Trends in Immunotherapy

Journal Information
EISSN : 2573-5985
Published by: EnPress Publisher (10.24294)
Total articles ≅ 99
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Kiyonori Hamatake, Kazuaki Kojima
Published: 10 January 2022
Trends in Immunotherapy, Volume 6, pp 3-6; https://doi.org/10.24294/ti.v6.i1.1385

Abstract:
Early detection is the key in managing side effects because immune-related adverse events (irAEs) are becoming more serious, and their onset time differs. In our hospital, we conducted an outpatient pharmacist clinic for early detection of irAEs by self-care practice for the cases of immune checkpoint inhibitor administration. As a result of a retrospective survey of 207 cases, the percentage of irAEs found by pharmacist’s suggestion of the outpatient pharmacist clinic increased over time, and a high detection ratio was obtained even for irAEs with a late onset time. The incidence of serious irAEs was higher than that in the immediate post-marketing surveillance, and different factors were considered. Although there were some problems, the outpatient pharmacist clinic had a certain effect.
Takashi Nomizo, Haruka Yamamoto, Tsunetaka Murayama, Hiroko Fukata, Yasukiyo Nakamura, Mami Sonomura, Aika Okuno, Naoki Kanda, Chihiro Watanabe, Hideo Kita
Published: 10 January 2022
Trends in Immunotherapy, Volume 6; https://doi.org/10.24294/ti.v6.i1.1386

Abstract:
It has been less than a decade since immune checkpoint inhibitors became the mainstay of lung cancer treatment, and 2020 saw the advent of the era of complex immune checkpoint inhibitors. Although clinical trials have shown that the therapeutic effects of complex immune checkpoint inhibitors are favorable, they are associated with an increase in adverse events. The use of combined immune checkpoint inhibitors in clinical practice has progressed slowly, and the frequency and types of adverse events they cause remain unclear. Here we report the adverse events of six patients with lung cancer treated with regimens containing nivolumab and ipilimumab in 2021. Four of the six patients had grade 3 or higher adverse events, including one patient with lung injury and one patient with skin injury, both of whom died. The timing and nature of the adverse events were difficult to predict.
Chuyen Thi Hong Nguyen, Huan Thanh Nguyen, Giang Huong Tran, Hanh Thi Tuyet Ngo, Trung The Van
Published: 10 January 2022
Trends in Immunotherapy, Volume 6; https://doi.org/10.24294/ti.v6.i1.1398

Abstract:
A 62-year-old woman reported with progressive pruritus rash that persisted on her buttocks and extremities for a duration of twenty years. She was initially diagnosed with tinea corporis but then the morphological and histological features were consistent with MF. As MF is considered as a “great imitator”, it is important to emphasize that cutaneous characteristics, skin biopsy, histology, and immunohistology may need to be performed in patients with chronic dermatoses resistant to treatment to rule out the underlying malignancy.
Kenta Takayasu, Koei Muguruma, Hidefumi Kinoshita
Published: 10 January 2022
Trends in Immunotherapy, Volume 6; https://doi.org/10.24294/ti.v6.i1.1387

Abstract:
Immune checkpoint inhibitors, which promote or suppress the anti-tumor immune response, are becoming the mainstay of cancer treatment. In 2018, CheckMate 214 study showed a higher response rate with ipilimumab and nivolumab combination therapy compared to conventional therapy for advanced renal cell carcinoma. We report a case of complete response and durable response for two years to ipilimumab and nivolumab combination therapy in a patient with postoperative renal cancer recurrence that caused immune-related adverse events such as interstitial pneumonia and hepatotoxicity.
Chunyi Gao, Tianhui Hu
Published: 26 November 2021
Trends in Immunotherapy, Volume 5, pp 79-87; https://doi.org/10.24294/ti.v5.i2.1.1376

Abstract:
Tumor immune therapy, especially anti-programmed cell death ligand-1/programmed cell death-1 (PD-L1/PD-1) treatment, is currently the focus of substantial attention. However, despite its enormous successes, the overall response rate of cancer immunotherapy remains suboptimal. There is an increased interest in combining PD-L1/PD-1 treatment with anti-angiogenic drug Apatinib to enhance antitumor effect. Presently available data seem to suggest that Apatinib may exert immune suppressive effects to make the PD-L1/PD-1 treatment works. Here, we review the extensive tumor microenvironment immune modulatory effects from antiangiogenic agents Apatinib in order to supporting VEGFR2 targettherapies in clinical trials are existing.
Di Nian, Zhuohan Li, Junjie Sun, Peng Shi
Published: 13 November 2021
Trends in Immunotherapy, Volume 5, pp 42-50; https://doi.org/10.24294/ti.v5.i2.1.1375

