Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics

Journal Information
EISSN : 2250-1177
Published by: Society of Pharmaceutical Tecnocrats (10.22270)
Total articles ≅ 2,579
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Sahana John, Agasa Ramu Mahesh
Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics, Volume 11, pp 11-15; https://doi.org/10.22270/jddt.v11i5.5003

Abstract:
Hospital specific monitoring studies aims to determine the prevalence of the type of microorganisms that causes urinary infections and to assess the antimicrobial sensitivity pattern. A hospital based short term prospective cross-sectional study was conducted at Sagar Hospital, Bengaluru from August to October 2020. Antimicrobial susceptibility in MIC test was performed for the isolated pathogens by using automated VITEK compact method and stratification was done according to ICU and NON-ICU patients with over 260 urine culture tests of the suspected in-patient for urinary tract infection. All antimicrobial susceptibility data was analyzed using WHONET software 5.6. Sixty-six urine culture tests showed culture positive, 41 from non-ICU and 23 from ICU. Gram-negative bacilli E.Coli (61% in ICU, 52% IN non-ICU) was the most prevalent bacterium, followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae ss. pneumoniae (9% in ICU, 20% IN non-ICU), and Candida albicans 9% prevalence was seen only in ICU isolates. The study shows that the rate of resistance towards ampicillin (100%) was high among gram negative isolates and penicillin (100%) among gram positive isolates. The susceptibility was favorable towards polymixinB, colistin in gram negative organisms and nitrofurantoin, vancomycin in gram positive organisms. The present study revealed that E.Coli is the predominant bacterial pathogen. It also demonstrates there is an increasing resistance to ampicillin (88.2%) and ESBL (90%) among UTI pathogens. While, polymixin B (100%) and colistin was found most effective among gram negative and nitrofurantoin was most effective among gram positive organisms. Keywords: Antibiotic, antimicrobial resistance, urinary tract infection
Bantupalli Suranjan, Bala Yaswanth Kumar S, Atluri Deekshit
Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics, Volume 11, pp 100-104; https://doi.org/10.22270/jddt.v11i5.5009

Abstract:
The term traditional medicine is used to explain the traditional medical practice that has been in existence even before the advent of modern medicine. It is widely accepted and used in the prevention and treatment of physical and mental treatment as well as a social imbalance. There seem to be limits to the development of new drugs based exclusively on modern technologies. Since the 1980s, the pharmaceutical industry has tended to use high throughput synthesis and drug development based on combinatorial chemistry in developing new drugs/medicines. However, significant efforts in this direction have not resulted in the drug's expected productivity. Some large pharmaceutical companies are facing significant challenges in developing new products. Our study was to evaluate the aged population's insight regarding traditional medicine and modern medicine. It was a prospective study with duration of three months from February 2021 to April 2021. The study was conducted in the population in and around Vijayawada. A total of 400 samples were collected. Generally, nowadays people are not aware of traditional medicines even if they are inexpensive when compared to modern drugs. So we conducted this study to know the knowledge of aged peoples on traditional medicine and to know their perception regarding both modern medicine and traditional medicine. Keywords: Traditional medicine, Modern medicine, Natural, Aged, Population.
Kamel El-Reshaid
Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics, Volume 11, pp 131-135; https://doi.org/10.22270/jddt.v11i5.4986

Abstract:
Hypertension is the most powerful, independent, preventable risk factor for death and disability from cardiovascular diseases. Initial clinical assessment and diagnostic testing are essential to disclose; (a) secondary causes to avoid resistant cases that needs specific therapy, (b) co-morbid conditions that limits choice of drug-therapy, and (c) target organ damage that dictates specialized approach. In this review article; an algorithm for its management is outlined that includes also specific practical approach to those with emergencies, urgencies and co-morbid conditions. Keywords: adults, coronary artery disease, heart failure, hypertension, renal failure, stroke.
Ogechukwu L. Nwankwo, Onwuzuluigbo C. Chukwuebuka, Okeke O. Collins, Bunu J. Samuel, Josephat C. Obasi, Ezinne S. Iloh, Emmanuel Okechukwu Nwankwo
Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics, Volume 11, pp 80-83; https://doi.org/10.22270/jddt.v11i5.4999

