Tumor Biology

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ISSN / EISSN : 1010-4283 / 1423-0380
Published by: IOS Press (10.3233)
Total articles ≅ 7,511
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Ali Samy Algharib, Gamila Mohamed-Labib Shanab, Abdel-Rahman Badr Abdel-Ghaffar, Mohamed Ahmed Ismail, Rania Hassan Mohamed
Published: 12 April 2022
Tumor Biology, Volume 44, pp 53-67; https://doi.org/10.3233/tub-211538

Abstract:
BACKGROUND: Bithiophene derivatives show a promising anti-cancer potential. We previously showed that Bithienyl Fluorobenzamidine (BFB) has an anti-proliferative effect against several leukemia cell lines. Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) accounts for 18% of the total leukemia cases worldwide with heavier burden during the past 30 years. Therefore, the main aim remains the discovery of safe and effective medications. OBJECTIVE: The current research aims to investigate the anti-cancer efficacy of BFB and its effect on the apoptosis in the 7,12-Dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) induced AML in mice. METHODS: AML was induced in mice by DMBA and then treated by 2 different doses of BFB. After BFB treatment, the hematological and histological pattern changes was examined. Furthermore, the molecular effect of BFB on apoptosis, cell cycle markers and Protein kinase B (Akt) pathway was examined using qPCR, Western blotting and ELISA. RESULTS: BFB treatment ameliorates leukemia histological and hematological markers significantly, despite non-significant changes in normal mice. This improvement exhibits cell cycle arrest and apoptosis induction, represented by elevation of tp53/p53, p21/p21, Caspase3 and downregulation of ckk1/Cdk1 in the bone marrow, as well as Akt pathway suppression. CONCLUSIONS: Our results establishes BFB as a promising therapeutic candidate against AML through cell cycle arrest, apoptosis induction and Akt pathway modulation.
Jussi Kasurinen, Jaana Hagström, Tuomas Kaprio, Ines Beilmann-Lehtonen, Caj Haglund, Camilla Böckelman
Published: 7 April 2022
Tumor Biology, Volume 44, pp 37-52; https://doi.org/10.3233/tub-211571

Abstract:
BACKGROUND: A large number of infiltrating CD3- and CD8-positive inflammatory cells indicates an improved survival in colorectal cancer (CRC), similar to many other cancers. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the prognostic value of different combinations of CD3- and CD8-positive immune cells in CRC patients. METHODS: The densities of CD3- and CD8-positive cells in intratumoral and stromal tissues were evaluated from 539 patients, for which we calculated a CD3 tumor–stroma index, a CD8 tumor–stroma index, and a CD3–CD8 tumor–stroma index. RESULTS: High CD3 and CD8 tumor–stroma indices associated with stage I to II disease (p < 0.001 for both). The CD3 tumor–stroma index associated with a colonic tumor location (p = 0.006), while the CD8 tumor–stroma index associated with right-sided tumors (p < 0.001) and histological grade 3 tumors (p = 0.032). High intratumoral and stromal densities for CD3- and CD8-positive immune cells, the CD3 tumor–stroma index, the CD8 tumor–stroma index, and the CD3–CD8 tumor–stroma index all indicated a better DSS. CONCLUSIONS: The CD3 tumor–stroma index carries a strong prognostic value in CRC, and none of the CD3 and CD8 combinations we analyzed proved superior.
Manar F. Atoum, Foad E. Alzoughool, Zainab A. Al-Mazaydeh, Majdoleen S. Rammaha, Lubna H. Tahtamouni
Published: 14 February 2022
Tumor Biology, Volume 44, pp 17-35; https://doi.org/10.3233/tub-211536

