Arthropod Systematics & Phylogeny
ISSN / EISSN : 1863-7221 / 1864-8312
Published by: Pensoft Publishers (10.3897)
Total articles ≅ 25
Latest articles in this journal
Arthropod Systematics & Phylogeny, Volume 79, pp 587-597; https://doi.org/10.3897/asp.79.e72724
Abstract The cryptic slime mold beetles, Sphindidae, are a moderately diverse cucujoid beetle family, whose members are obligately tied to slime molds throughout their life. The fossil record of sphindid beetles is sparse; stem-sphindids and crown-group members of uncertain systematic placement have been reported from Cretaceous ambers. Here we review the Mesozoic fossil record of Sphindidae and report a new sphindid genus and species, Trematosphindus newtonigen. et sp. nov., from Albian/Cenomanian amber from northern Myanmar (ca. 99 Ma). Trematosphindus is set apart from all other sphindids by the presence of distinct lateral cavities on the anterior pronotal angles. Our phylogenetic analysis identifies Trematosphindus as an early-diverging genus within Sphindidae, sister to the remainder of the family except Protosphindus, or Protosphindus and Odontosphindus. The new fossils provide evidence that basal crown slime mold beetles begun to diversify by the mid-Cretaceous, providing a valuable calibration point for understanding timescale of sphindid co-evolution with slime molds.
Arthropod Systematics & Phylogeny, Volume 79, pp 569-585; https://doi.org/10.3897/asp.79.e70234
Abstract This study provides a broad phylogenetic analysis for the Eubrachyura, with the inclusion of three new Panopeidae mitochondrial genomes: Eurypanopeus depressus (flatback mud crab) (15,854bp), Panopeus herbstii (Atlantic mud crab) (15,812bp) and Rhithropanopeus harrisii (Harris, or ‘white-fingered’ mud crab) (15,892bp). These new mitogenomes were analyzed alongside all available brachyuran mitochondrial genomes (n = 113), comprising 80 genera from 29 families, to provide an updated phylogenetic analysis of the infra-order Brachyura (“true crabs”). Our analyses support the subsection Potamoida within the Eubrachyura as the sister group to Thoracotremata. The family Panopeidae aligns with the family Xanthidae to form the Xanthoidea branch, which is supported by current morphological and genetic taxonomy. A unique gene arrangement termed ‘XanGO’ was identified for the panopeids and varies relative to other members of the subsection Heterotremata (within the Eubrachyura) via a transposition of the trnV gene. This gene arrangement is novel and is shared between several Xanthoidea species, including Etisus anaglyptus (hairy spooner crab), Atergatis floridus (brown egg crab), and Atergatis integerrimus (red egg crab), suggesting that it is a conserved gene arrangement within the Xanthoidea superfamily. Our study further reveals a need for taxonomic revision of some brachyuran groups, particularly the Sesarmidae. The inclusion of panopeid mitogenomes into the greater brachyuran phylogeny increases our understanding of crab evolution and higher level Eubrachyuran systematics.
Arthropod Systematics & Phylogeny, Volume 79, pp 555-567; https://doi.org/10.3897/asp.79.e70002
The production of sticky threads from spinnerets is known from various myriapod groups including some representatives of the millipedes (Diplopoda). In Diplopoda the thread-producing glands are mostly seta-like and positioned terminally on the telson, and the secretion product is typically used to build molting chambers or egg sacs. So far, no such secretions or organs have been documented for the subgroup Pentazonia. Here we describe thread-producing glands from the species-poor Glomeridesmida. These putative spinning organs are single circular fields of small pores (spinning fields) positioned on the outer side of the tarsi of all walking legs of mature and juvenile individuals of both sexes. These pores are the openings of cuticular tubuli (conducting canals), which extend from the tarsus to an aggregation of cells, a putative gland, within the femur. In several specimens thin threads were observed to be extruded from the pores. The tarsal spinning fields are present in all 21 investigated Glomeridesmida morphospecies, including Termitodesmidae and Glomeridesmidae from South East Asia, the Indian subcontinent, Oceania, and South and Central America. These organs might constitute an apomorphic character of the Glomeridesmida, as similar organs are absent in other Myriapoda. The function of the extruded threads in Glomeridesmida remains speculative, because observations of living specimens of the group are almost non-existing. We suggest that the secretion might be used for defense, to build molting chambers or to secure tunnels burrowed in the substrate.
