World Journal of AIDS

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2160-8814 / 2160-8822
Published by: Scientific Research Publishing, Inc. (10.4236)
Total articles ≅ 335
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Patrícia Furtado, Lismeia Raimundo Soares, Alberto J. S. Duarte, Jorge Casseb
Published: 1 January 2022
World Journal of Aids, Volume 12, pp 32-42; https://doi.org/10.4236/wja.2022.121003

Abstract:
Currently, with the increase in life expectancy of people living with HIV (PLHIV), it is essential to analyze the biopsychosocial aspects involved in satisfaction with quality of life and its multidimensionality, because although HAART produces hope for the control of HIV, can have important emotional consequences. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of lipodystrophy (LDS) on self-esteem and body image of PLHIV in Brazil. It is a psychoanalytic method by semi-structured interview, a body image scale and two drawings that represent the patients’ body image before and after. The diagnosis of LDS was by self-report. Sixteen patients 8 (eight men and 8 women), with a mean age of 43 years, were invited to the HIV-Out ADEE 3002 outpatient clinic of the Dermatology Clinic of the Central Institute of a University Hospital in São Paulo. It was noted that 50% of patients reported physical problems and 25% consequences in the family and social sphere. There were increased bodily changes, family problems and social prejudices after HAART and the self-esteem of 88% of patients were shown to be “little adjusted” to their condition. For 63%, physical appearance was a concern and 87% of them reported body dissatisfaction. Patients also reported impact on their sexuality (75% felt less attractive and 88% with reduced libido after starting LDS). The interviews, drawings and body image scale showed important changes in the lives of patients with lipodystrophy, where negative changes in appearance and effects on self-image were observed. This diagnosis seems to influence other aspects of social life, which can lead to prejudice in relation to illness and, therefore, isolation.
Damodar Sahu, Varsha Ranjan, Nalini Chandra, Saritha Nair, Anil Kumar, Elangovan Arumugam, Bilali Camara, M. Vishnu Vardhana Rao
Published: 1 January 2022
World Journal of Aids, Volume 12, pp 83-96; https://doi.org/10.4236/wja.2022.122007

Abstract:
Background: A better understanding of the impact of Targeted Interventions (TI) services on Female Sex Worker (FSW) behaviours can help in informing and strengthening future TI efforts under National AIDS Control Programme (NACP). Methods: National Integrated Biological and Behavioural Survey (IBBS) 2014-15 has been analysed in the paper. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analysis were used to understand factors affecting condom use. Propensity score matching (PSM) was done to understand the impact of the TI services on condom use at the last act and consistent condom use in the last three months among FSWs. Results: Younger FSWs aged 15 - 25 years were 1.4 times (95% CI: 1.04 - 1.77) more likely to use consistent condoms in the last three months compared to older over 45 years after controlling for other socio-economic and programme variables. The matched samples estimate ATET i.e. the average treatment effect on treated for consistent condom use in the last three months shows that a 6.0% (CI: 4.7 - 7.3) increase in consistent condom use in the last three months in the FSWs who received information on STI/HIV from peer educator and outreach worker. There is also a 6.0% (4.7 - 7.2) increase in condom use in the last act for FSWs who received the referral services at STI clinics, HIV testing, and detox centres. Conclusions: It is evident that the TI programme has a positive impact on behavior change among FSWs which can prove beneficial to curtail the spread of HIV to the partners and onward transmission to the general population.
Praznikov Viktor
Published: 1 January 2022
World Journal of Aids, Volume 12, pp 111-119; https://doi.org/10.4236/wja.2022.122009

Abstract:
The article discusses two forms of resonance in medicine in the treatment of AIDS. The first form is the destruction resonance. This is well known and we have used it to kill tumors or infectious diseases. The second form of resonance is the resonance of creation, which leads to the restoration of degenerated or destroyed organs. The article talks about the so-called “nosodes”—wave copies of the disease and “organopreparations”—wave copies of normally functioning organs. The author uses the method of high potency bioresonance therapy since the use of low potency nosode therapy is completely ineffective in the treatment of AIDS. Thus, the principle of high potency destruction resonance has proven to be extremely effective in the treatment of AIDS. The principle of the resonance of creation proved to be effective in restoring destroyed tissue.
Gloria Igihozo, Junious Mabo Sichali, Sandip Medhe, Rex Wong
Published: 1 January 2022
World Journal of Aids, Volume 12, pp 120-139; https://doi.org/10.4236/wja.2022.122010

