Journal of Agricultural Chemistry and Environment

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2325-7458 / 2325-744X
Current Publisher: Scientific Research Publishing, Inc. (10.4236)
Total articles ≅ 197
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Asmak Afriliana, Endar Hidayat, Yoshiharu Mitoma, Taizo Masuda, Hiroyuki Harada
Journal of Agricultural Chemistry and Environment, Volume 10, pp 91-112; doi:10.4236/jacen.2021.101007

Abstract:
Spent Coffee Ground (SCG) is characterized by high organic content, in the form of insoluble polysaccharides bound and phenol compounds. Phenol compounds are toxic to nature and are a cause of environmental pollution. Composting method of this study is aerobic static batch composting with temperature control with adding activators of some fungi such as Aspergillus sp, and Penicillium sp. The purpose of the research is to fill the research gap from previous studies of spent coffee grounds compost, which requires a long time in composting, so that if it is used directly on the soil and plants, the positive effect also requires a long time. The result of composting for 28 days with this method is that mature compost has black crumb and normal pH, with characteristics of C/N ratio below 10: C1 (7.06), C2 (6.99). This value is far from the control with a C/N ratio of 8.33. Decompose rate of macromolecule are above 40% for lignin and 70% for cellulose. Implementation of compost in radish plants, resulting Germination Index above 80% which indicates that the compost is ripe: control (92.39%), C1 (183.88%), C2 (191.86%). The results of the analysis with FTIR also showed that the compost was mature and stable, and rich in minerals. So, it can be concluded that this composting method can speed up composting time and optimize the results of compost produced.
Siguibnoma Kevin Landry Ouédraogo, Bawindsom Marcel Kébré, Francois Zougmoré
Journal of Agricultural Chemistry and Environment, Volume 10, pp 57-68; doi:10.4236/jacen.2021.101004

Abstract:
The water resources reduction due to climate changes and also population increase, have contributed to increasing the constraint on water disponibility and accessibility. In the agricultural field, we need moderate soil and water resources management. This work aims to simulate water dynamics in soil under drip irrigation system in arid regions to better manage irrigation water. Simulations are done with soil physical properties of Burkina Faso. We assess maize plant water requirements for the whole growing season. With Hydrus 2D, we simulate water supply in the soil column. We assign atmospheric conditions on the top of the domain, zero flux of water on the lateral sides, and free drainage on the bottom boundary domain. We perform many irrigation events to analyze wetting pattern distribution around the emitter, which allowed us to contain the amount of irrigation water applied, only around the area dominated by roots, and then reduce water losses that roots cannot uptake. According to the different growing stages of the maize crop, we choose proper irrigation duration and frequency, and suggest irrigation schedule for the whole growing season.
Guoli Wang, Yongzhi Chen, Hongying Fan, Ping Huang
Journal of Agricultural Chemistry and Environment, Volume 10, pp 1-15; doi:10.4236/jacen.2021.101001

Abstract:
With andromonoecious Momordica charantia L. (bitter gourd) as material, three light qualities (50 μmol·m-2·s-1) including white LED light (WL), blue monochromatic light (B, 465 nm), and red monochromatic light (R, 650 nm) were carried out to investigate their effects on seed germination, physiological and biochemical parameters, sex differentiation and photosynthetic characteristics of bitter gourd. The results showed that compared to the WL treatment, the R treatment significantly promoted seed germination, seedling height elongation and soluble sugar content, the B treatment significantly increased seedling stem diameter, reducing sugar content and soluble protein content, the R and B treatments both significantly reduced sucrose content, but their POD activity showed no significant difference. Compared with the R treatment, the B treatment significantly increased the total female flower number and female flower nod ratio in 30 nods of main stems. The study of photosynthetic characteristics found that the R and B treatments could effectively increase the stomatal conductance (GS) of leaves, significantly improved the net photosynthetic rate (Pn) compared to the WL treatment, and the effect of the B treatment was better. Compared to the R and WL treatments, the B treatment increased the maximum photosynthetic rate (Pmax), apparent quantum efficiency (AQE) and light saturation point (LSP), and reduced the dark respiration rate (Rd) and light compensation point (LCP) of the leaves. Fit light response curves showed that the adaptability and utilization of weak light in bitter gourd were middle or below, but it showed higher adaptability and utilization of strong light. Thus, it suggests that Momordica charantia is a typical sun plan with lower Rd. In summary, it is concluded that blue light has a positive effect on the seed germination, seedling growth, sex differentiation and improving the photosynthetic performance, and this will lay the foundation for artificially regulating optimum photosynthesis using specific LEDs wavelength, and help to elucidate the relationship how light quality influences the sex differentiation of plant.
Laila Khatun, Muhammad Aslam Ali, Mahmud Hossain Sumon, Bazlul Islam, Fahima Khatun
Journal of Agricultural Chemistry and Environment, Volume 10, pp 16-36; doi:10.4236/jacen.2021.101002