Arthropod Systematics & Phylogeny, Volume 79, pp 509-533; https://doi.org/10.3897/asp.79.e62332
Mouse spiders (genus Missulena Walckenaer, 1805) are a lineage of trapdoor spiders with males of many species having a brightly coloured red cephalic region, an abdomen that is tinged metallic blue, and the habit of wandering during the day in search of a mate. A total of 17 species of Missulena have been described in Australia to date but most descriptions are based exclusively on males and always small numbers of specimens. Here, we describe three new species of Missulena from the Pilbara and Goldfields regions of Western Australia based on morphology and genetic data: Missulena davidi sp. nov. (male and female), M. iugum sp. nov. (male) and M. manningensis sp. nov. (male). One of them is presently known only from its type locality and another one from a small range based on two specimens but M. davidi sp. nov. has a linear range of almost 300 km and is genetically highly structured. We use genetic data for 75 specimens as a foundation to evaluate morphological variability in this species and note substantial variation in several characters commonly used to identify species such as body size, colouration, rastellum shape and eye distances. This variation does not necessarily relate to phylogeographic structure as inferred from the genetic data, but rather seems to reflect natural variability both within and between localised populations. Overall, our results stress the need to evaluate a large series of specimens for mygalomorph taxonomy and provide an interesting example of intraspecific variability in hard-to-collect species that are usually underrepresented in museum collections.
Arthropod Systematics & Phylogeny, Volume 79, pp 535-553; https://doi.org/10.3897/asp.79.e68203
The diving beetle genus Peschetius Guignot, 1942 (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae) in India is reviewed. Integrative taxonomic approach using morphology, multivariate morphometry and genetic analysis of cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 revealed the presence of four species, two of which are described here as new: Peschetius bistroemi sp. nov. from southern Western Ghats (Kerala) differs from all known congeners with distinctly broadened male antennomeres IV and V, shape of the prosternal process and the male genitalia; P. nilssoni sp. nov. from northern Western Ghats, Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh is similar to the widespread Indian P. toxophorus Guignot, 1942, from which it differs in habitus, elytral colour pattern and the shape of the male genitalia. New records are presented for the remaining Indian species, namely P. quadricostatus (Aubé, 1838) and P. toxophorus. All species are diagnosed, illustrated and a key to their identification is provided.
Arthropod Systematics & Phylogeny, Volume 79, pp 485-507; https://doi.org/10.3897/asp.79.e66321
Opiliones are highly diverse in the Neotropics. Because of biological constraints, most harvestmen communities are associated with humid forests, exhibiting a high species diversity and endemism in these habitats. Drier formations, such as the Caatinga biome in northeastern Brazil, are less diverse and still considered under-sampled for the order. This study represents an effort to examine the aforementioned diversity by describing a new Gonyleptidae genus, Sertaneja gen. nov., comprising two new species from Ceará state, Sertaneja bicuspidata sp. nov. and Sertaneja crassitibialis sp. nov., and one new species from Rio Grande do Norte state, Sertaneja falcata sp. nov. A morphological cladistic analysis consisting of 20 terminals and 72 characters was performed to evaluate monophyly of the new genus and relate it to other Gonyleptidae. The analysis resulted in a single most parsimonious tree, corroborating Sertaneja gen. nov. monophyly and relatedness to Gyndoides springmanni Soares & Soares, 1947, which in turn is the sister group to the DRMN clade. Taking into account the morphological traits and phylogenetic placement of Sertaneja gen. nov., we chose to place the new genus in Pachylinae despite its polyphyletic status, given that the Sertaneja gen. nov. clade is closely related to one of the Brazilian Pachylinae lineage. A resolution to the Pachylinae conundrum is needed to further explain the subfamily intricacies. Future research requires a larger scope, but currently, based on the new genus monophyly, support, and relatedness, we formally propose its creation and hope to shed light on the possible evolutionary scenarios for the subfamily.
Arthropod Systematics & Phylogeny, Volume 79, pp 465-484; https://doi.org/10.3897/asp.79.e65325
This paper sheds the first light on the phylogeny of the Central Asian genus Turanium Baeckmann, 1922. By applying an integrative taxonomy approach, we revealed and described a new species from Kyrgyzstan—Turanium losi Karpiński, Plewa & Hilszczański sp. nov. Distinguishing characters from closely related Turanium pilosum (Reitter, 1891) are presented and their ecological associations are discussed. The key characters, including the male terminalia, were examined by means of scanning electron microscopy. High-quality stacked photographs of the habitus of the specimens are presented for both species and their geographical distributions are mapped. While the new species shows stable morphological characters that allow its differentiation from T. pilosum and the COI genetic distance between them is approx. 3%, the different species delimitation methods gave discordant results. Although the new species remained unrecognized for so long, it seems that these cerambycids are common in the region and both can be considered potentially invasive as they are apparently highly polyphagous. It has also been documented that they occur sympatrically in Kyrgyzstan. Both the Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses of COI sequences confirmed the monophyly of the genus Turanium with strong support (PP 1 and BS 90, respectively). Moreover, the recently revealed polyphyly of the tribe Callidiini was supported by our analyses and, consequently, the discussion on the establishment of a new tribe Ropalopini is raised. This study further corroborates the effectiveness of DNA barcoding as a tool in detecting new species and provides some of the first sequences for Central Asian cerambycids, which remain almost completely unknown in terms of molecular studies.
