ISSN / EISSN : 0032-5791 / 1525-3171
Published by: Elsevier BV (10.1016)
Total articles ≅ 28,784
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Poultry Science; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psj.2021.101542
Avian coccidiosis is a major parasitic disorder in chickens resulting from the intracellular apicomplexan protozoa that target the intestinal tract leading to a devastating disease. Eimeria life cycle is complex and consists of intra- and extra-cellular stages inducing a potent inflammatory response that results in tissue damage associated with oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation, diarrheal hemorrhage, poor growth, increased susceptibility to other disease agents, and in severe cases, mortality. Various anticoccidial drugs and vaccines have been used to prevent and control this disorder; however, many drawbacks have been reported. Drug residues concerning the consumers have directed research toward natural, safe, and effective alternative compounds. Phytochemical/herbal medicine is one of these natural alternatives to anticoccidial drugs, which is considered an attractive way to combat coccidiosis in compliance with the “anticoccidial chemical-free” regulations. The anticoccidial properties of several natural herbal products (or their extracts) have been reported. The effect of herbal additives on avian coccidiosis is based on diminishing the oocyst output through inhibition or impairment of the invasion, replication, and development of Eimeria species in the gut tissues of chickens; lowering oocyst counts due to the presence of phenolic compounds in herbal extracts which reacts with cytoplasmic membranes causing coccidial cell death; ameliorating the degree of intestinal lipid peroxidation; facilitating the repair of epithelial injuries; and decreasing the intestinal permeability induced by Eimeria species through the upregulation of epithelial turnover. This current review highlights the anticoccidial activity of several herbal products, and their other beneficial effects.
Poultry Science; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psj.2021.101527
Many studies have examined avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) from commercial broilers but few have examined isolates from native chickens. This study compared APEC isolates from commercial broilers and native chickens in regard to the phylogenetic group and the phenotypic and genotypic antimicrobial resistance profiles. From 100 suspect colibacillosis cases in both commercial broilers and native chickens, a total of 90 broiler isolates and 42 native chicken isolates were identified as E. coli by biochemical tests. Phylogenetic grouping revealed that 90 broiler APEC isolates belonged to A group (5.56%), B1 group (22.22%), B2 group (31.11%), and D group (41.11%). The 42 native chicken APEC isolates belonged to A group (35.71%), B1 group (26.19%), B2 group (30.95%), and D group (7.14%). The difference in the allocation to groups A and D of the two isolate types was significant (P< 0.05). The APEC broiler isolates had a significantly higher multidrug-resistant (MDR) rate (80%) than the native chicken isolates (14.29%) (P< 0.05). The APEC broiler isolates demonstrated significantly higher resistance rates than the native chicken isolates for amoxicillin (98.89%; 78.57% respectively), chloramphenicol (42.2%; 9.5%), enrofloxacin (68.9%; 7.1%), gentamicin (11.1%; 0%), nalidixic acid (72.2%; 7.1%), sulfamethoxazole+trimethoprim (45.6%; 2.4%), and tetracycline (88.9%; 76.2%) (P< 0.05). The APEC broiler isolates had a significantly higher presence compared with the native chicken isolates of the following resistance genes:- by blaTEM (43.3%; 21.4%, respectively), cml-A (34.4%; 2.4%), tetA (76.7%; 40.5%), tetB (26.7%; 0%), sul2 (23.3%; 14.3%) and dhfrI (13.3%; 0%) (P< 0.05). The qnrB and qnrS genes were detected (12.16%; 72.97% respectively), in the APEC broiler isolates resistant to nalidixic acid and/or enrofloxacin while only qnrS genes was detected in all three APEC native chicken isolates. Regarding the point mutations of gyrA and parC, all isolates were positive to gyrA83S, gyrA87D, gyrA87L, gyrA87NY, parC80S and parC80I except that gyrA83S was not present in 20 APEC broiler isolates. Antimicrobial stewardship programs should be targeted at the backyard poultry sector as well as the commercial poultry sector.