Abstract:
Background: The overall HIV prevalence and incidence in Rwanda have decreased significantly in the past decade. However, opposite trends are seen among key populations (KP). The HIV prevalence among sex workers is as high as 51% and continues to rise. While the HIV prevalence among KP remains high, their adherence to treatment is low. Healthcare providers play a vital role in KP’s access and adherence to HIV treatment. This study aimed to explore the perspectives of healthcare providers on providing HIV services to key populations in Rwanda. Methods: An exploratory qualitative study was conducted with nurses, doctors, social workers, and psychologists who provide HIV services to KP in public health facilities in Rwanda. In-depth interviews were conducted using a semi-structured interview guide. All data were analyzed thematically using Dedoose. Results: Interviews were conducted with 18 healthcare providers. Three overarching themes emerged from the interviews: healthcare providers’ intrinsic feelings affect the ways they provide HIV services to key populations, key populations face a multitude of challenges related to accessing treatment and preventing the spread of HIV, and a more comprehensive and sensitive approach should be used to improve HIV services for key populations. Conclusion: Healthcare providers expressed difficulties in providing services to key populations and identified a lack of adherence to treatment and prevention guidelines, structural barriers, KP’s lack of trust in the healthcare system, and the discrimination and abuse KP face as challenges to effective HIV prevention and treatment. More comprehensive services including clinical, financial, and psychosocial support from trusted sources are needed. Some important policy changes are essential to facilitate access to HIV services for KP.
Berthold Bivigou-Mboumba, Berthe Amélie Iroungou, Pamela Moussavou-Boundzanga, Laurette Guignali Mangouka, Falone Larissa Akombi, Aurore Bouassa-Bouassa, Sandrine Francois-Souquière, Jean Raymond Nzenze
Published: 1 January 2022
World Journal of Aids, Volume 12, pp 156-168; https://doi.org/10.4236/wja.2022.123012

Abstract:
Context: The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) continues to be the main public health challenge in Gabon. The latest studies highlight a high rate of virological failure and HIV drug resistance in semi-rural Gabon. In Libreville, virological failure data is sparse, data on HIV drug resistance for the former first line and new first-line regimen is lacking. Methods: Between January 28th, 2019, and January 31st, 2020, we received patient living with HIV (PLWHA) for CD4 counts, HIV-1 viral load, and/or genotyping of HIV-1 mutation drug resistance. We used the BD FACSPresto for CD4 count, the Biocentric Generic HIV viral load test for HIV-1 quantification, and the HIV-1 drug resistance mutation genotyping (ARNS protocol). Results: A total of 1129 HIV-1 patients have been enrolled for this study. The median age was 46 years old and the median of CD4 was 386 cells per cubic millimeter. The virological suppression success was observed at 62.7% of patients on the former first line regimen and 70.6% of the patient on DBR. We successfully amplified and analyzed 76 sequences and noticed the presence of the nineteen different subtypes with the predominance of the subtypes CRF02-AG (37.95%), followed by subtype A (22.3%). For HIV drug resistance analyses, 108 (65.1%) had resistance mutation to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs); of these, 91 (84%) present M184V/I. When looking for NNRTI mutations, 119 (71.7%) sequences had at least one mutation. Of these, 82 had K103N (68.9%), representing the main NNRTI mutations. The pattern showing the high level of resistance (HLR) in all molecules of NRTIs and NNRTIs, except for the TDF (intermediate resistance) was M41L-E44DL74I-M184-L210W-T215Y-K101P-K103N-V106I. Conclusion: This report paints a picture of a relatively female-dominated HIV-infected Gabonese population with a low level of immunity. The level of drug resistance with the former first-line regimen suggests the need to monitor the drug Dolutegravir resistance.
Phrutthinun Surit, Sukkid Yasothornsrikul, Ratchanee Mitkitti
Published: 1 January 2022
World Journal of Aids, Volume 12, pp 141-155; https://doi.org/10.4236/wja.2022.123011

