes are beneficial for cognitive functioning, but future interventions should be intensive enough, and supporting adherence is essential.
Alzheimer's & Dementia; https://doi.org/10.1002/alz.12455
Objective The BRAIN Study was established to assess the associations between self-reported concussions and cognitive function among retired rugby players. Methods Former elite-level male rugby union players (50+ years) in England were recruited. Exposure to rugby-related concussion was collected using the BRAIN-Q tool. The primary outcome measure was the Preclinical Alzheimer Cognitive Composite (PACC). Linear regressions were conducted for the association between concussion and PACC score, adjusting for confounders. Results A total of 146 participants were recruited. The mean (standard deviation) length of playing career was 15.8 (5.4) years. A total of 79.5% reported rugby-related concussion(s). No association was found between concussion and PACC (β –0.03 [95% confidence interval (CI): –1.31, 0.26]). However, participants aged 80+ years reporting 3+ concussions had worse cognitive function than those without concussion (β –1.04 [95% CI: –1.62, –0.47]). Conclusions Overall there was no association between concussion and cognitive function; however, a significant interaction with age revealed an association in older participants.
Alzheimer's & Dementia; https://doi.org/10.1002/alz.12480
Introduction Amyloid beta (Aβ), tau, and neurodegeneration jointly with the Alzheimer's disease (AD) risk factors affect the severity of clinical symptoms and disease progression. Methods Within 248 Aβ-positive elderly with and without cognitive impairment and dementia, partial least squares structural equation pathway modeling was used to assess the direct and indirect effects of imaging biomarkers (global Aβ-positron emission tomography [PET] uptake, regional tau-PET uptake, and regional magnetic resonance imaging–based atrophy) and risk-factors (age, sex, education, apolipoprotein E [APOE], and white-matter lesions) on cross-sectional cognitive impairment and longitudinal cognitive decline. Results Sixteen percent of variance in cross-sectional cognitive impairment was accounted for by Aβ, 46% to 47% by tau, and 25% to 29% by atrophy, although 53% to 58% of total variance in cognitive impairment was explained by incorporating mediated and direct effects of AD risk factors. The Aβ–tau–atrophy pathway accounted for 50% to 56% of variance in longitudinal cognitive decline while Aβ, tau, and atrophy independently explained 16%, 46% to 47%, and 25% to 29% of the variance, respectively. Discussion These findings emphasize that treatments that remove Aβ and completely stop downstream effects on tau and neurodegeneration would only be partially effective in slowing of cognitive decline or reversing cognitive impairment.
Alzheimer's & Dementia; https://doi.org/10.1002/alz.12474
Medications for type 2 diabetes (T2DM) offer a promising path for discovery and development of effective interventions for dementia syndromes. A common feature of dementia syndromes is an energy failure due to reduced energy supply to neurons and is associated with synaptic loss and results in cognitive decline and behavioral changes. Among diabetes medications, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists (RAs) promote protective effects on vascular, microglial, and neuronal functions. In this review, we present evidence from animal models, imaging studies, and clinical trials that support developing GLP-1 RAs for dementia syndromes. The review examines how changes in brain energy metabolism differ in conditions of insulin resistance and T2DM from dementia and underscores the challenges that arise from the heterogeneity of dementia syndromes. The development of GLP-1 RAs as dementia therapies requires a deeper understanding of the regional changes in brain energy homeostasis guided by novel imaging biomarkers.
Alzheimer's & Dementia; https://doi.org/10.1002/alz.12482
Introduction Diabetes is a well-established risk factor for dementia, but its impact on the prodromal phase of dementia is unclear. Methods Cohorts of older adults who were cognitively healthy (n = 1840) or had cognitive impairment-no dementia (CIND; n = 682) were followed over 12 years to detect incident CIND and dementia, respectively. Results Poorly controlled diabetes (glycated hemoglobin [HbA1c] ≥7.5%; reference = normoglycemia) was associated with double the risk of CIND (Cox regression multi-adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 2.01, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.13-3.58) and triple the risk CIND progressing to dementia (HR 2.87, 95% CI 1.20-6.85). Co-morbid diabetes and heart disease doubled the risk of incident CIND and dementia, although neither disease conferred a significant risk of either outcome alone. Elevated systemic inflammation contributed to the diabetes-associated increased dementia risk. Conclusions Diabetes characterized by poor glycemic control or cardiovascular complications is related to a greater risk of the development and progression of cognitive impairment. Inflammation may play a role in these relationships.