Poultry Science; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psj.2021.101529
The study was aimed to evaluate the morphology and immune function development of the jejunum and ileum in squab pigeons (Columba livia), by determining the villus ultrastructure, secretory IgA and cytokines. Eight squabs were randomly selected and sampled on the day of hatch (DOH), days 7 (D7), 14 (D14) and 21 (D21) post-hatch, respectively. The results showed that under transmission electron microscope, the enterocyte circumference in jejunum and ileum decreased with age. The tight junction involved in enterocyte circumference of jejunal villi plateaued from D7, whereas that of ileal villi changed irregularly. The microvilli of jejunal and ileal villi was maximum at D14. Under scanning electron microscope, the villus morphology of jejunum and ileum appeared finger-shaped at DOH. After D7, the jejunal villi were still finger-shaped whereas the ileal villi were leaflike. The secretory IgA in jejunum was significantly increased at D21. The TGF-β decreased linearly in jejunum and ileum. The anti-inflammatory cytokines increased linearly and proinflammatory cytokines decreased linearly in jejunum and ileum with age. In conclusion, the morphological changes of jejunal epithelium were concentrated at DOH∼D7 and ileal epithelium at DOH∼D14 mainly. The changes in mucus layer and immune-related factors of jejunum and ileum persisted for almost the entire period.
Poultry Science; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psj.2021.101533
This study compared welfare assessment results in aviary flocks using three approaches: 1) A novel Aviary Transect method, 2) AssureWel, and 3) the Norwegian farm advisors’ NorWel method. The Aviary Transect time requirement, inter-observer reliability, and within- and across-house sensitivity to detect welfare indicators were also evaluated. The study was conducted on 6 randomly chosen commercial white-strain layer flocks of similar age and flock size, kept in multi-tiered aviaries. The Aviary Transect method comprised standardized walks along each aisle while screening the whole flock for 12 welfare indicators: feather loss (FL) on head, back, breast, and tail, wounds on head, back, tail, and feet, dirty birds, enlarged crop, sick birds, and dead birds. AssureWel involved scoring FL on head and back, and dirtiness of 50 random birds, and flock-level evaluation of beak trimming, antagonistic behaviour, flightiness, birds needing further care, and mortality. NorWel involved scoring 8 welfare indicators on 50 random birds: FL on head, back, breast, and tail, dirtiness, and wounds on head, back, and tail. The AssureWel detected flock differences in both minor and major FL on the back (P < 0.01) as well as somewhat dirty birds (P < 0.01). The NorWel method detected flock differences in both minor and major FL on the head (P < 0.01), back (P < 0.001), breast (P < 0.001), and tail (P < 0.001) and somewhat (score 1) dirty birds (P < 0.05). The Aviary Transect method detected flock differences in FL on head, back, breast, and tail (all P < 0.001), dirty birds (P < 0.05) and enlarged crop (P < 0.001). More birds with FL on breast, and more dirty birds, were found in wall vs. central transects (P < 0.05). There was good inter-observer agreement, except for dirty birds (P < 0.01), and positive correlations (P < 0.05) were identified between the Aviary Transect method and the other sampling methods for FL on head and back, and dirtiness. The three methods took similar time to complete (about 20 min/flock). In conclusion, all three methods detected significant differences in welfare indicator prevalence between flocks. The new Aviary Transect method provides egg producers with an efficient and sensitive whole-flock assessment of hen welfare status in multi-tiered aviaries.
Poultry Science; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psj.2021.101535
In two experiments, we investigated whether diet composition plays a role in pathogen-induced anorexia, the voluntary reduction in ADFI during infection in broilers. We hypothesised that either energy or CP dietary content could influence the extent of anorexia in Ross 308 broilers and infection outcomes with Eimeria maxima. From d13 of age, half of the birds were infected, and half were uninfected. ADFI was measured daily, and BW every three days until d29. Oocyst excretion was measured daily from d17 to 23. The impact of parasitism on the small intestine was assessed on d19 and 25. In Experiment 1, 336 birds were offered diets progressively diluted with lignocellulose, starting from a diet with 3,105 (kcal ME/kg) and 20% CP. There was a significant interaction between infection and diet on ADFI during the acute stage of infection (d17 to 21): for control birds diet dilution decreased ADFI and consequently reduced energy and CP intake. For infected birds, diet dilution increased ADFI, leading to the same energy and CP intake across diets. Oocyst excretion and villi length to crypt depth ratio (VCR) were constant across infected treatments. In Experiment 2, 432 birds were offered diets with constant ME (3,105 kcal/ kg), but different CP contents (24, 20, 26 and 12%). Infection significantly reduced ADFI. Although there was no interaction between infection and diet on ADFI, there was an interaction on CP intake during the acute stage of infection. Infected birds on the 20% CP diet achieved the same CP intake as uninfected birds. There were no differences in the VCR and ADG of the infected birds on 24, 20 and 16% CP treatments, but birds on 12% had the lowest ADG and excreted more oocysts. We suggest that during infection, birds target a nutrient resource intake, which appears to be beneficial for infection outcomes, whilst at the same time they avoid excess protein intake. We conclude that different mechanisms regulate ADFI in infected and uninfected birds.
