International Journal of Marketing Studies

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ISSN / EISSN : 1918-719X / 1918-7203
Total articles ≅ 839
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Alyssa Sun
International Journal of Marketing Studies, Volume 13; https://doi.org/10.5539/ijms.v13n3p63

Abstract:
Reviewer acknowledgements for International Journal of Marketing Studies, Vol. 13, No. 3, 2021.
María Aránzazu Sulé Alonso, Tea Rushit, Elvira Delgado-Márquez
International Journal of Marketing Studies, Volume 13; https://doi.org/10.5539/ijms.v13n3p42

Abstract:
Humankind has faced various pandemics in history. The food supply chain is one of the foremost vital sectors of the economy, and COVID-19 has had a clear bearing on it from the field to the consumer. In the light of recent challenges in the food supply chain, there is currently considerable concern regarding food production, processing, distribution, and demand. COVID-19 resulted in the movement restrictions of staff, changes in the demands of consumers, closure of food production facilities, restrictive food trade policies, and monetary pressures in the food supply chain.  This study describes the impact of the COVID-19 health crisis on people’s interests, opinions, and behaviour towards food. Additionally, an online questionnaire (Spanish population, n = 232) studied the changes in food shopping habits during the pandemic. To try to cover the whole Léon territory and reach the greatest number of persons through mobile phones, tablets, and computers, the questionnaire was created using the Google Forms tool and distributed using instant messaging apps such as WhatsApp, social media such as Facebook and Twitter, social networking sites such as LinkedIn and ResearchGate, and email through snowball sampling. The statistical analysis was carried out under the SPSS programme. The results are presented in the form of means and distributions. The differences between subgroups have been evaluated using student’s t-test. The level of statistical significance used in all cases was p < 0.05. This study is focused on evaluating changes in food consumption habits of the Spanish adult population throughout the COVID-19 lockdown. The study is supported by a web-based survey targeting the adult general population. From this study, we are able to conclude that the studied Spanish adult population is extremely close to from having good healthy dietary habits, considering the Mediterranean Diet as a reference of healthy uptake. An improvement of dietary behaviours throughout the COVID-19 confinement has been discovered. Health-related food selections involved increased intake of fruits, vegetables, and legumes and decreased intake of red meat, alcohol, fried foods, or pastries compared to their pre-pandemic habits.
Yunxia Shi, Rumeng Zhang, Chunhao Ma
International Journal of Marketing Studies, Volume 13; https://doi.org/10.5539/ijms.v13n3p33

Abstract:
Place attachment can effectively increase the revisit rate of tourists, which is significant for the sustainability of rural tourism. However, previous studies have rarely explored what kind of host-guest emotional closeness can promote tourist place attachment. This study explores the relationship between local residents’ emotional labor strategy, perceived authenticity, and tourists’ place attachment based on the rural tourism context. A total of 266 valid questionnaires were collected from rural tourists in Yantai as the research subjects by random sampling method. Structural equation modeling was applied to test the hypotheses. The results showed that local residents’ deep acting positively influenced tourists’ place attachment, and perceived authenticity partially mediated the relationship between the two. The negative effect of surface acting on rural tourists’ place attachment was not significant.
Edson Coutinho Da Silva
International Journal of Marketing Studies, Volume 13; https://doi.org/10.5539/ijms.v13n3p21

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This theoretical paper aims to approach the major customer value drivers and then, describe the main five stages required to support customer experience (CX) professionals in order to conceive, design and implement CX improvement projects. The CX focuses on customer’s perceptions and related feelings caused by the one-off and cumulative effect of interactions with a supplier’s employees, systems, channels, or products. The CX encompasses every interaction the customer has with an organisation throughout the customer lifecycle through multichannel. Generally speaking, providing a good experience can affect and impact customer satisfaction, loyalty, and engagement. Business companies recognised the competitive advantage of CX and the value creation reside not only in what a company delivers for its customers but in how it delivers products and services. Therefore, a positive CX requires coordination across different functions within an organisation, for instance, marketing, product or service development, customer care, operations, or retail branches.
Alessandro Gandolfo
International Journal of Marketing Studies, Volume 13; https://doi.org/10.5539/ijms.v13n3p9

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The primary aim of this paper is to draw practitioners’ attention to lesser-known risks of digital marketing research: while it enables quick and low-cost results, quality and reliability are not guaranteed. The paper also surfaces broader consequences of transitioning from traditional research, based on offline investigations and face-to-face interviews carried out by professionals, to digital research. The paper presents the results of a survey on a cohort of 200 freelance interviewers working for Italy’s main research institutions, conducted through a self-administered questionnaire. Recently online marketing research, especially through panels, has gained meaningful traction. As demand for traditional marketing research contracts, professional interviewers are experiencing a material drop in requests for their in-field services and a worsening working environment. In return, this affects the quality of on field research they can provide. This is the first study, to the best of the author’s knowledge, where issues and limitations of digital research are studied from the perspective of professional interviewers. This study enables managers and organisations that commission marketing research to make more informed decisions when facing the trade-offs between traditional and digital methods. Furthermore, it provides a view on how such choices may impact the future of professional interviewers and their services.  
Safaa Adil, Ahmad Mostafa Abdeltawab, Danielle Lecointre-Erickson
International Journal of Marketing Studies, Volume 13; https://doi.org/10.5539/ijms.v13n3p1

