British Journal of Medicine and Medical Research

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2231-0614 / 2231-0614
Published by: Sciencedomain International (10.9734)
Total articles ≅ 2,872
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, Ilir Tolaj, Behrije Vishi, Albina Fejza, Liridona Jemini, Minire Alilaj
British Journal of Medicine and Medical Research, Volume 19, pp 1-6; https://doi.org/10.9734/bjmmr/2017/29615

Abstract:
Aim: The purpose of this study was to analyze female sexual dysfunction and potential risk factors influencing the sexual life in Kosovo’s women population. Study Design: Cross-sectional analysis Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted through an online survey in Kosovo, between May-September 2015. Methods: A self‑administered structured questionnaire, A Brief Sexual Symptom Checklist for Women, (BSSC) was administered to assess overall satisfaction (prevalence), desire, genital sensation, lubrication, orgasm and pain. The respondent rate was 87.5% (350/400). Results: The level of sexual dissatisfaction was 36.9%. Little or no interest in sex was reported in 32% of women, an orgasmic problem in 20%, genital sensation problem in 16.7%, a lubrication problem in 12.7% and pain during sex in 16.0%. 76.8% of women would like to talk about these problems with their doctor. Age and smoking history are the potential risk factors. Conclusion: The level of sexually dissatisfied women in Kosovo is quite high but similar to other studies within the field. The willing to discuss with a doctor was reported by 2/3 of respondents. The level of satisfaction is in correlation with age. The second most important risk factor is smoking.
, Shigeru Watanabe, Koji Watanabe, Akihiro Nakamura, Reina Odai, Takashi Sasabe
British Journal of Medicine and Medical Research, Volume 19, pp 1-9; https://doi.org/10.9734/bjmmr/2017/29480

Abstract:
Aims: Mesial inclination of first molar caused by vertical malposition of the second primary molar is often untreated but this may create severe problems. To obtain an objective guideline for treatment of such cases, the relationship between degree of mesial inclination and developmental phase of first molar was analyzed. Study Design: Ten boys and six girls who exhibited vertical malposition of the second primary molar were analyzed. At their first visit oral checklists and panoramic radiographs were obtained. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Human Development & Fostering, Division of Pediatric Dentistry, School of Dentistry, Meikai University. Methodology: Oral checklists were used at their first visit and panoramic radiographs were taken by Veraview Epocs X-550 (Morita/Kyoto). The radiographs were output as films by DRY PIX7000 (Fujifilm Medical/Tokyo). Examinations were conducted on the degree of development of the second bicuspid germ affected by a submerged second deciduous tooth, the presence of malposition, the degree of development of first molar and presence of tooth root resorption in the second primary molar, based on the panoramic radiographs. Results: A significant positive correlation occurred between (i) second primary molar space and degree of formation of the first molar (p<0.01); (ii) the angle between tooth axes of the first primary molar and first molar and amount of formation of the first molar (p<0.05); The vertical positional relationship between the second primary molar and the second bicuspid germ Proximity values showed larger values on the affected side; Retarded formation by 54% was recognized in the formation of the second bicuspid. Conclusion: The prognosis for treatment success may depend on the degree of first molar formation.
Regaieg Haifa, Achour Bechir, Bouslema Emna, Achour Amel Jenayah, Ben Sayed Nesrine, Bouatay Bouzouita Amina, Sriha Badreddine, Ben Youssef Yosra, Khelif Abderrahim
British Journal of Medicine and Medical Research, Volume 19, pp 1-4; https://doi.org/10.9734/bjmmr/2017/29613

Abstract:
The association of aplastic anemia (AA) and pregnancy is exceptional and there are no clear guidelines for its management, It could be life threatening for both mother and child and a challenge to the hematologist as well as the obstetrician. Sometimes it improves spontaneously after delivery. We report a case of pregnant woman in whom severe AA was diagnosed, managed during pregnancy with supportive therapy leading to normal delivery of a full term healthy foetus, with good outcome after a follow up of three years.
Karine Figueredo da Costa, Maria Lúcia Bonfleur, Viviane Pontillo, Stefany Pedrotti, Paula Bernardon, Rose Meire Costa Brancalão, Celia Cristina Leme Beu, Patricia Oehlmeyer Nassar, Carlos Augusto Nassar
British Journal of Medicine and Medical Research, Volume 19, pp 1-14; https://doi.org/10.9734/bjmmr/2017/30165