Poultry Science; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psj.2021.101528
A study was conducted to evaluate standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids (AA) and nitrogen-corrected apparent metabolizable energy (AMEn) values of pre-pressed solvent-extracted carinata meal (SE-carinata meal) and expeller/cold-pressed canola meal (ECP-canola meal) for broilers. Two hundred and forty broiler chicks were divided into 40 groups of 6 birds/group and fed 4 diets in a completely randomized design (10 groups/diet) from 14 to 21 d of age. The diets were cornstarch-based containing SE-carinata meal, ECP-canola meal, or pre-pressed solvent-extracted canola meal (SE-canola meal; reference feedstuff) as the sole protein source, and N-free diet. Digestibility of AA and N retention for feedstuffs was determined by the direct method, whereas energy retention of feedstuffs was determined by difference from the N-free diet. On DM basis, SE-canola meal, CP-canola meal, and SE-carinata meal contained 43, 36, and 50% CP; 2.60, 2.21, and 1.82% Lys; 32, 29, and 27% neutral detergent fiber, and 1.1, 15.3, and 0.88% ether extract, respectively. On DM basis, the AMEn value was lowest (P< 0.05) for SE-carinata meal (1,295 kcal/kg), intermediate (P< 0.05) for SE-canola meal (1,608 kcal/kg), and greatest (P< 0.05) for CP-canola meal (1,994 kcal/kg). The SID values of indispensable AA for CP-canola meal were greater (P< 0.05) than those for SE-canola meal or SE-carinata meal. The SID values of all indispensable AA (except Gly, Lys, and Trp) for SE-carinata meal were greater (P< 0.05) than those for SE-canola meal. The SE-canola meal and SE-carinata meal did not differ in SID of Gly and Trp; however, SE-carinata meal had lower (P< 0.05) SID of Lys than SE-canola meal. The results indicate that CP-canola meal fed in this study could be a good source of AA and energy for broilers. Results also indicate that SE-carinata meal fed in this study could be an attractive AA source for broiler diet, but could benefit from Lys fortification due it its low SID Lys value.
Poultry Science; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psj.2021.101537
Chicken meat is an important source of high-quality animal protein. Its consumption continues to grow in both developed and developing countries. Muscle fiber characteristics are key determinants of meat quality and quantity. Skeletal muscle is a highly plastic tissue that is affected by breed differences and muscular tissues. However, studies regarding the effects of different breeds and muscular tissues on the fibers and meat quality traits in broilers are lacking. In this study, Ross 308 chickens (fast-growing [FG] broilers) and Xueshan chickens (slow-growing [SG] broilers) were selected, and their fiber and meat quality traits were characterized. The results showed that the breast muscle primarily comprised glycolytic fibers, whereas the leg muscle comprised glycolytic and a few oxidative fibers, regardless of the breed. The highest percentage of oxidative fibers (26.51%) appeared in the soleus muscle (SOL) of SG broilers. In addition, higher shear force, lower pressing loss, and thicker muscle fibers with less extracellular space were observed for SG meat than for FG meat. When comparing the different muscular tissues, a higher oxidative fiber percentage, ultimate pH, redness, and intramuscular fat (IMF) content were detected in the leg muscle than in the breast muscle in the two breeds. In summary, these data indicated that SG broilers had thicker muscle fibers than the FG broilers and that the leg muscle had more oxidative fibers than the breast muscle. Thicker fibers may contribute to increased firmness and more oxidative fibers lead to higher redness value and IMF content.
Poultry Science; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psj.2021.101530
To evaluate the impact of male-female cohabitation period on fertility, hatchability, injury responses, and hormonal estimates in Japanese quails. A total of 288 mature Japanese quails were equally divided into three groups (3 groups × 8 replicates × 12 birds), with 1 Male: 2 Females sex ratio. In the 1st group (control), male and female quails were reared continuously together, while the males in the 2nd and 3rd groups were reared together with females once or twice/wk times (24 hours/ time), respectively throughout the experiment. The obtained results showed that final body weight (FBW/g) for males and females, fertility (%), and the hatchability (%) in the 2nd and 3rd groups significantly (P≤0.01) increased compared with the control group. Laying quails in the 2nd and 3rd groups significantly (P≤0.01) produced more and heavier eggs, while the feed consumption and feed conversion ratio were significantly (P≤0.01) decreased compared with the control group. Injuries responses for both sex in the 2nd and 3rd groups significantly (P≤0.01) decreased compared with the control group. The cloacal size (mm2) for quails in the 3rd group significantly (P≤0.01) increased than those of the 1st and 2nd groups, while the testes (%) were not affected. The testosterone hormone concentration for male chickens in the 2nd and 3rd groups significantly (P<0.01) decreased, while the female progesterone hormone concentration (ng/mL) significantly (P<0.01) increased compared with the control group. The means of red blood cells (RBC/106), white blood cells (WBC/103), and hemoglobin (g/dl) for quails in the 2nd and 3rd groups significantly (P<0.01) increased, while heterophil/lymphocyte (H/L ratio) significantly (P<0.01) decreased compared with the control group. Thus, it could be concluded that the reduction male-female cohabitation period of quails is recommended for improving the hatchability and fertility percentages as well as and hormonal estimates.