Abstract:
Objective: To study the potential therapeutic effects of active vitamin D3 (1.25(OH)2D3) in the experimental autoimmune neuritis (EAN). Methods: The EAN model was established by actively immunizing Lewis rats with synthetic P0180–199 pepide and Freund’s complete adjuvant. 1.25(OH)2D3 treatment was given, weight change of rats and clinical score were analyzed. HE staining was used to detect the inflammatory cell infiltration of sciatic nerves and demyelination of sciatic nerves was observed by transmission electron microscope (TEM) at the same time. The expressions of inflammatory cytokines IL-17, IL-10, TGF-β, IFN-γ were detected by ELISA, and the expressions of Th17, Treg were examined by RT-PCR. Results: 1.25(OH)2D3 ameliorated body weight loss and myelin lesions. It decreased expressions of inflammatory cytokines IL-17, IFN-γ and RORrt while those of IL-10, TGF-β and FoxP3 were increased. Conclusions: 1.25(OH)2D3 can improve the clinical pathological changes of EAN rats, and the mechanism may be related to the changes of inflammatory cytokines. 1.25(OH)2D3 is expected to become a new strategy for the clinical treatment of GBS/EAN.
Zhiyong Liu, Jian Yi, Feng’En Liu
Published: 4 November 2021
Trends in Immunotherapy, Volume 5, pp 36-41; https://doi.org/10.24294/ti.v5.i2.1.1374

Abstract:
Objective: To explore the expression and clinic significance of 8-OHdG in breast cancer. Methods: Pre-operative serum 8-OHdG levels were detected with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in a well-defined series of 173 breast cancer patients. 8-OHdG expression in cancer cells from 150 of these patients was examined by immunohistochemistry. The HPLC-ECD method is used to determine 8-OHdG concentration in urine. Results: The serum 8-OHdG levels and immunohistochemical 8-OHdG expression were in concordance with each other (P < 0.05, r = 0.163). Breast cancer patients with negative 8-OHdG immunostaining show lower survival rate according to the multivariate analysis (P < 0.01). This observation was even more remarkable in ductal carcinomas (n = 140) patients (P < 0.001). A low serum 8-OHdG level was associated statistically significantly with lymphatic vessel invasion and a positive lymph node status. Comparison of 8-OHdG concentration in urine of breast cancer patients and healthy women was statistical significance (P < 0.01). Conclusion: Low serum 8-OHdG levels and a low immunohistochemical 8-OHdG expression were associated with an aggressive breast cancer phenotype. In addition, negative 8-OHdG immunostaining was an independent prognostic factor for breast cancer-specific death in breast carcinoma patients. Using 8-OHdG concentration in urine to predict DNA damage resulting from breast cancer can provide good biological indicators for detecting harm in early breast cancer.
Haikun Li, Minhua Wang, Xiansen Zhu, Xiaoqing Zhou, Bin Yang, Qinghui Yin, Xiaoping Liu, Xiangfu Zeng, Yan Hu, Xiangtai Zeng
Published: 3 November 2021
Trends in Immunotherapy, Volume 5, pp 30-35; https://doi.org/10.24294/ti.v5.i2.1.1373

Abstract:
Objective: To detect the expression and distribution of I-FABP in intestinal tissue and the changes of serum concentrations at different time of acute intestinal ischemia, and explore the significance and mechanism of I-FABP in early diagnosis of acute ischemic bowel disease. Methods: The selected 96 healthy adult SD rats were randomly divided into the experimental group and control group; 48 in each group. Each group was randomly subdivided into 6 groups with 8 rats in each group. The superior mesenteric artery was ligated in the experimental group and the peritoneal switch operation was performed in the control group. The venous blood samples were extracted from each group rats’ right ventricle at 0.5 h, 1 h, 2 h, 4 h, 8 h, 12 h after the operation and the concentration of I-FABP was tested respectively. Then the rats were killed, and the diseased intestinal tubes were cut out for paraffin sections. The I-FABP in intestinal tissue was stained by routine HE staining and direct immunofluorescence staining. Results: The I-FABP was mainly expressed in the epithelial villi of intestinal mucosa, and there was a small amount of expression in the intestinal submucosa and even the muscularis. Within 1 hour of intestinal ischemia, the number of I-FABP positive granules in the intestine and intestinal cavity increased gradually, and then gradually decreased after 1 hour. The difference has statistically significant between the experimental group and the control group (P < 0.05). The serum I-FABP: In the experimental group, the serum I-FABP concentration began to increase at 0.5 h, and reached a peak at 1 h (290. 24 ± 156.69) μg·L–1, then gradually decreased. Compared with the control group, the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). Conclusion: I-FABP usually mainly exists in the epithelial cells of intestinal mucosa. When acute intestinal ischemia occurs, the epithelial cells of intestinal mucosa permeability changes; I-FABP expression rapidly releases to intestinal tissue and intestinal cavity, and is absorbed into the blood. Therefore, I-FABP has certain clinical significance in early diagnosis and treatment of acute intestinal ischemia.
Ruilian Xie
Published: 1 November 2021
Trends in Immunotherapy, Volume 5, pp 24-29; https://doi.org/10.24294/ti.v5.i2.1.1372

Abstract:
Compared with other types of breast cancer, triple negative breast cancer has a poor survival prognosis due to its high aggressiveness and lack of effective therapeutic targets. Immune checkpoint (PD-1/PD-L1 and CTL-4) inhibitors have emerged as a breakthrough therapy in the treatment in various metastatic cancers. PARP inhibitors promote DNA damage in tumor cells, not only promoting immune initiation through a series of molecular mechanisms, but also leading to adaptive upregulation of programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression. Therefore, the combination of the two inhibitors can improve the efficacy of tumor treatment. We reviewed the research progress of their combined use in triple negative breast cancer, and put forward relevant ideas for further development, hoping to find the best treatment mode of the combined use of the two.
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