Alzheimer's & Dementia; https://doi.org/10.1002/alz.12471
Alzheimer's & Dementia; https://doi.org/10.1002/alz.12472
The COVID-19 pandemic has disproportionately affected more vulnerable populations, including those living with dementia. Over 50 million individuals worldwide are living with Alzheimer's disease (AD) or other dementia, and it is crucial to continue the fight against the condition during the global pandemic. Since the start of mandated lockdowns in March 2020, charity and non-profit organizations that fund AD and related dementia research continue to respond to the needs of the AD research community, ensuring the momentum continues and accelerates. Members of the International Alzheimer's and Related Dementia Research Funder Consortium, a group of nearly 40 funding organizations that informally convene throughout the year to share updates and information, have taken a number of steps to ensure the continued support of the research community. Even during times of uncertainty, it is essential that the field moves forward to uncover preventions, diagnoses, and treatments for these diseases that affect many millions globally.
Alzheimer's & Dementia; https://doi.org/10.1002/alz.12433
Introduction To generalize safety and efficacy findings, it is essential that diverse populations are well represented in Alzheimer's disease (AD) drug trials. In this review, we aimed to investigate participant diversity in disease-modifying AD trials over time, and the frequencies of participant eligibility criteria. Methods A systematic review was performed using Medline, Embase, the Cochrane Library, and Clinicaltrials.gov, identifying 2247 records. Results In the 101 included AD trials, participants were predominantly White (median percentage: 94.7%, interquartile range: 81.0–96.7%); and this percentage showed no significant increase or decrease over time (2001–2019). Eligibility criteria such as exclusion of persons with psychiatric illness (78.2%), cardiovascular disease (71.3%) and cerebrovascular disease (68.3%), obligated caregiver attendance (80.2%), and specific Mini-Mental State Examination scores (90.1%; no significant increase/decrease over time) may have led to a disproportionate exclusion of ethnoracially diverse individuals. Discussion Ethnoracially diverse participants continue to be underrepresented in AD clinical trials. Several recommendations are provided to broaden eligibility criteria.
Alzheimer's & Dementia; https://doi.org/10.1002/alz.12479
The association of poor pulmonary function (PF) with cognitive trajectories and structural brain differences remains unclear. Within the Rush Memory and Aging Project, 1377 dementia-free subjects were followed up to 21 years. PF was assessed with a composite score measured at baseline. Global and domain-specific cognitive function was assessed annually constructed from 19 cognitive tests. A subsample of 351 participants underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the cross-sectional association between PF and structural brain volumes. We found that low PF was related to faster decline in global cognition, and domain-specific function including episodic memory, semantic memory, working memory, visuospatial ability, and perceptual speed. In addition, low PF was associated with smaller volumes of total brain, white matter and gray matter, and larger white matter hyperintensities volume. Our results suggest that low PF is associated with faster cognitive decline, and both neurodegeneration and vascular brain lesions may underlie the association.
Alzheimer's & Dementia; https://doi.org/10.1002/alz.12442
Introduction We examine the role of brain apolipoprotein B (apoB) as a putative marker of early tau pathology and cognitive decline. Methods Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from cognitively normal and Alzheimer's disease (AD) participants were collected to measure protein levels of apoB and AD biomarkers amyloid beta (Aβ), t-tau and p-tau, as well as synaptic markers GAP43, SYNAPTOTAGMIN-1, synaptosome associated protein 25 (SNAP-25), and NEUROGRANIN. CSF apoB levels were contrasted with positron emission tomography (PET) scan measures of Aβ (18F-NAV4694) and Tau (flortaucipir) along with cognitive assessment alterations over 6 to 8 years. Results CSF apoB levels were elevated in AD participants and correlated with t-tau, p-tau, and the four synaptic markers in pre-symptomatic individuals. In the latter, CSF apoB levels correlated with PET flortaucipir-binding in entorhinal, parahippocampal, and fusiform regions. Baseline CSF apoB levels were associated with longitudinal visuospatial cognitive decline. Discussion CSF apoB markedly associates with early tau dysregulation in asymptomatic subjects and identifies at-risk individuals predisposed to develop visuospatial cognitive decline over time.