Abstract:
Sea level rise and saline water intrusion have been affecting land use and crop production especially rice in the coastal areas of major rice growing countries including Bangladesh. The upward trend in salinity intrusion has been hampering crop production, particularly rice cultivation in the coastal areas of Bangladesh. Therefore, an experiment was conducted on rice planted saline soils under the Nethouse at Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh to improve the properties of salt affected soils for rice cultivation as well as controlling methane (CH4) emissions with feasible soil organic amendments and recommended inorganic fertilizers. The experimental treatments were arranged under 25 mM NaCl, 50 mM NaCl and 75 mM NaCl salinity levels with different combinations of NPKSZn, biochar, phosphogypsum and Trichocompost. It was found that CH4 emission rates were suppressed with phospho-gypsum and biochar amendments within the salinity level 25 mM to 50 mM, beyond this salinity level (at 75 mM), soil amendments were not effective to control CH4 emissions. From panicle initiation to grain ripening stages treatment T4 (100% NPKSZn + 75 mM NaCl stress) showed the highest CH4 emission rate, while lower CH4 emission rate was recorded in T5 (100% NPKSZn + 25 mM NaCl stress + Phospho-gypsum) and T8 treatment (100% NPKSZn + 50 mM NaCl + Phospho-gypsum). In case of seasonal total CH4 emission, Phospho-gypsum was found most effective to mitigate total CH4 emissions followed by biochar and trichocompost amendments in all salinity levels, probably due to the improved soil redox potential status (Eh), decreased electrical conductivity (EC), increased SO42-, NO3- , Mn4+ etc. in the rice rhizosphere. Rice growth and yield components were badly affected by increasing salinity levels. Phospho-gypsum, biochar and trichocompost amendments increased plant height, panicles number/hill, shoot biomass and grain yield/hill at 25 mM NaCl stress condition. However, salinity stress 50 mM to 75 mM severely affected rice growth and yield components, eventhough phospho-gypsum, biochar and trichocompost were applied. Among the amendments, phosphogypsum and biochar significantly decreased yield scaled CH4 emission (GHGI) in salinity levels 25 mM to 75 mM. After harvesting rice, the overall soil properties such as organic matter content, available P, available S, exchangeable K+ and Ca2+, K+/Na+, Ca2+/Na+ ratios etc. were increased with the biochar, phospho-gypsum and trichocompost amendments. The highest ratios of K+/Na+ and Ca+/Na+ were found in the extract of saline soil at 25 mM with phospho-gypsum amendments followed by biochar and trichocompost amendments. Furthermore, soil SO42-, NO3- , Mn4+ and Fe3+ contents in rice root rhizosphere were increased in the amended saline soils, which caused significant reduction in seasonal methane emissions. Therefore, it could be concluded that the combined application of phospho-gypsum and biochar with the recommended NPKSZn fertilizers in saline soils may be a good practice for increasing tolerance to salinity in rice by increasing K+/Na+, Ca2+/Na+ ratios, while decreasing yield scaled CH4 emission (GHGI) in salinity levels 25 mM to 75 mM.
Mesfin Thomas Anjulo, Mesfin Bibiso Doda, Camerun Kastro Kanido
Journal of Agricultural Chemistry and Environment, Volume 10, pp 37-56; doi:10.4236/jacen.2021.101003