Abstract:
Background: Commercial female sex workers (CFSWs) are considered a high-risk group for HIV/AIDs. The prevalence of HIV/AIDs trends to increase among those groups also in Thailand. An adequate perception of the degree to which one is at risk of having HIV is necessary for behavioral change and of safe behaviors. HIV/AIDs risk perception among CFSWs was needed to reduce HIV/AIDs infection. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 141 CFSWs in Bangkok, Thailand. Participants were selected using convenient and purposive sampling methods for January to October 2019. Self-access questionnaire was used for collecting data with the reliability testing of 0.82. Logistic regression employed to identify adjusted odd ratio between demographic data, sexual behaviors and HIV/AIDs risk perception, p-value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: 51.77% of CFSWs perceived themselves at high risk for HIV/AIDs infection. Most CFSWs reported that they did not consistently use condom (57.45%), factors associated with perception risk of HIV/AIDs including education level (adjusted OR = 2.23, 95% CI = 1.07 - 4.54), knowledge of HIV and STDs (adjusted OR = 3.65 and 3.22. 95% CI = 1.89 - 3.91), Condom use (adjusted OR = 2.56, 95% CI = 1.05 - 2.90) years engaged in sex work, age of initiating in sex work, frequency of sex work in the last month and unplanned sex work were significant with risk perception of HIV/AIDs (adjusted OR = 3.33, 2.71, 2.67, 2.56 and 95% CI = 1.99 - 3.84, 1.72 - 3.32, 1.29 - 3.12, 1.05 - 2.78 respectively), and had HIV/STDs test (adjusted OR = 3.22, 95% CI = 2.11 - 3.95). Other used illicit drugs by injection, smoking and alcohol consumption had a strong association with the high perception of HIV/AIDs among CFSWs. Conclusion: Majority of CFSWs with risky sexual behaviors had a high HIV/AIDs risk perception. Effective educational programmes are necessary to enable CFSWs to correctly assess their own HIV/AIDs risk and change risk behaviors based on self-assessment of actual risk.
Le Bao Chau, Pham Thi Huyen Chang, Duong Minh Duc, Hoang Van Minh, Luu Quoc Toan, Bui Thi Tu Quyen, Le Thi Vui, Bui Thi Thu Ha
Published: 1 January 2022
World Journal of Aids, Volume 12, pp 65-82; https://doi.org/10.4236/wja.2022.122006

Abstract:
The study was carried out to determine utilization and satisfaction with essential HIV services from HIV individuals and high-risk populations in 7 socioeconomic provinces nationwide. A cross-sectional approach was applied in the study. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews using self-report questionnaires. Findings from 2380 respondents indicated a high percentage of utilization as well as a high level of satisfaction, in particular among men who have sex with men (MSM) and female sex worker (FSW) sub-group. Needle, syringe, and condom programs had lower usage and satisfaction mean scores in comparison with other services. The proportion of people who used drugs (PWID) and participated in the needle and syringe program was 53.6%. HIV counseling and testing uptake proportion of overall respondents in the last 12 months was 82.2% while the rate of antiretroviral treatment among infected PWID was 74.9%. The level of satisfaction with treatment services was found to be higher than preventive interventions (p < 0.05). Analysis using univariable logistic regression suggested an association between some socioeconomic factors such as income, employment, educational attainment, and marital status with subjects’ satisfaction with several HIV services. Preventive services, especially needle, syringe and condom programs should be prioritized to scale up the coverage and effectiveness. Innovative approaches targeting at PWID should be promoted to increase their access to prevention programs as well as HIV care when needed.
Mawaib Hassan Fath-Elrahman, Mubarak Alkarsany, Bakri Yousif Mohammed Nour, Adam Dawoud Abakar, Abdelrahman Eldaw Mhammed, Salaheldein Gumma Elzaki, Eman Osman, Mubarak Elshafia, Elhadi Abdalla Ahmed
Published: 1 January 2022
World Journal of Aids, Volume 12, pp 55-64; https://doi.org/10.4236/wja.2022.122005