Abstract:
Introduction and Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the behavior of experimentally-provoked-periodontitis tissues and the abdominal aorta in rats with acquired induced hypothalamic obesity. Methods: Initially in the first 5 days of life, a cohort of twenty-eight male Wistar rats were divided into 2 groups; the first group [n=14] were given intradermal injections of 4 G/kg of solution of Monosodium glutamate (MSG); the second group [n=14] was given 1,25 G/kg/day of saline solution (group CTL) in the cervical region. At 70 days, each of the two groups were further divided into another 2 subgroups, and periodontitis was induced with ligature placing as the experimental variable, on the 1st lower molars, except in group 1 and 3. This created 4 groups: (1) control group without ligature (CTL n=7); (2) control group with ligature (CTLLIG n=7); (3) group MSG without ligature (MSG n=7); (4) and group MSG with ligature (MSGLIG n=7). Total n=28. After 100 days the rats were sacrificed and gingival tissue, abdominal aorta samples, and a hemi-mandible were dissected out for immunological, morphological and radiographic analysis. Results: Both Radiography and histopathology showed significant lower alveolar bone loss when the MSGLIG, group was compared to the CTLLIG group (p< 0.05). In the abdominal aorta morphometric analysis there was statistically significant difference in the measurement of the thickness of the aortic wall, being the largest thickness observed in the MSGLIG group (p< 0.05). Conclusion: Therefore, this study suggests that the periodontitis in association with the hypothalamic obesity may contribute to the increase of the width of the abdominal aorta walls, as well as the hypothalamic obesity may exert a protective effect on alveolar bone loss.
Jose Antonio Odaly
British Journal of Medicine and Medical Research, Volume 19, pp 1-16; https://doi.org/10.9734/bjmmr/2017/30371

Abstract:
Aims: To analyze the ultrastructure of cones, rods, horizontal, bipolar and amacrines cells from Mugil brasiliensis teleost retina as well as all the connections found between the cells. Methodology: The retina was fixed with glutaraldehyde and osmium tetroxide and radial and tangential sections stained with lead citrate and uranyl acetate to be analyzed in a Hitachi 11B electron microscope at 75 Kv. Results: Horizontal cells had finger like process reaching the outer plexiform layer ending in cone and rod invaginations, and also lateral unions between plasma membranes, forming a net, with a functional contact between them. Bipolar cells were radially oriented with dendrites branching in the outer plexiform layer contacting cones and rods and lower terminals branching in the inner plexiform layer. Stellate amacrine cells send ascendant process to the outer plexiform layer and form a continuous net below horizontal cells. A new layer named tubular cells was described by the first time below internal horizontal cells forming a net. Undulate amacrine cells around bipolar cells were also described by the first time. Cones and rods terminals had ascendant expansions of horizontal and bipolar cells in a triad structure around the synaptic band. Piriform amacrine cells were described with dark cytoplasm due to numerous glycogen granules and with clear cytoplasm with scarce glycogen granules, both sending prolongations to the inner plexiform layer. Conclusion: This paper is a comprehensive analysis of ultrastructure of seven retinal cells, finding two new cells in teleost retina, 1- tubular cells forming an extensive tangential net below internal horizontal cells, with characteristic structures not seen in the literature on retina before and, 2- undulate amacrine cells that surrounds many bipolar cells across the retina. Functional contacts structured by bilaminar membranes were found between digital terminals of horizontal cells and bipolar cells in rods and cones, between bipolar dendrites, tubular cells, stellate amacrine cells, piriform amacrine cells, as well as between lateral expansions of horizontal cells.
Leonard Groysman, Keeban Nam, Nancy Vo, Evita Rocha, Jessica Cvetko, Jessica Kim, Ebaa Al-Obeidi, Christopher Cho, Robert G. Bota
British Journal of Medicine and Medical Research, Volume 19, pp 1-12; https://doi.org/10.9734/bjmmr/2017/30545

Abstract:
We present the case of a male patient with traumatic brain injury leading to gradual deterioration in functioning over several years, culminating in a state of prolonged treatment-resistant catatonia complicated by an inability to perform activities of daily living and necessitating total care by nursing staff. Extensive diagnostic evaluation did not reveal a convincing etiology of patient’s catatonia. Despite several empiric treatment modalities administered early in the course of catatonia, patient’s condition continued to decline. We did not observe sustained changes in response to high dose lorazepam, selegiline/minocycline coadministration, or ECT alone, but rather exponential improvement from the combination of medications and ECT.
Swati Gupta, Anjum Saiyed, Reema Meena, Neelam Dogra
British Journal of Medicine and Medical Research, Volume 19, pp 1-5; https://doi.org/10.9734/bjmmr/2017/30290