Poultry Science; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psj.2021.101541
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of naturally oxidized corn oil on the inflammatory reaction and intestinal health of broilers. Total 450, 1-day-old Arbor Acres male broilers were randomly divided into five treatments with 6 replicate cages (15 birds in each replicate cage). The dietary treatment array consisted of the varying ratio of non-oxidized corn oil to naturally oxidized corn oil from 0:100, 25:75, 50:50, 75:25, 100:0, respectively. The experimental period was 42 days. Serum, jejunum, and contents of cecum samples were taken at the age of 42 days of broilers. The results showed no significant difference in the body weight gain (BWG) with a different proportion of oxidized corn oil compared with the 0% oxidized oil group on day 42. The feed intake (FI), the concentration of immunoglobulin G (IgG), interferon-γ (IFN-γ), and interleukin-10 (IL10) in serum showed a significant quadratic response with the increase of oxidized oil concentration on day 42. The serum's concentration of IgG, IFN-γ, and IL-10 reached the highest value at 75% oxidized corn oil. In addition, the mRNA expression levels of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IFN-γ, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), and myeloid differentiation factor-88 (MyD88) in the jejunum were significantly affected by different proportions of oxidized corn oil, and the gene expression levels were highest at 75% oxidized corn oil on day 42. The mRNA expression of Bcl2-associated X (Bax) in the jejunum showed a significantly quadratic curve with the increase of oxidized oil concentration, and its gene expression was the highest after adding 50% oxidized corn oil according to the regression equation on day 42. The villus height/crypt depth and goblet cells of jejunum decreased linearly with the increasing proportion of oxidized corn oil and reached the lowest point after adding 100% oxidized corn oil on day 42. The β diversity showed the remarkable differentiation of microbial communities among 5 groups, and the microbial community of the 0% oxidized oil group was significantly separated from that of 75% and 100% oxidized oil groups in the cecum. Taken together, these results showed that a low dose of naturally oxidized corn oil is not harmful to the growth of broilers, while a high dose of oxidized corn oil will trigger the inflammatory response and adversely affect the gut health of broilers.
Poultry Science; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psj.2021.101534
Some concerns have been raised recently about the assay of corticosterone vs. cortisol in poultry species. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that ducks secrete both glucocorticoids. First, we validated two commercially ELISA kits for the two glucocorticoids by first charcoal stripping duck serum in order to remove all steroid hormones. We ran serial dilutions of spiked, charcoal-stripped serum on kits of opposite glucocorticoid as well as a serial dilution using the respective ELISA buffer of the opposite assay kit. We found that the glucocorticoid standard curve in duck serum matched the respective curve in that kit's own buffer. However, when the opposite hormone was run in each kit in both duck serum or ELISA buffer, a near zero slope was obtained. Second, we further validated the presence of both glucocorticoids using mass spectrometry. Third, we tested the hypothesis that exogenous ACTH would stimulate the release of both corticosterone and cortisol. And, fourth, we tested the hypothesis that each glucocorticoid would have different serum levels in response to shipping stress. To test this hypothesis, we collected serum from 10 drakes and 10 hens from 2 flocks (N = 20 per time point per sex): 24 hours prior to shipping, at shipping as ducks were walked off the truck, 24 hours after shipping, and 1 week after shipping. Data were analyzed by 2-way repeated measures ANOVA. Surprisingly, we also observed a sex difference in both glucocorticoid levels in that hens showed higher (p < 0.01) serum levels than did drakes at all time points in response to either ACTH or transportation. Finally, no differences were observed in either glucocorticoid levels associated with shipping in either sex. The fact that both glucocorticoids are released in measurable amounts lends to the possibility that they may be differentially regulated, or at least there is a sex difference in the neural pathways associated with glucocorticoid release in ducks. Although corticosterone is the likely predominate glucocorticoid in ducks, serious attention should be given to the role of cortisol in poultry. Further consideration of sex, age, and timing of blood collection to stressor needs to be considered when assessing glucocorticoid levels in any avian species.