American Mineralogist

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ISSN / EISSN : 0003-004X / 1945-3027
Published by: Mineralogical Society of America (10.2138)
Total articles ≅ 6,048
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American Mineralogist, Volume 106, pp 1596-1605; https://doi.org/10.2138/am-2021-7784

Abstract:
Low-temperature omphacite has peculiar microstructures called “antiphase domains (APDs),” which can be formed via phase transition from disordered C2/c to ordered P2/n structure during cooling. Hence morphological analyses of the APDs of undeformed omphacite have a potential to unravel the temperature-time (T-t) histories of the eclogite. We investigated five omphacite inclusions in a euhedral garnet porphyroblast obtained from low-temperature eclogite in Syros. The garnet (~6 mm in size) exhibits a distinct prograde chemical zoning and contains abundant mineral inclusions. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) observations of the focused ion beam (FIB) foils confirmed a heterogeneous distribution of equiaxed APDs (10–280 nm in diameter) and columnar APDs. Size distributions of the equiaxed APDs are characterized by kurtosis values of –0.45–3.91, which are larger than those in the matrix omphacite. The columnar APDs are subdivided into two types: dislocation-related (Type I) and inclusion–host interfacial (Type II). The presence of Type I APDs may suggest the inclusions were deformed prior to the host garnet growth. In contrast, Type II APDs, which are characterized by a bundle of stripe-like APDs (~40 nm in width) aligned perpendicular to the host garnet, imply the simultaneous growth of omphacite and garnet in a non-deformation state. The presence of these two contrasting APDs of omphacite inclusions in the single prograde-zoned garnet prevents a simple application of geospeedometry based on APD sizes. Nevertheless, our observations demonstrate that APDs are keys to understanding thermodynamic equilibrium states and the mineral growth kinetics during eclogitization.
Rong-Lin Ma, Wei Terry Chen, Wei Zhang, You-Wei Chen
American Mineralogist, Volume 106, pp 1690-1703; https://doi.org/10.2138/am-2021-7779

Abstract:
Secondary hydrothermal reworking of REEs has been widely documented in carbonatites/alkaline rocks, but its potential role in the REE mineralization associated with these rocks is currently poorly understood. This study conducted a combined textural and in situ chemical investigation on the REE mineralization in the ~430 Ma Miaoya carbonatite-syenite complex, central China. Our study shows that the REE mineralization, dated at ~220 Ma, is characterized by a close association of REE minerals (monazite and/or bastnäsite) with pervasive carbonatization overprinting the carbonatites and syenites. In these carbonatites and syenites, both the apatite and calcite, which are the dominant magmatic REE-bearing minerals, exhibit complicated internal textures that are generally composed of BSE-bright and BSE-dark domains. Under BSE imaging, the former domains are homogeneous and free of pores or mineral inclusions, whereas the latter have a high porosity and inclusions of monazite and/or bastnäsite. In situ chemical analyses show that the BSE-dark domains of the apatite and calcite have light REE concentrations and (La/Yb)N values much lower than the BSE-bright areas. These features are similar to those observed in metasomatized apatite from mineral-fluid reaction experiments, thus indicating that the BSE-dark domains formed from primary precursors (i.e., represented by the BSE-bright domains) through a fluid-aided, dissolution-reprecipitation process during which the primary light REEs are hydrothermally remobilized. New, in situ Sr-Nd isotopic results of apatite and various REE minerals, in combination with mass balance calculations, strongly suggest that the remobilized REEs are responsible for the subsequent hydrothermal REE mineralization in the Miaoya complex. Investigations of fluid inclusions show that the fluids responsible for the REE mobilization and mineralization are CO2-rich, with medium temperatures (227–340 °C) and low salinities (1.42–8.82 wt‰). Such a feature, in combination with C-O isotopic data, indicates that the causative fluids are likely co-genetic with fluids from coeval orogenic Au-Ag deposits (220–200 Ma) in the same tectonic unit. Our new findings provide strong evidence that the late hydrothermal upgrading of early cumulated REEs under certain conditions could also be an important tool for REE mineralization in carbonatites, particularly for those present in convergent belts where faults (facilitating fluid migration) and hydrothermal fluids are extensively developed.
Dan Liu, Xinzhuan Guo, Joseph R. Smyth, Xiang Wang, Xi Zhu, Yunfan Miao, Jiayuan Bai, Yu Ye
American Mineralogist, Volume 106, pp 1668-1678; https://doi.org/10.2138/am-2021-7686