Abstract:
BACKGROUND: 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) is an effective anticancer agent, and when combined with other agents it shows superior activities. Vitamin B12 has been shown to contribute to increasing the effectiveness of anticancer drugs when used in combination. Thus, the current study aimed at investigating the anticancer potential of the combination of 1,25(OH)2D3 and vitamin B12. METHODS: MTT assay was used to determine the cytotoxic activity of combining 1,25(OH)2D3 and vitamin B12 against six different cancer cell lines and one normal cell line. The surviving fraction after clonogenic assay was measured, and the effects of 1,25(OH)2D3/B12 combination on the activity of different caspases, cell adhesion, actin cytoskeleton, cell morphology, and percentage of polarized cells were evaluated. RESULTS: Vitamin B12 did not cause cytotoxicity, however, it enhanced the cytotoxicity of 1,25(OH)2D3 against cancer cells. The cytotoxic effects of 1,25(OH)2D3 and its combination with vitamin B12 was not evident in the normal mammary MCF10A cell line indicating cancer cell-specificity. The cytotoxic effects of 1,25(OH)2D3/B12 combination occurred in a dose-dependent manner and was attributed to apoptosis induction which was mediated by caspase 4 and 8. Moreover, 1,25(OH)2D3/B12-treated cells showed enhanced inhibition of clonogenic tumor growth, reduced cell adhesion, reduced cell area, reduced percentage of cell polarization, and disorganized actin cytoskeleton resulting in reduced migratory phenotype when compared to cells treated with 1,25(OH)2D3 alone. CONCLUSION: 1,25(OH)2D3 and vitamin B12 exhibited synergistic anticancer effects against different cancer cell lines. The combination therapy of 1,25(OH)2D3 and vitamin B12 may provide a potential adjunctive treatment option for some cancer types.
Thomas B. Piper, Hans J. Nielsen, Ib Jarle Christensen
Published: 14 February 2022
Tumor Biology, Volume 44, pp 1-16; https://doi.org/10.3233/tub-211501

Abstract:
BACKGROUND: It was previously shown in three subpopulations that subjects not identified with colorectal cancer (CRC) at bowel endoscopy, but with increased serological cancer-associated protein biomarker levels had an increased risk of being diagnosed with subsequent malignant diseases. Objective: The aim of the present study was to perform a pooled analysis of subjects from the three subpopulations and subsequently validate the results in an independent study. The study population denoted the training set includes N = 4,076 subjects with symptoms attributable to CRC and the independent validation set N = 3,774 similar subjects. METHODS: Levels of CEA, CA19-9, TIMP-1 and YKL-40 were determined in blood samples collected prior to diagnostic bowel endoscopy. Follow-up of subjects not diagnosed with CRC at endoscopy, was ten years and identified subjects diagnosed with primary intra- or extra-colonic malignant diseases. The primary analysis was time to a newly diagnosed malignant disease and was analyzed with death as a competing risk in the training set. Subjects with HNPCC or FAP were excluded. The cumulated incidence was estimated for each biomarker and in a multivariate model. The resulting model was then validated on the second study population. RESULTS: In the training set primary malignancies were identified in 515 (12.6%) of the 4,076 subjects, who had a colorectal endoscopy with non-malignant findings. In detail, 33 subjects were subsequently diagnosed with CRC and 482 subjects with various extra-colonic cancers. Multivariate additive analysis of the dichotomized biomarkers demonstrated that CEA (HR = 1.50, 95% CI:1.21–1.86, p < 0.001), CA19-9 (HR = 1.41, 95% CI:1.10–1.81, p = 0.007) and TIMP-1 (HR = 1.25 95% CI: 1.01–1.54, p = 0.041) were significant predictors of subsequent malignancy. The cumulated incidence at 5 years landmark time was 17% for those subjects with elevated CEA, CA19-9 and TIMP-1 versus 6.7% for those with low levels of all. When the model was applied to the validation set the cumulated 5-year incidence was 10.5% for subjects with elevated CEA, CA19-9 and TIMP-1 and 5.6% for subjects with low levels of all biomarkers. Further analysis demonstrated a significant interaction between TIMP-1 and age in the training set. The age dependency of TIMP-1 indicated a greater risk of malignancy in younger subjects if the biomarker was elevated. This observation was validated in the second set. CONCLUSION: Elevated cancer-associated protein biomarker levels in subjects with non-malignant findings at large bowel endoscopy identifies subjects at increased risk of being diagnosed with subsequent primary malignancy. CEA, CA19-9 and TIMP-1 were significant predictors of malignant disease in this analysis. TIMP-1 was found dependent on age. The results were validated in an independent symptomatic population.
Amichay Meirovitz, Lea Baider, Tamar Peretz, Samir Stephanos, Vivian Barak
Published: 21 December 2021
Tumor Biology, Volume 43, pp 341-349; https://doi.org/10.3233/tub-211533