Abstract:
Background information: The phytochemicals of endophytes have generated substantial interest in drug discovery programs because they offer the possibility of discovering new biologically active molecules. Objective: The objective of this study was to quantify and analyze the phytochemical profile of the fungus endophytic extracts isolated from Azadirachta indica leaves, which have been used ethnobotanically for treating malaria and bacterial infections. Methods: Endophytic fungi were isolated, solid-state fermentation of rice medium was performed, and secondary metabolites were extracted according to standard techniques. An analytical system that uses gas chromatography and flame ionization detection (GC-FID) was used to determine the phytochemical constituents contained in the endophytes. Results: The results of GC-FID analysis showed the presence of Ribalinidine, Naringenin, Sparteine, Phenol, Steroids, Kaempferol, Flavone, Oxalate, Catechin, Tannin, and Rutin at different concentrations. Conclusion: This study reveals the promising ability of the endophytic fungi of A. indica as a foundation of naturally occurring bioactive. The quantitative phytochemical assessment of the endophyte extracts from the leaves of A.indica showed that endophyte extracts from the plant are rich in both alkaloids and flavonoids (Phenolics). Keywords: GC-FID, Phytochemical, Endophytes, Secondary metabolites, Fermentation.
Qamrul Ismam Usmani, Altaf Ahmad, Fathima Nairoza Jamaldeen
Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics, Volume 11, pp 136-144; https://doi.org/10.22270/jddt.v11i5.5021

Abstract:
Habb-ul-Ghar (Laurus nobilis L., fruit) is used in the Unani and other traditional systems of medicine since ancient times. It has been also used in culinary and pharmaceutical industries. Various phytoconstituents were isolated from laurel fruit, like monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, fatty acids, flavonoids, phenolic acid, and some minerals. Many pharmacological studies have been carried out to explore its anti-oxidant, antimicrobial, antiproliferative, antinociceptive, and anti-inflammatory activities. This review will provide a comprehensive overview only about fruit of Laurus nobilis with special reference to Unani medicine. Keywords: Habb ul Ghar; Laurus nobilis; Laurel fruit; Unani medicine
Amit Kumar Verma, Arun Kumar, Subbiah Ramasamy, Ajit Kumar Yadav, Rohit Kumar Bijauliya
Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics, Volume 11, pp 27-32; https://doi.org/10.22270/jddt.v11i5.5000

Abstract:
The use of hydrophilic polymers from natural origin. Especially the polysaccharides have been the focus of current research activity in the design of matrix device due to their non toxic, biocompatible, biodegradable nature and broad regulatory acceptance. A large number of polysaccharides such as Carboxymethyl starch, Xanthan gum, Hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC), Sodium Alginate etc, have been used as hydrophilic matrices to investigate release behavior of drug. In order to enrich the resources, there is a quest for new polysaccharide owing to their diverse chemical composition and functional groups are amenable to chemical modification and thus tailor made polymeric matrices are obtained which which can be used to modulate oral drug release. The objective of the study is to characterize Verapamil hydrochloride loaded matrix dosage form using hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC), xanthan gum, corn starch as rate retarding polymer. Dosage forms were prepared using different polymers along with drug Verapamil hydrochloride. Carboxymethylation was performed. Drug release was evaluated in simulated gastric media. Addition of xanthan gum significantly retarded the burse release of drug. The retardation of drug release was found to be dependent upon the concentration. The formulation composed of HPMC K4M and CS (ARI-ARI3) followed super case transport is swelling controlled, purely relaxation controlled drug delivery. Keywords: Verapamil HCl, Natural gums, xanthan gum, HPMC, sustained release
Gurleen Kaur, Alfisha Saifi, Kapil Kumar, Deepak Teotia
Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics, Volume 11, pp 84-89; https://doi.org/10.22270/jddt.v11i5.5005

Abstract:
Nebivolol HCl is a newer drug of β1-adrenergic blocker category, basically used as anti-hypertensive. It is a 3rd generation, antagonist, having NO (nitric oxide) enhancing vasodilator properties. It has 12% oral bioavailability, because of its pre systemic metabolism by the means of cytochrome P450 2D6 enzymes. Its log P value is 4.03 and 5mg is its daily dose. It is highly lipophilic drug and belongs to class BCS II, with slow dissolution. Bioavailability of any drug can be improved by avoiding its first pass metabolism and promoting solubility. Several researchers have worked on the development of ME formulations on different poor water-soluble drugs, to increase their solubility. The purpose of this study is an attempt to enhance the solubility to improve the bioavailability of nebivolol drug by developing a novel delivery system that is microemulsion (ME) .ME formulations were developed using different oil, surfactant and co-surfactants in different ratio and studied on various parameters. Different preformulation tests done on received sample of Nebivolol. FTIR study was performed in order to find out any interactions between the ingredients. Based on the solubility Capmul Pg-12 was finalized oil, Tween 80 as surfactant, propylene glycol as the cosurfactant based on solubility and emulsification efficiency. Five Nebivolol ME formulations were successfully developed by use of oil, water, SA and Co-SA different ratio. Prepared formulations were studied for different properties- transmittance (%), pH, refractive index, viscosity, drug content, and solubility. It was seen that after 4 hours of diffusion, the drug released from the formulation ME5 is faster and more than that of the other i.e., 90.2±0.06%. It was found that ME5 was more stable and Soluble than other prepared formulations. With the better solubilty the bioavailability of Nebivolol will increased and helps in faster absorption and High diffusion in systemic circulation with lower or no risk of degradation. It somehow also reduced frequent intake of drug. Keywords: Nebivolol, micro emulsion, Ternary phase diagram, surfactant, co-surfactant.
Kaiser Jay Aziz-Andersen
Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics, Volume 11, pp 193-195; https://doi.org/10.22270/jddt.v11i5.5006