Abstract:
Background: Prevention against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) includes natural resistance in the population; mainly frequency of cysteine-cysteine chemokine receptor type-5 (CCR5-delta 32 mutation). By knowing the frequency of this resistance in the community, the proportion of the population susceptible to infection can be determined. This study aimed to detect for the first time the rate of CCR5-delta 32 mutation in Sudanese individuals with HIV and sex workers. Methods: Cross-sectional study was followed in the parade from 2019 through 2021, study groups were Sudanese with HIV and sex workers. Sero-negativity of sex workers was confirmed by a rapid immunochromatography test (ICT). A blood sample was targeted for DNA isolation. PCR amplification was accomplished for CCR5 wild type and CCR5-delta 32 mutation genes using specific primers. Result: Among HIV patients, males, basic education level and ages below 60 years were commonly recorded while ages below 40 years, secondary education level and single marital status were predominated in sex workers. All HIV patients were positive for CCR5 wild type and negative for CCR5-delta 32 genotype. The sex workers group showed a frequency of 3.5% (97/200) for homozygous CCR5-delta 32 mutation. Conclusion: The rating of homozygous CCR5-delta 32 genotype in studied Sudanese sex workers was relatively more than other results obtained from African countries, and the mutation was significantly detected among sex workers group (P value = 0.008) when compared to the studied HIV group.
Djoman Christiane Antoinette, Gakoué Zadi Désiré, Douba Alfred, Ayekoé Adou Ignace, Akani Bangaman Christian, Akpro Loes Cynthia Marie-Dominique, Tiembré Issaka
Published: 1 January 2022
World Journal of Aids, Volume 12, pp 169-181; https://doi.org/10.4236/wja.2022.123013

Abstract:
Introduction: In Côte d’Ivoire, people living with HIV are estimated to 460,000 with about 290,000 who know their HIV status. Index testing is a strategy for screening unidentified HIV carriers. This study aimed at analyzing the screening of contact subjects of people living with HIV at the anti-venereal health center of Treichville in Abidjan. Methods: We carried out a cross-sectional study from January 2009 to December 2018. The target population was index patients and their sexual partners. After giving their consent, index patients and their sexual partners were interviewed during their medical visit. Data were analyzed using Epi info 3.5.4. The khi2 test was performed at 5% significance level. Results: A total of 114 index patients have been included in the study. The majority of sexual partners were men (sex ratio M/F = 1.5) with an average age of 43 years (±9.77). 87.7% of index patients lived in pairs. The analysis showed that 87.7% of index patients had disclosed their HIV status to their sexual partners and 94.3% of index patients invited their sexual partners to be tested. 85.8% of sexual partners had been tested. 19.8% of sexual partners who have been tested were HIV positive. All the 8 children of female index patients were HIV negative. HIV test acceptability was statistically associated with living in pairs (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Screening sexual partners from index patients has been an effective way to detect HIV carriers who did not know their status.
Tendai Hlabangana, Owen Mugurungi, Howard Nyika, Emmanuel Govha, Tsitsi Patience Juru, Notion Tafara Gombe, Addmore Chadambuka, Mufuta Tshimanga
Published: 1 January 2022
World Journal of Aids, Volume 12, pp 20-31; https://doi.org/10.4236/wja.2022.121002

Abstract:
Background: Human Immuno-Deficiency Virus Self-Testing (HIVST) is a process where an individual who wants to know their HIV status collects a specimen, performs a test and interprets the result by themselves. HIVST data from the Zimbabwe AIDS and TB Program (ATP) directorate showed that between 2019-2020, only 31% of the target HIVST kits were distributed in the country. Mashonaland West Province was one of the least performing provinces in meeting targets for HIVST kits distribution. Gaps in the implementation of the HIVST in the province ultimately affect the nationwide scaleup of targeted testing, a key enabler in achieving HIV epidemic control. We analyzed HIVST trends in Mashonaland West Province to inform HIV testing services programming. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study using HIVST secondary data obtained from the District Health Information Software 2 (DHIS2) electronic database. We conducted regression analysis for trends using Epi Info 7.2 and tables, bar graphs, pie charts and linear graphs were used for data presentation. Results: A total of 31,070 clients accessed HIVST kits in Mashonaland West Province from 2019-2020. A slightly higher proportion (50.4% and 51.7%) of females as compared to males accessed HIVST kits in 2019 and 2020 respectively. Overall, an increase in the trend of HIVST kits uptake was recorded (males R2 = 0.3945, p-value = 0.003 and females R2 = 0.4739, p-value = 0.001). There was generally a decline in the trend of community-based distribution of HIVST kits from the third quarter of 2019 throughout 2020 (R2 = 0.2441, p-value = 0.006). Primary distribution of HIVST kits remained the dominant method of distribution, constituting more than half of the kits distributed in both 2019 (67%) and 2020 (86%). Conclusion: Mashonaland West Province was mainly utilising facility-based distribution model for HIVST over the community-based distribution model. We recommended training more community-based distribution agents to increase community distribution of HIVST kits.
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