Journal of Agricultural Chemistry and Environment

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2325-7458 / 2325-744X
Published by: Scientific Research Publishing, Inc. (10.4236)
Total articles ≅ 215
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Aya Elichama Désirée Phaceli, Mama Koné, Ardjouma Dembele, Jean Florent Haba, Emile Kouadio Yao
Journal of Agricultural Chemistry and Environment, Volume 10, pp 402-414; https://doi.org/10.4236/jacen.2021.104026

Abstract:
2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic (2,4-D), glyphosate, and nicosulfuron, because of their modes of action and selectivity, are the most widely used herbicides in Ivorian horticulture. Fuels toxicity was the reason of many debates in the world because of their massive and uncontrolled use. They are frequently blamed for the reduction of soil fertility and terrestrial biodiversity observed in agricultural areas. In view of the debates raised by their toxicities, the use of these herbicides requires the greatest caution and clear information on the real risk incurred by the edaphic fauna by conducting ecotoxicity studies. The present study aims to evaluate the effect of 2,4-D, glyphosate and nicosulfuron herbicides on the growth and reproduction of Achatina fulica snails in microcosm. To do this, we treated each plot on which snail microcosms were placed with 2,4-D, glyphosate or nicosulfuron herbicides according to the manufacturer’s recommendations. The results showed for all the herbicides used, that after 28 days of exposure, the growth of juvenile snails was slowed down. The number of eggs laid per pair was reduced in adult snails. The egg hatchability test revealed a reduction in egg hatchability. In addition, each effect was dependent on the herbicide used. Thus, toxicity was found to be greater according to the following order: nicosulfuron ? glyphosate ? 2,4-D. From the results obtained, we concluded that 2,4-D, glyphosate, and nicosulfuron treatments under field conditions are a potential threat to the sustainability of snail species and therefore to soil life. The intensity of the effect depends on the toxicity of the herbicides used.
B. Emile Bolou-Bi, D. Jean Baptiste Ettien, Thierry Philippe Guety, Mireille Aïkpa Pitta, Clarisse Balland-Bolou-Bi
Journal of Agricultural Chemistry and Environment, Volume 10, pp 169-183; https://doi.org/10.4236/jacen.2021.102011

Abstract:
In Western Africa, the growth of cities has led to natural resource pollution, especially air pollution. Urban forests play a key role in filtering atmospheric particles and pollutants through the canopy before reaching the soil. This study aims to quantify heavy metal fluxes in an urban forest in the district of Abidjan in order to assess its role in the protection of natural resources. A monitoring of wet deposition (throughfall and open field rain) and litterfall was carried out for six months in the urban forest of the National Floristic Center located in Abidjan, C?te d’Ivoire. The results show that the soil of this urban forest is a ferralsol type characterized by a sandy-clay texture and a low load of coarse elements. The annual litterfall is estimated to 12.16 ± 0.71 t·ha-1·yr-1, similar to other tropical forests. Annual quantities of rain and throughfall are in the range of the rainfall recorded in the district of Abidjan (2013 ± 152 and 1773 ± 51 mm). Chemical analyses showed that litter and rainfall contain Mn, Zn, Ni, Cr, Cd and Hg. Manganese and Zn are the most abundant elements and Hg the least abundant in both rainfall and litter. The main source of input of the heavy metals into the urban forest soil is associated with biological recycling through the litter. The litterfall contributes to metal fluxes in soil 109 times greater than metal fluxes carry by wet depositions (open field rain and throughfall). However, a detailed study of rainfall showed that the forest canopy constitutes a barrier for the transfer of heavy metal to urban soil. This is indicated by a decrease in heavy metal content from open field rain to throughfall. Consequently, this study recommends the creation and maintenance of urban forests to increase biomass canopy and improve atmospheric air quality for West African cities undergoing constant change and development.
Qi Du, Tuo Zou, Leiyue Geng, Wei Zhang, Xiaoguang Wang, Haiqiu Yu, Xinhua Zhao
Journal of Agricultural Chemistry and Environment, Volume 10, pp 359-371; https://doi.org/10.4236/jacen.2021.103023