Abstract:
This study was aimed to determine the level of selected metals and nutritional composition of pigeon pea seed collected from seven districts of Wolaita zone. A wet digestion procedure involving the use of mixtures of (69% - 72%) HNO3 and (70%) HClO4 at an optimum temperature and time duration was used to determine metals by using flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Kjeldahl digestion method, Soxhlet extraction and furnace were used to determine nutritional values of pigeon pea, and physicochemical properties of soils were assessed using standard methods. The results showed that the levels of concentration of metals in mg/kg dry weight were ranged 105.17 to 144.07 for K, 8.95 to 12.67 for Mg, 7.74 to 12.27 for Ca, 0.247 to 0.543 for Fe, 0.122 to 0.313 for Zn, 0.061 to 0.432 for Mn, 0.087 to 0.134 for Cu and 0.0011 to 0.00196 for Cr. The proximate composition of pigeon pea was in the range of 19.28% to 25.79% for crude protein, 0.993% to 1.75% for crude fat, 3.75% to 5.31% for ash, 10.65% to 13.73% for moisture, 2.28% to 3.06% for fiber, 54.36% to 60.1% for carbohydrate and 326.8 to 345.23 Kcal for energy. The pH of the soil was in the range from pH 5.09 (strongly acidic) to 6.77 (slightly acidic), EC of the soil ranged from 0.047 to 0.14 dS/m (low), the soil OC level was from 1.6% to 2.42% (moderate), total Nitrogen was from 0.12% to 0.23% (low to moderate), the available Phosphorus content of the soil was from 6.82 to 13.52 mg/kg (low to moderate), CEC value of the soil was from 14.8 to 23.53 meq/100g (moderate). The textural classes of soil were sandy clay loam for all sites except Abela abaya. The study confirmed that pigeon pea was a good source of proteins, carbohydrates, and selected metals such as Mg, K, Ca, Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu, and Cr. The concentration of metals and nutritional compositions of pigeon pea seed were found at a permissible level.
John Stephen Tenywa, Jean Bosco Ngarukiyimana, Alice Amoding Katushabe
Journal of Agricultural Chemistry and Environment, Volume 10, pp 69-79; doi:10.4236/jacen.2021.101005

Abstract:
Background: The objective of this study was to determine the short-term effect of urea fertiliser application on soil reactions in a Ferralsol, with particular thrust on P sorption. Methods: Two experiments were conducted for this purpose: 1) a screenhouse pot experiment; and 2) a laboratory P sorption component. The pot (10 litre capacity plastic pots) experiment was conducted at the Makerere University Agricultural Research, Kabanyolo in Uganda, using a Ferralsol. The study comprised of four urea N (46% N) fertiliser treatments, namely, 0, 40, 80 and 120 kg N·ha-1, equivalent to 0, 200, 400 and 600 mg N per pot. A completely randomised design was adopted with three replicates. Urea rates were applied in 50% split doses, one at planting and the other at 19 days after seedling emergence (to simulate farmer practice). This was followed by watering to field capacity using distilled water. Soil samples were taken at three daily intervals until day fourteen; thereafter, soil sampling was at an interval of seven days. The second urea split dose was applied at 21 days followed by soil sampling at an interval of three days till day fourteen. Thereafter, soil was sampled at seven day intervals until the end of experiment. Soil samples were analysed for exchangeable H+, Al3+, NH4+and NO3- ions. The reaction trends of the concentrations of these ions and Bray 1 P were used to structure different response curves representing the instantaneous reactions. As for the laboratory P-sorption study, treatments included the four rates of urea used in the pot experiment (0, 40, 80 and 120 kg N·ha-1) and seven levels of P (2.5, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 ppm) as KH2PO4. The setup was incubated under laboratory conditions and soil samples were repeatedly taken at 10 days (after 4 days of urea incubation plus 6 days of P application). The P sorption data were fitted to Langmuir model. Results: The pot experiment revealed an abrupt drop in the concentrations of exchangeable Al3+ and H+ ions (p 0.05) within the first 6 days after urea application, accompanied by a positive surge in the concentration of NH4+ ions. This phase (6 days) was followed by a rise in the levels of exchangeable Al3+, H+ and NO3- ion concentration, which was inversely mirrored by a drop in the concentration of NH4+ ions. Consequently, the patterns displayed by the soil reactions were delineated into four phases, with Phase 1 (6 days) being characterised by urea hydrolysis reactions of deamination and ammonification, Phase 2 (10 days) being dominated by nitrification and its acidifying properties, Phase 3 being a repeat of Phase 1, both occurring immediately after urea application (within 6 days); and Phase 4 being a repeat of Phase 2. As for the P-sorption study, the effects of urea hydrolysis in a Ferralsol markedly increased soil pH and surprisingly P sorption. The contradictory P sorption behavior, despite the drop in exchange acidity was attributed to presence of divalent calcium in the extraction reagent used. Conclusion: The short term insights obtained in response to urea N application in the Ferralsol, are eye openers to future use of N fertilisers as well as strategic management of the associated acidification process which is often more costly and complicated to manage.
Aisyah Humayro, Hiroyuki Harada, Kanako Naito
Journal of Agricultural Chemistry and Environment, Volume 10, pp 80-90; doi:10.4236/jacen.2021.101006