Abstract:
Transposition of great arteries (TGA) is combination of concordant atrioventricular and discordant ventriculo-arterial connections and is divided into dextro-looped (d-TGA) and levo-looped (l-TGA) based on whether the atria and ventricles are concordant or discordant, respectively. Arterial switch operation is the procedure of choice but other surgical surgical options exists. In our case, a 4 month old boy presented with cyanosis, delayed milestone, diagnosed d-TGA with ASD came for surgical repair. Arterial switch repair was planned but due to decreased right ventricular pressure and raised pulmonary arterial pressure, mustard-senning procedure was performed. Hypoxia, systemic hypoxemia, metabolic acidosis, hypercarbia, sympathetic nervous stimulation due to light plane of anaesthesia can trigger a rapid rise in PVR, and even a pulmonary hypertensive crisis. Our aim was to prevent alteration in SVR and PVR in order to prevent desaturation especially at time of induction and off CPB bypass.
Mariana De Jesus Vaz Trindade, , Joao Fernando G. Ferreira, Jessica K. Tavora de Sousa, João Paulo Amaral Haddad, , , Simone Goncalves dos Santos
British Journal of Medicine and Medical Research, Volume 19, pp 1-9; https://doi.org/10.9734/bjmmr/2017/31167

Abstract:
Background: Understanding biofilm formation and the interaction between bacterial species on surgical instrument surfaces is of great importance. Due to the scarcity of studies on this subject, the present study proposes to investigate this dynamic process. Methods: Staphylococcus aureus and Acinetobacter baumannii reference strains, associated or not, were cultured on Cushing tissue dissecting forceps. In an attempt to compare and investigate biofilm in different anatomic parts of this surgical instrument, quantitative microbial culture and electronic microscopy were performed at different times. Results and Discussion: The quantitative culture and electronic microscopy analysis of single-species biofilm showed that A. baumannii cells were more adherent and prevalent on the instruments’ surface at all examined times, whereas mixed-species biofilm results showed that S. aureus cells prevail after the sixth hour and represent the majority of the aggregated cells at 12 and 24 h. Conclusions: Our results indicated a possible antagonistic interaction between the two tested species. The findings also showed that the biofilm formation occurred after the first analyzed time, reinforcing the need to follow the existing guidelines to process medical devices.
Nidhi Jain, Anil Kumar Nagarajappa, Rohit Mishra, Meenakshi Bhasin
British Journal of Medicine and Medical Research, Volume 19, pp 1-4; https://doi.org/10.9734/bjmmr/2017/30148

Abstract:
Ramsay-Hunt syndrome (RHS) is caused by varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection in the geniculate ganglion of the facial nerve. It is characterized by facial palsy, otic pain, herpetic vesicles around the auricle and external auditory canal. We report here rare case of a RHS affecting a middle-aged individual, in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive patient. The patient presented with severe herpes zoster infection of the maxillary and mandibular divisions of the trigeminal nerve. Unilateral vesicles involved lower and middle 1/3rd of trigeminal nerve distributed area on the left side of the face. Intraoral involvement included buccal, labial and palatal mucosae of the affected side. Patient also suffered with lower motor neuron facial palsy of facial muscles on the affected side.
, Oliemen Peterside, Ebi Totyen
British Journal of Medicine and Medical Research, Volume 19, pp 1-9; https://doi.org/10.9734/bjmmr/2017/30087

Abstract:
Background: Ear infections are common in childhood. The diagnosis and management of these infections in children is often difficult due to absence or non-implementation of clinical guidelines in developing countries like Nigeria. Empiric treatment is very common. Methods: In order to determine the microbial agents responsible for ear infections in the paediatric population, the records of children sent for ear infection investigations over a twenty-eight month period were analysed. Results: Positive cultures were obtained from 60.8% of the patients. The incidence was greatest in the zero to twelve months and one year to three years age groups. There was a male preponderance of subjects with ear infections. Only 47 (23.6%) of the subjects had full ear examinations by the Otorhinolaryngologist, with 17 (8.5%) of these having perforations of the tympanic membrane. Gram negative organisms accounted for 60.5% of all isolates. Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were the most frequently isolated organisms, accounting for 32.5% and 30.2% of all isolates respectively. Candidaalbicans was isolated from six subjects and Serratia marcescens from one patient’s specimen. Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Proteus species exhibited multi-drug resistance In vitro, being resistant to three or more classes of antibiotics. Generally, most of the isolates were susceptible In vitro to the quinolones, but resistant to the cephalosporins and nitrofurans. Most of the subjects did not return for follow-up treatment, with only 3 subjects continually being seen by the ENT specialists. Conclusion: Ear infections are common in children, but differentiating the types of ear infections is not usually done due to treatment guidelines being vague and not well developed. There is a need for collaborative multi-disciplinary approach in the management of childhood ear infections.
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