Abstract:
BACKGROUND: Cancer progression is associated with significant systemic clinical manifestations including cachexia induced weight loss and anorexia. Pentoxifylline (PTX) is a drug that has been shown to have multiple beneficial effects in cancer patients through its anti-inflammatory properties. MAIN OBJECTIVE: To evaluate PTX effects on colon cancer patients treated with chemotherapy. PATIENTS and METHODS: Forty metastatic colon cancer patients receiving chemotherapy were enrolled in this randomized study. 17 patients were treated with a full dose of PTX (400 mg TID), 9 patients with a reduced dose PTX (200 mg TID) and 23 served as controls (no PTX). RESULTS: Follow-up evaluations of patients included the following: physical examination; leukopenia determination; weight determination; stomatitis determination; and survival rate. Patients treated with PTX (both full and reduced doses), experienced a significant increase in weight and a reduction in stomatitis relative to the control group. Treatment with PTX also significantly increased patient survival rate. All patients treated with PTX, had a median overall survival (OS) rate of 20.4 months as compared to 13.2 months in the control group. CONCLUSIONS: PTX treatment of colon cancer patients, in addition to chemotherapy, significantly improved survival rates, induced weight gain and reduced stomatitis occurrence –all important parameters of cachexia.
Alexandra Blackman, Jessica Mitchell, Rachael Rowswell-Turner, Rakesh Singh, Kyu Kwang Kim, Elizabeth Eklund, Steven Skates, Robert C. Bast, Geralyn Messerlian, M. Craig Miller, et al.
Published: 21 December 2021
Tumor Biology, Volume 43, pp 355-365; https://doi.org/10.3233/tub-211546

Abstract:
BACKGROUND: The measurement of serum HE4 levels has emerged as a sensitive and specific biomarker for epithelial ovarian cancers (EOCs). However, serum levels in women diagnosed with various histologic subtypes of EOC and in women with metastatic non-ovarian primary malignancies have not been widely reported. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to identify how serum HE4 levels vary in women diagnosed with different histologic subtypes of EOC and non-ovarian malignancies. METHODS: Data from six prospective pelvic mass clinical trials was combined and an evaluation of serum HE4 levels in women diagnosed with a malignancy was performed. For all patients, serum was obtained prior to surgery and final pathology, including primary tumor site, histologic subtype, grade and stage, were recorded. The mean, median, standard deviation, maximum, and minimum HE4 levels were determined for each group. RESULTS: A total of 984 patients were included in this study, with the average patient age being 60 years old. There were 230 premenopausal and 754 postmenopausal patients. Serum HE4 levels were elevated (≥70.0 pMol) in 85%of EOCs, 40%of LMP tumors, 21%of non-EOCs (germ cell tumors), 25%of cervical cancers, and 47%of non-gynecologic metastatic cancers. Analysis of histologic subtypes revealed 90%(n = 391) of serous, 85%(n = 73) of endometrioid, 45%(n = 42) of mucinous, 86%(n = 51) of mixed tumors, and 69%(n = 36) of clear cell tumors had elevated serum HE4 levels. CONCLUSIONS: Serum HE4 levels are most often elevated in women with high grade serous and endometrioid EOCs, and though serum elevations are seen more often with advanced stage disease, HE4 is also often elevated in early stage disease and lower grade tumors.
Tales Henrique Andrade da Mota, Ana Flávia Reis Guimarães, Amandda Évelin Silva de Carvalho, Felipe Saldanha- de Araujo, Giselle Pinto De Faria Lopes, Fábio Pittella-Silva, , Diêgo Madureira de Oliveira
Published: 21 December 2021
Tumor Biology, Volume 43, pp 327-340; https://doi.org/10.3233/tub-211515