Abstract:
Phosphate (PO43-) and Nitrate (NO3-) are two main nutrients that cause water eutrophication. In the other hand, the presence of PO43- and NO3- is needed for plant growth. The aims of this study are to recycle Spent Coffee Ground (SCG) modified with calcium hydroxide for adsorption PO43- and NO3-. The optimum adsorption capacity for PO43- and NO3- is 36.74 mg/L and 20.21 mg/L, respectively. The Freundlich isotherm model was suitable for PO43- and NO3- adsorption. The kinetic model for adsorption was linear using Pseudo-second order. The application of modified SCG after enrichment with PO43- and NO3- for plant growth (Raphanus sativus) showed optimum growth at a dose of 0.3% with value of germination index was 203%.
Takamitsu Kai, Hiromi Ikeura, Ariaki Ayanokoji, Masahiko Tamaki
Journal of Agricultural Chemistry and Environment, Volume 9, pp 97-106; doi:10.4236/jacen.2020.93009

Abstract:
In this study, we compared plant height, weight, soil TPH concentration, and soil DHA level after 18 weeks of Zennia hybrida cultivation with four different concentrations of 5-Aminolevulinic acid (ALA)-based liquid fertilizer: 1500-fold, 5000-fold, and 8000-fold dilutions, along with a non-treatment control of diluted ALA. The plants of ALA-treated were significantly taller than the non-treatment control. The plants of ALA-treated plants were higher in shoot fresh weight, shoot dry weight, and root dry weight than the non-treatment control. The plot of ALA-based liquid fertilizer with the 5000-fold dilution was significantly highest in shoot fresh weight, shoot dry weight, and root dry weight. ALA-treated plants were lower in the soil Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH) concentration than the non-treatment control. The plot of ALA-based liquid fertilizer with the 5000-fold was significantly lowest in the TPH concentration. In addition, ALA-treated plants were higher in the soil dehydrogenase activity (DHA) than the non-treatment control. The plot of ALA-based liquid fertilizer with the 5000-fold was significantly highest in the TPH concentration. This study indicated that ALA-applied zinnia-grown oil-contaminated soil is more effective than not. The remediation in oil-contaminated soil with ALA-based liquid fertilizer is more effective than the non-treatment control; furthermore, ALA application with 5000-fold dilution was most suitable in oil-contaminated soil among other plots.
Takamitsu Kai, Motoki Kumano, Masahiko Tamaki
Journal of Agricultural Chemistry and Environment, Volume 9, pp 331-342; doi:10.4236/jacen.2020.94024

Abstract:
Currently, the majority of paddy fields in Japan are grown using chemical fertilizers and synthetic chemical pesticides, since chemical fertilizers can provide the nutrients necessary for plant growth. However, there are concerns regarding the environmental impact of chemical fertilizer and pesticides production, such as reduction of soil microorganisms and water pollution due to the runoff of fertilizer components from the soil caused by excessive fertilizer application. In this study, we investigated the effects of the application of organic and chemical fertilizers on the plant growth of paddy fields, in addition to their effects on the chemical and biological properties of the soil. The panicle numbers of rough and brown rice, the 1000-grain weight of the rough and brown rice, and the percentages of ripened grains were significantly higher in paddy soils grown with organic fertilizers than in those grown with chemical fertilizers. In addition, the total carbon (TC) contents and pH values were significantly higher in the soils of paddy fields grown with organic fertilizers. Furthermore, the soils of paddy fields grown with organic fertilizers exhibited greater bacterial biomasses, N circulation activity, and P circulation activity than the soils of paddy fields grown using chemical fertilizers, although the differences were not significant. In this study, the difference in plant growth was appeared in fertilizer application such as organic and chemical fertilizers. It was indicated that the organic fertilizer and pesticide reduction management increased the soil bacterial biomass and activated the material cycle such as N circulation activity.
Nilce Ortiz, Izabela Rodrigues Cerqueira Lima Azevedo, Marília Guerino Vieira, Fernanda Maichin, Lucia Nascimento
Journal of Agricultural Chemistry and Environment, Volume 9, pp 299-313; doi:10.4236/jacen.2020.94022

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