Abstract:
CRISPR gene editing is a genetic engineering technique applied in clinical applications in which the genomes of living organisms may be modified. It is based on the principles of the CRISPR-Cas9 antiviral defense system. It is based on delivering the Cas9 nuclease complexed with a synthetic guide RNA into a living organism cell and that organisms’s genome can be “cut” and –“paste” at a desired location, allowing existing genes to be modified for desired outcome (i.e., CRISPR for Precision Medicine). CRISPR gene editing harnesses the natural defense mechanisms of some bacteria to cut human DNA strands. Then the DNA strand either heals itself or injects a new piece of DNA to mend the gap. Studies have been reported in Lung Cancer diagnosis and treatments. CRISPR-based engineering techniques have been developed for T Cells and Stem cells applications (i.e. Gene Corrections in Hematopoietic Stem Cells for the Treatment of Blood and Immune System Diseases). Even though earlier CRISPR methodologies were used for performing simple DNA edits, recent applications include the ability to delete genes or insert genes, and edit regulatory regions in a wide range of cell types. The role of CRISPR in human therapeutics is currently focused on utilizing CRISPR techniques to perform either in vivo editing of human cells–everything from the head, eye all the way to neurons and liver cells--or performing ex vivo therapies. The FDA’s new genomic CRISPR technology based products approval process begins with review and evaluation of preclinical studies in order to establish and characterize the proposed product’s safety profile. New genomic products must be shown to be safe and effective for the FDA approval process. The sponsor of the new genomic product must show that the product is safe and effective in human subjects.1
Sonali Kumavat, Pravin Kumar Sharma, Sweta S Koka, Ravi Sharma, Ashish Gupta, G. N. Darwhekar
Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics, Volume 11, pp 208-212; https://doi.org/10.22270/jddt.v11i5.5046

Abstract:
Over the years researchers have been making an attempt to improve the potency of utilization of medicament for treatment of numerous diseases. During this endeavour, drug delivery systems have helped greatly by achieving reduced dose, reduced dosage frequency, improved patient compliance, improved bioavailability and maximum concentration of the drug at the target site. Recent years have seen an unprecedented growth in the use of nanotechnology in designing drug delivery systems. Niosomes are vesicles composed of non-ionic surfactants, which are biodegradable, comparatively non-toxic, stable, economical and effective alternate to liposomes. This review is deepening and widening the interest of Niosomes in several scientific disciplines and notably its application in drug delivery. This review additionally presents a summary of the types, methods of preparation, characterization and applications of Niosomes. Keywords: Niosomes, types, method of preparation, factors affecting and applications
S. Padmakar, R.B. Purandhar Chakravarthy, Prodduturu Sai Karthik, B.U. Charitha, T. Harini, P. Vijaya Narsimha Reddy
Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics, Volume 11, pp 57-60; https://doi.org/10.22270/jddt.v11i5.5019

Abstract:
Introduction: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a progressive, life-threatening disease of the lungs, gradually causes breathlessness and predisposes to exacerbations and serious illness. The main objectives of the study are to evaluate disease knowledge, medication adherence, and health-related quality of life among COPD patients. Methodology: A Hospital-based, single-entered prospective observational study was conducted at a government general hospital, Andhra Pradesh. India after ethical committee approval. This study was conducted for 6 months with a sample size of 80 patients. Results: According to our study, the majority of the patients 36 (45%) don’t have disease knowledge, where a few numbers of patients 7 (8.75%) is having disease knowledge as per BCKQ score values. 11.25% of patients have the lowest MMAS scores whereas 58.75% were found to have higher MMAS scores and 37.5% of total patients have higher CAT scores, and 12.5% of patients have lower CAT scores. Conclusion: We found that majority of the patients have poor disease knowledge, lower adherence to medication regimens, and substandard HRQOL. Keywords: COPD knowledge, medication adherence, and HRQOL.
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