Abstract:
BACKGROUND: The inhibition of the enzyme telomerase (TERT) has been widely investigated as a new pharmacological approach for cancer treatment, but its real potential and the biochemical consequences are not totally understood. OBJECTIVE: Here, we investigated the effects of the telomerase inhibitor MST-312 on a human glioma cell line after both short- and long-term (290 days) treatments. METHODS: Effects on cell growth, viability, cell cycle, morphology, cell death and genes expression were assessed. RESULTS: We found that short-term treatment promoted cell cycle arrest followed by apoptosis. Importantly, cells with telomerase knock-down revealed that the toxic effects of MST-312 are partially TERT dependent. In contrast, although the long-term treatment decreased cell proliferation at first, it also caused adaptations potentially related to treatment resistance and tumor aggressiveness after long time of exposition. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the short-term effects of telomerase inhibition not being due to telomere erosion, they are at least partially related to the enzyme inhibition, which may represent an important strategy to pave the way for tumor growth control, especially through modulation of the non-canonical functions of telomerase. On the other hand, long-term exposure to the inhibitor had the potential to induce cell adaptations with possible negative clinical implications.
Retraction
Published: 21 December 2021
Tumor Biology, Volume 43, pp 351-354; https://doi.org/10.3233/tub-219010

Abstract:
The publisher and the Editor-in-Chief, in consultation with former publisher of Tumor Biology, retract a total of 15 articles from the journals’ online catalog. The articles were published in different issues of the journal during the period 2014–2016. All articles affected by this retraction notice have problems related to image manipulation or misuse. A detailed explanation is given for each retracted article. The investigations were carried out in accordance with the recommendations of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE).
Yuko Takeba, Yuki Ohta, Masanori Ootaki, Tsukasa Kobayashi, Keisuke Kida, Minoru Watanabe, Satoshi Koizumi, Takehito Otsubo, Taroh Iiri, Naoki Matsumoto
Published: 9 December 2021
Tumor Biology, Volume 43, pp 309-325; https://doi.org/10.3233/tub-211507

Abstract:
BACKGROUND: Cytokines play an important role in the immune response, angiogenesis, cell growth, and differentiation in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). OBJECTIVE: We performed a comprehensive study to identify tumor-related cytokines and pathways involved in HCC pathogenesis. METHODS: Cytokine production was evaluated in human HCC tissues and adjacent non-tumor tissues using an antibody-based protein array technique. We compared cytokine expression in HCC tissues with that of hepatic hemangioma (HH), liver metastasis of colorectal cancer, and noncancerous liver tissues from transplantation donors. The protein levels and localization of the candidate cytokines were analyzed by western blotting and immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Increased expression of interleukin (IL)-1 receptor antagonist, macrophage migration inhibitory factor, and IL-16 was observed in HCC and paired adjacent non-tumor tissues compared with noncancerous livers. In addition, there were increased IL-16 levels in HCC tissues compared with HH. IL-16 treatment significantly increased cell proliferation in vitro. The expression of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 and cyclin D1 was markedly increased in cells from two HCC cell lines, Huh7 and HepG2, in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Phosphorylated to total ERK1/2 ratio was increased in Huh7 cells following IL-16 50 ng/ml, but not HepG2 cells. ERK phosphorylation have occurred earlier than protein accumulation at 48 h. Pretreatment with the ERK inhibitor, FR18024, or an anti-IL-16 antibody reduced the increase in IL-16 production in HCC cells. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that cell proliferation induced by IL-16 is mediated through the ERK pathway, thus, we identified a new factor associated with HCC tumor growth.
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