Abstract:
Potassium (K) deficiency damaged membrane stability through irregular reactive oxygen species (ROS) caused by K deficiency stress while osmotic adjustment and antioxidant capacities play an essential role in preventing plants from osmotic stress and oxidative damages. To investigate the difference of osmoprotectants and antioxidant enzyme activities in the root, two representative maize varieties, 90-21-3 (K-tolerant) and D937 (K-sensitive), were hydroponically cultivated under normal K (+K) and K deficiency (-K) treatments in Shenyang Agriculture University, China. The results showed that root accumulation, soluble protein in root of 90-21-3 and D937 were decreased under K deficiency stress, but the root to shoot ratio, proline, free amino acid, soluble sugar, reactive oxygen species (ROS) in root for both genotypes were increased. Compared with the root of D937, the root of 90-21-3 was able to swiftly accumulate more proline, free amino acid and soluble sugar in the root when encountering K deficiency. The antioxidant enzyme activity in the root of 90-21-3, including superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), were significantly increased to counter increased levels of O2·- and H2O2 under K deficiency stress. The presented results indicated that osmotic regulator and antioxidant enzyme were actively responded to K deficiency stress, 90-21-3 (K-tolerant maize) accumulated more osmoprotectants and enhanced the activity of antioxidant enzymes to degrade ROS, alleviating oxidative stress.
Mercy Bih Loh Achu, Ruth Viviane Djuikwo, Stéphane Ghomsi Tamo, Christiane Laure Maptouom Fotso, Michelle Carole Djouhou Fowe, Elie Fokou
Journal of Agricultural Chemistry and Environment, Volume 10, pp 389-401; https://doi.org/10.4236/jacen.2021.104025

Abstract:
This work evaluates some physical parameters (the weight, length, diameter of fruits and seeds, number of seeds per fruit) and the effect of boiling and fermentation on the nutritional value of Telfairia occidentalis (fluted pumpkin) seeds. Firstly, a survey was done in the city of Yaounde on the different treatments applied to the seeds before cooking. From the results of the survey, the seeds were divided into three groups: raw, boiled and fermented. The moisture, lipid, protein, fibre, carbohydrate and ash contents were analysed using AOAC methods and minerals by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The results showed that T. occidentalis fruit averagely weighed 6.35 kg and contained about 90 seeds. The decorticated seeds had an ovoid shape, 3.70 cm long and weighed 8.91 g. Boiling led to an increase in lipid (16.29% - 31.44%) and carbohydrate (19.20% - 21.8%) but a decrease in protein (54.06% - 34.17%) contents. Fermentation increased the crude fibre (0.70% - 1.1%) but decreased the ash content (4.07% - 3.14% DM). Boiled seeds had higher calcium, magnesium, potassium and sodium, while fermented seeds had higher zinc levels. Boiling proved better in preserving most of the seed nutrients. These seeds could be used to prevent some mineral deficiencies and their high proteins suggest their potential for the formulation of infant foods.
Desta Ekero, Wassie Haile, Alemu Lelago, Mesfin Bibiso
Journal of Agricultural Chemistry and Environment, Volume 10, pp 124-142; https://doi.org/10.4236/jacen.2021.101009

Abstract:
Tef is grown as an important domestic cereal in Ethiopia. Currently, global attention is given for it particularly as a “health food” due to the absence of gluten and gluten like proteins in its grains. Regardless of its wider adaptation, productivity of tef is low in the country with the national average grain yield of 1.379 tons·ha-1. This is mainly because of low soil fertility and severe organic matter depletion intensified by low rate of chemical fertilizer application. This study was conducted to evaluate effects of balanced fertilizers on the yield, yield components of tef and to determine economic feasibility for tef production in Wolaita. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with sixteen treatments replicated three times. The treatments consist of factorial combinations of four rates of K (Potassium) (0, 25, 50, and 100 kg/ha) and four rates of NPSB (Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Sulfur and Boron) (0, 50, 100, 200 kg/ha) fertilizers. Fertilizer types such as urea (46-0-0), NPSB (18.9-37.7-6.95-0.1) and K (0-0-60) were used as a source of nutrients. The soil analysis result indicated that, most of the nutrients are below optimum level to support the potential crop production. This may be related with reduced farm management practices and continuous cropping with little or no fertilizers input. In this study, it was found that, the combined application of NPSB and K fertilizers had a significant effect on growth, yield and yield components of tef. Among the treatments studied, NPSB (100 Kg/ha) and K (50 Kg/ha) gave greater grain yield. Furthermore, this treatment enhanced growth and yield related parameters compared to the control treatment. Thus, it is conceivable to recommend each to attain greater grain yield of tef in the study area. However, it is desirable to undertake further research across soil type, years and locations to appeal comprehensive recommendation on a wider scale.
Souleymane Cisse, Talnan Jean Honoré Coulibaly, Naga Coulibaly, Claude Alain Kouadio, Houebagnon Saint Jean-Patrick Coulibaly, Sacré Regis Didi, Issa Camara
Journal of Agricultural Chemistry and Environment, Volume 10, pp 196-212; https://doi.org/10.4236/jacen.2021.102013