Arthropod Systematics & Phylogeny, Volume 79, pp 443-463; https://doi.org/10.3897/asp.79.e68352
The head anatomy of Pselaphus heisei (Pselaphitae) is described and documented. The structural features are evaluated in comparison with findings presented in earlier studies on the subfamily, with a special focus on correlations with predacious habits and the groundplan of Pselaphinae. We found the tentorium, labrum, maxillary palps, shape of head, and a system of dorsal pits and sulci highly variable within the subfamily, reflecting multiple transformations, including many homoplasious changes. The following major characters are identified as groundplan features of Pselaphinae: falciform mandibles; small mola; semiglobular neck; ventrolateral antennal articulation; steep clypeal region; setiform labial palpomere 3; tentorium with nearly vertical main branches and lacking laminatentoria; separation of tentorial bridge from tentorial arms; fusion of dorsal tentorial arms with the head capsule; large brain placed in the posterior third of the head; and a triple cluster of well-developed cephalic glands. The last feature supports a hypothesis that multiple and independent cases of adaptations to myrmecophilous habits observed in various lineages of Pselaphinae were possible by re-programming already existing glands to produce appeasement secretions. The cephalic muscle apparatus of P. heisei is similar to what is found in other staphylinoid groups, with some exceptions, whereas it is strongly modified in the myrmecophile Claviger testaceus. We propose that the unparalleled structural megadiversity in Pselaphinae is primarily linked with life in the upper soil layers combined with specialized carnivorous habits, with small and agile or mechanically protected arthropods as prey. Within the group, various specialized life habits have evolved, including myrmecophily, termitophily, and also life in deep soil or caves, each with unique morphological adaptations.
Arthropod Systematics & Phylogeny, Volume 79, pp 379-400; https://doi.org/10.3897/asp.79.e63975
Ten species of the louse genus Myrsidea belonging to the “serini-species-group” have been reviewed. A redescription of Myrsidea quadrifasciata (Piaget, 1880), the earliest described and valid species of this species complex, is given and a neotype for this species is designated. Nine new junior synonymies of M. quadrifasciata are proposed and discussed. The new synonyms and their respective type hosts are: Myrsidea anoxanthi Price and Dalgleish, 2007 from Loxipasser anoxanthus (Gosse, 1847), Myrsidea argentina (Kellogg, 1906) from Spinus magellanicus (Vieillot, 1805), Myrsidea balati Macháček, 1977 from Passer montanus (Linnaeus, 1758), Myrsidea darwini Palma and Price, 2010 from Geospiza fuliginosa Gould, 1837, Myrsidea major (Piaget, 1880) from Plectrophenax nivalis (Linnaeus, 1758), Myrsidea serini (Séguy, 1944) from Serinus serinus (Linnaeus, 1766), Myrsidea queleae Tendeiro, 1964 from Quelea quelea lathami (Smith, A., 1836), Myrsidea textoris Klockenhoff, 1984 from Ploceus cucullatus cucullatus (Müller, 1776), and Myrsidea viduae Tendeiro, 1993 from Vidua macroura (Pallas, 1764). Intraspecific morphometric variability, relative genetic divergence (based on a 379 bp portion of the mitochondrial COI gene and a 347 bp portion of the nuclear EF-1α gene), geographical distribution, and host associations, including 8 new host records for these lice, are discussed. Taking into consideration these parameters we suggest that the only way to deal with these taxa is to follow concept of subspecies with the following taxa and their geographic distributon: Palearctic Region: M. q. quadrifasciata and M. q. serini, Neotropical Region: M. q. anoxanthi, M. q. argentina, M. q. darwini, Paleotropic Region: M. q. queleae, M. q. textoris and M. q. viduae.
Arthropod Systematics & Phylogeny, Volume 79, pp 343-378; https://doi.org/10.3897/asp.79.e65861
Merodon natans group (Diptera, Syrphidae) taxa are reviewed using an integrative taxonomic approach combining morphological, morphometric and molecular techniques. The approach substantiates recognition of the three species: M. calcaratus (Fabricius, 1794), M. natans (Fabricius, 1794) and M. pulveris Vujić & Radenković in Radenković et al. 2011, and reveals the existence of a new species, M. makrisi Vujić, Radenković & Tot sp. nov., which is described. It also highlights the existence of a series of natans group populations, especially on some of the Mediterranean islands, in the Levant and in the Afrotropical Region, for which more comprehensive data are required to clarify their status. A key is provided to the natans lineage species currently recognised, and preimaginal stages of some natans-group species are described for the first time. Redescriptions for M. calcaratus and M. natans are provided. A neotype is selected for M. natans. Lectotypes are designated for M. annulatus (Fabricius, 1794) and M. melancholicus (Fabricius, 1794). Merodon annulatus is recognised as a synonym of M. natans.