Abstract:
The intrinsic anharmonicity plays an important role in the thermodynamic properties of minerals at the high-temperature conditions of the mantle. To investigate the effect of iron on the thermodynamic properties of olivine, the most abundant mineral in the upper mantle, we collected in situ high-temperature and high-pressure Raman spectra of natural Fo89Fa11 and synthetic Fo58Fa42 samples. Fo58Fa42 dissociates to enstatite + quartz + Fe2O3(+Fe) at 893 K. All the Raman-active modes systematically shift to lower frequencies at elevated temperatures, whereas to higher frequencies with increasing pressure. The Ag mode at ~960 cm–1 is more sensitive to the variations of temperature and pressure than other internal modes. The crystal-field splitting of the vibrational energy states becomes slightly weakened at high temperatures but strengthened at elevated pressures. We calculated the isobaric (γiP) and isothermal (γiT) mode Grüneisen parameters for these olivine samples. The intrinsic anharmonic parameters (ai) are negative for both the lattice and internal vibrations, and our calculations indicate that the intrinsic anharmonicity makes positive contributions to the thermodynamic properties of olivine at high temperatures, such as the internal energy (U), heat capacities (CV and CP), and entropy (S). Iron incorporation further increases the magnitudes of these anharmonic contributions. In addition, the Fe effect on the intrinsic anharmonicity may also apply to other thermodynamic properties in olivine, such as equations of state and equilibrium isotopic fractionations, which are important in constraining physical and chemical properties of the upper mantle.
Tatyana G. Shumilova, Yulia V. Danilova, Joachim Mayer, Sergey I. Isaenko, Boris S. Danilov, Vasily V. Ulyashev
American Mineralogist, Volume 106, pp 1622-1639; https://doi.org/10.2138/am-2021-7711

Abstract:
Natural graphite, a polygenic mineral, is a product of regional, contact, impact metamorphism, and magmatic or fluid deposition. In fluid-deposited graphite, aqueous C-O-H systems play a special role in determining the characteristics of hydrothermal products by shifting the chemical equilibrium. From this viewpoint, the recently discovered carboniferous mineralization in the Baikal hydrothermalites has attracted increasing interest with regard to graphite crystallization under the influence of low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) carboniferous H2O-rich fluids. Herein, we studied graphite mineralization in the geyserites and travertines of the Baikal geyserite paleovalley (Eastern Siberia, Russia) by applying a multitude of mineralogical studies. Optical, scanning, transmission electron, and atomic force microscopy, energy-dispersive spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and carbon isotopic composition analyses of graphite, carbonate carbon, and oxygen in both the hydrothermalites and host rocks were conducted. The obtained results revealed several peculiar features regarding the graphite in geyserites and travertines. We found that Baikal graphite, earlier predicted to be a product of hydrothermalites, generally occurs as a relict graphite of the host metamorphic rocks with partial in situ redeposition. The newly formed LPLT fluid-deposited graphite is characterized by micrometer- and submicrometer-sized idiomorphic crystallites overgrown on the relict metamorphic graphite seeds and between calcite sinter zones during the last stage of travertine formation. The results present additional valuable data for understanding the mechanism, range of the formation conditions, and typomorphism of fluid-deposited graphite with probable crystallization from carbon solution in the C-O-H system at LPLT conditions.
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