Abstract:
In the past twenty years, C?te d’Ivoire has risen from being an insignificant producer of raw cashew nuts to becoming the world’s largest producer. A rapid increase of cashew plantations has significantly changed the natural landscape in the North part of C?te d’Ivoire. This study was conducted in the department of Niakaramadougou to assess the natural landscape change due to cashew plantations from 1989 to 2017. Satellite image data were used in order to evaluate land use land cover (LULC) change. The maximum likelihood pixel-based on classification method was used to analyze the spatio-temporal LULC dynamics for the years 1989, 2000, and 2017. The results showed an increase in cashew culture by 20.68% between 1989 and 2017 to the detriment of the savannah. Thus, the land devoted to old fallows or to other crops such as rice, maize, yams, peanuts, sorghum) is decreasing and the natural vegetation is becoming more and more fragmented, with consequences that are not yet known. This surely contributes to the reduction of plant diversity.
Jean-Marie Pétémanagnan Ouattara, Franck Michaël Zahui, Jean Rufin Kouassi Kouame, Lacina Coulibaly
Journal of Agricultural Chemistry and Environment, Volume 10, pp 275-288; https://doi.org/10.4236/jacen.2021.103017

Abstract:
The use of phytosanitary products remains uncontrolled and abusive in the practice of market gardening in most developing countries. However, it remains one of the potential sources of environmental contamination and public health problems. This study examines the health and environmental risks associated with the use of phytosanitary products in market gardening in the town of Abengourou in Cote d’Ivoire. Field surveys carried out among all (30) market gardener sites housed 150 farmers showed that when the products were spread, no health and safety measures were observed. Approximately 80% of the respondents did not wear gloves or face masks. Some products used were not approved for market gardening. Farmers had itching, dizziness, headaches, colds and vomiting on a regular basis when applying the products. The study also revealed the presence of empty packaging in the surrounding surface water and on the ground. In addition to producers, this type of uncontrolled market gardening likely exposes consumers to high health risks and also contributes to environmental degradation. Raising awareness among stakeholders of good agricultural practices could help promote sustainable market gardening. However, studies of the effects of products in such an environment on the health of consumers deserve to be carried out.
Wei Li, Xicun Zhu, Jingwen Yang, Zhongyu Tian, Xueyuan Bai, Li Sun, Xiaoying Tang
Journal of Agricultural Chemistry and Environment, Volume 10, pp 289-304; https://doi.org/10.4236/jacen.2021.103018

Abstract:
From the perspective of village classification, a set of methods for accurately measuring the potential of rural settlement consolidation are proposed. Taking Feicheng in Shandong Province as the research area, combined with the corresponding planning, a classification and evaluation system for rural residential areas was constructed to classify rural residential areas from the four levels of natural resources, economy and society, supporting facilities and livability. The theoretical and practical potential of one type of rural settlements (relocating and merger village) is mainly calculated, and the potential scale, potential level and potential spatial distribution of different regions are analyzed. (Level and spatial distribution are analyzed. The results showed that the 621 rural settlements can be divided into five types: 148 urban-rural integration villages (URIV), 41 historical and cultural villages (HCV), 56 cluster developing villages (CDV), 155 keeping and limiting villages (KLV) and 221 relocating and merger villages (RMV). According to calculations, the theoretical potential of relocating and merger village areas was 1971.47 hm2, accounting for 19.52% of the total scale of Feicheng residential areas; the comprehensive correction coefficient of each region was 0.48 - 0.70, and the revised actual potential is 1082.68 hm2, accounting for the theoretical potential 54.92% of the total. There were large spatial differences in the scale of potential in different regions. In general, the theoretical and practical potential of the central and southern regions was higher than that of the northern regions.
John Stephen Tenywa, Jean Bosco Ngarukiyimana, Alice Amoding Katushabe
Journal of Agricultural Chemistry and Environment, Volume 10, pp 69-79; https://doi.org/10.4236/jacen.2021.101005