Abstract:
Advertisings usually display thin bodies creating and endorsing the beauty standards of the society. Large body size models are sometimes featured in advertisings to show a more inclusive marketing communication. Previous researches have investigated consumer responses to more diverse body sizes in Beauty and Fashion industries ads. This paper aims at investigating advertisement effectiveness, for both print and digital advertisings, through consumer responses (Memorization, Aad, Ab, and Purchase Intention) to body sizes in food advertisements. We used a mixed design study with a between group factor (Media type: Print or Digital) and a within-subject variable (body shape: large, thin or no model), via a folder test procedure. Participants were exposed to a fictive magazine to measure their responses toward advertisements featuring large size model versus thin one. The findings reveal that “large model” advertisements are less effective compared to “thin model” advertisements for Memorization, Attitude towards Ad, and Purchasing Intention. However, participants expressed the same Attitude towards the Brand for both conditions. Moreover, hardly any significant influence of the means of exposure to ads (printed or digital) was found. Despite the latest consumer pertinacity trends on companies to adopt diversity for social reasons; consumers, of the food industry, are still better influenced by thin models when it comes to Memorization, Aad, and PI. Furthermore, this study offers practical and societal implications not only for the experimental design, but also for practitioners to comprehend and utilize the match‐up hypothesis of body size condition needed for their marketing and advertising objectives.
Adler Hilary Laisak, Anita Rosli, Nurzalikha Sa’Adi
International Journal of Marketing Studies, Volume 13; https://doi.org/10.5539/ijms.v13n2p53

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Service quality is a vital factor that influences customer satisfaction. For profit organizations such as public bus companies, high customer satisfaction is a sign for business success and the ability to create long-term relationships with their customers. This research is to assess the effects of service quality attributes on customers’ satisfaction towards service quality provided by inter-district public bus companies in the Central Region of Sarawak. The research adapted SERVQUAL model proposed by Parasuraman, Zeithaml and Berry (1988). A total of 400 respondents were obtained among inter-district public bus users through a convenient sampling method. The mean score for customers’ satisfaction was 2.24, which means the level of customer satisfaction towards the service quality of inter-district buses in the Central Region was low. Meanwhile, the result from the multiple regression analysis showed that service quality dimensions of empathy, assurance, and responsibility had significant effects on customers’ satisfaction. The inter-district public bus companies in the Central Region of Sarawak should improve their service quality by building and obtaining customer trust to keep existing customers and at the same time to attract potential customers. Good customers’ experience towards service and the power of word mouth are marketing tools to enhance business reputation relative to other competitors.
Evelina Francisco, Nadira Fardos, Aakash Bhatt, Gulhan Bizel
International Journal of Marketing Studies, Volume 13; https://doi.org/10.5539/ijms.v13n2p20

Abstract:
The COVID-19 pandemic and the resulting stay-at-home orders have disrupted all aspects of life globally, most notably our relationship with the internet and social media platforms. People are online more than ever before, working and attending school from home and socializing with friends and family via video conferencing. Marketers and brands have been forced to adapt to a new normal and, as a result, have shifted their brand communication and marketing mix to digital approaches. Hence, this study aims to examine the shift of influencer marketing on Instagram during this period and the possible future implications. By employing an online survey for exploratory research, individuals answered questions addressing their perceptions about the impact of the pandemic, brands and influencers’ relationship, and the overall changes made in marketing strategy.
BoMi Lee, Michelle Childs
International Journal of Marketing Studies, Volume 13; https://doi.org/10.5539/ijms.v13n2p12

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Cosmetic brands typically seek growth opportunities and advertising in the international market. The objectives of this study are to test the differences in consumers’ trust responses based on advertising factors, the moderating role of ad appeal in this relationship, and the subsequent impact on consumers’ purchase behavior. Results show that Asian models are considered more trustworthy than Caucasian models in cosmetic advertisements; however, a US brand is considered more trustworthy when compared with an Asian brand. The impact of model ethnicity and brand origin on advertising trust differs based on levels of ad appeal.
Getie Andualem Imiru
International Journal of Marketing Studies, Volume 13; https://doi.org/10.5539/ijms.v13n2p36

Abstract:
The area of export performance has been attracting both academic and managerial attention at an increasing pace. The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of Export Promotion Programs on Export Performance mediated by marketing implemenattion capbaility in the case of Exporting Companies in Ethiopia. The target repsondnets of this study were Exporting companies operating in Ethiopia. The total number of exporting companies operating in the country are 938. The number of questionnaires distributed were 280 and 218 (78%) of the collected questionnaires were used for anlaysis. The validity of the data was tested by measuring construct validity and discriminant validity. Data were analyses using partial least squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM). The study findings showed that the use of export promotion programmes has a positive and significant effect on export Performance. Results of the total model also revealed that market implementation capability mediated the effect of Education, Training and Development-related EPPs, Legal-Related EPPs, Marketing Selection-Related EPPs on export performance positively and significantly. On the other hand, Market Implementation Capability didn’t mediate the effect of Information-Related EPPs, Financial Aid-Related EPPS, Marketing Strategy-Related EPPs and Miscellaneous EPPs on export performance. Marketing implementation capabilities was found to have a partial mediation role between EPPs and Performance. The findings of the study are expected to provide a source of information for policy makers, researchers and exporters and marketing professionals to understand link between Export Promotion Programs, with the immediate role marketing implementation capability in exporting companies operating in Ethiopia.
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