Abstract:
Background: The objective of this study was to determine the short-term effect of urea fertiliser application on soil reactions in a Ferralsol, with particular thrust on P sorption. Methods: Two experiments were conducted for this purpose: 1) a screenhouse pot experiment; and 2) a laboratory P sorption component. The pot (10 litre capacity plastic pots) experiment was conducted at the Makerere University Agricultural Research, Kabanyolo in Uganda, using a Ferralsol. The study comprised of four urea N (46% N) fertiliser treatments, namely, 0, 40, 80 and 120 kg N·ha-1, equivalent to 0, 200, 400 and 600 mg N per pot. A completely randomised design was adopted with three replicates. Urea rates were applied in 50% split doses, one at planting and the other at 19 days after seedling emergence (to simulate farmer practice). This was followed by watering to field capacity using distilled water. Soil samples were taken at three daily intervals until day fourteen; thereafter, soil sampling was at an interval of seven days. The second urea split dose was applied at 21 days followed by soil sampling at an interval of three days till day fourteen. Thereafter, soil was sampled at seven day intervals until the end of experiment. Soil samples were analysed for exchangeable H+, Al3+, NH4+and NO3- ions. The reaction trends of the concentrations of these ions and Bray 1 P were used to structure different response curves representing the instantaneous reactions. As for the laboratory P-sorption study, treatments included the four rates of urea used in the pot experiment (0, 40, 80 and 120 kg N·ha-1) and seven levels of P (2.5, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 ppm) as KH2PO4. The setup was incubated under laboratory conditions and soil samples were repeatedly taken at 10 days (after 4 days of urea incubation plus 6 days of P application). The P sorption data were fitted to Langmuir model. Results: The pot experiment revealed an abrupt drop in the concentrations of exchangeable Al3+ and H+ ions (p 0.05) within the first 6 days after urea application, accompanied by a positive surge in the concentration of NH4+ ions. This phase (6 days) was followed by a rise in the levels of exchangeable Al3+, H+ and NO3- ion concentration, which was inversely mirrored by a drop in the concentration of NH4+ ions. Consequently, the patterns displayed by the soil reactions were delineated into four phases, with Phase 1 (6 days) being characterised by urea hydrolysis reactions of deamination and ammonification, Phase 2 (10 days) being dominated by nitrification and its acidifying properties, Phase 3 being a repeat of Phase 1, both occurring immediately after urea application (within 6 days); and Phase 4 being a repeat of Phase 2. As for the P-sorption study, the effects of urea hydrolysis in a Ferralsol markedly increased soil pH and surprisingly P sorption. The contradictory P sorption behavior, despite the drop in exchange acidity was attributed to presence of divalent calcium in the extraction reagent used. Conclusion: The short term insights obtained in response to urea N application in the Ferralsol, are eye openers to future use of N fertilisers as well as strategic management of the associated acidification process which is often more costly and complicated to manage.
Aisyah Humayro, Hiroyuki Harada, Kanako Naito
Journal of Agricultural Chemistry and Environment, Volume 10, pp 80-90; https://doi.org/10.4236/jacen.2021.101006

Abstract:
Phosphate (PO43-) and Nitrate (NO3-) are two main nutrients that cause water eutrophication. In the other hand, the presence of PO43- and NO3- is needed for plant growth. The aims of this study are to recycle Spent Coffee Ground (SCG) modified with calcium hydroxide for adsorption PO43- and NO3-. The optimum adsorption capacity for PO43- and NO3- is 36.74 mg/L and 20.21 mg/L, respectively. The Freundlich isotherm model was suitable for PO43- and NO3- adsorption. The kinetic model for adsorption was linear using Pseudo-second order. The application of modified SCG after enrichment with PO43- and NO3- for plant growth (Raphanus sativus) showed optimum growth at a dose of 0.3% with value of germination index was 203%.
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