European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety

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EISSN : 2347-5641
Published by: Sciencedomain International (10.9734)
Total articles ≅ 995
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Opeyemi O. Ayodele, Ifeoluwa M. Dada, Rotimi K. Adekunle
European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety pp 58-69; https://doi.org/10.9734/ejnfs/2021/v13i630431

Abstract:
Aim: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a prevalent metabolic disorder that leads to other microvascular and macrovascular complications. Diabetes affects fertility and blood clotting, and also cause impaired lipid profile thus leading to increased atherogenic risks and coronary diseases. This research investigates the effects of Carica papaya leaf methanol extract on fertility indices and lipid profile of male diabetic rats. Methodology: Male Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into five groups of six rats each. Diabetes was induced in the rats by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (55 mg/kg). Diabetic rats were treated orally with 100 and 200 mg/kg C. papaya methanol extract for 14 days. At the end of administration, the plasma glucose concentration and lipid profile were assayed by spectrophotometric methods; seminal analysis was carried out for evaluation of morphology, motility and sperm count under the microscope. The bleeding and clotting times of the rats were also determined. Results: C. papaya leaf methanol extract caused significant (p = 0.05) reduction in plasma glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, VLDL-C, LDL-C, bleeding and clotting times of diabetic treated rats, while the HDL-C of treated groups were significantly (p = 0.05) elevated compared to the diabetic control. Percentage normal cells were lower in diabetic control rats (41.4±4.4%) and C. papaya treated groups (50.0±8.5% for 100 mg/kg; 47.5±9.1% for 200 mg/kg) compared with the normal control group (69.5±5.6%). Similar results were recorded for sperm count. The qualitative phytochemical screening showed the presence of steroids, anthraquinone, tannin, and other bioactive compounds. Conclusion: findings from this study indicated that C. papaya leaf methanol extract could possess hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activities. Thus, could be considered as a potential source of bio pharmacological agent for management and control of DM and its complications. Prolonged administration of C. papaya leaves may negatively affect male fertility.
E. O. Nwaichi, , J. O. Akaninwor
European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety pp 44-57; https://doi.org/10.9734/ejnfs/2021/v13i630430

Abstract:
Heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are common environmental pollutants. Its increased presence in the aquatic environment has raised serious concerns about its effect on aquatic life and by extension, a man who is at the apex of the food chain. This research investigated the concentrations of selected heavy metals (Lead, Nickel, Cadmium and Chromium) and PAHs in two species of commonly consumed crayfish in Nigeria and their health risk implications. Wet digestion procedure and atomic absorption spectrometry were used for heavy metal determination while the United States environmental protection agency (USEPA) test method for evaluation of solid waste was used for PAHs analysis. Results showed that Pb, Ni and Cd in both species of crayfish were above tolerable limits. The mean level for Ni in Litopenaeus setiferus was 3.0630.116mg/kg and 5.1571.676mg/kg in Litopenaeus stylirostris. The mean value for Cd in L. setiferus was 0.8330.070 mg/kg and 0.6000.025 mg/kg for L.stylirostris. The mean value for Pb in L. setiferus was 4.5500.656mg/kg and 3.6430.486 mg/kg in L. stylirostris. Mean values for Cr in L. setiferus was 0.0870.082 mg/kg and 0.000 mg/kg in L. stylirostris. Mean PAHs concentrations in L. setiferus and L. stylirostris were 0.0036±0.002 ppm and 0.0083±0.004 ppm respectively. Health risk assessment revealed an increasing health risk due to the consumption of both species of crayfish. Results for PAHs in both species of crayfish showed compliance with set limits. Its presence in fish food however suggests possible health concerns especially with regards to their carcinogenic tendencies. Anthropogenic activities should be closely monitored as bioaccumulation along the food chain is implicated.
E. C. Woko, C. O. Ibegbulem, C. S. Alisi
European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety pp 29-43; https://doi.org/10.9734/ejnfs/2021/v13i630429

Abstract:
The presence of essential amino acids in meat makes it a complete protein, this makes meat a highly sort after source of protein in the human diet. The World’s demand for animal-derived protein has been projected to double by 2050. As a result there is a resultant increase in livestock industries to meet this demand. While meat is generally consumed as a source of protein, processed cattle hide popularly known as “Kanda” in southeastern Nigeria is consumed as a substitute for meat though it may not necessarily provide the same level of nutritional value with meat. The method of processing this food delicacy (Kanda) by singeing with scrap tyre or firewood has opened the door for heavy metal and or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) contamination, thereby putting unsuspecting consumers at health risk. This study therefore investigated the effects of consuming scrap tyre and firewood singed cattle hide on the kidney, liver and heart of male Wistar rats. The study took place for 21 days at the department of Biochemistry, Federal University of Technology Owerri. 35 rats were divided into 7 groups of 5 each, allowed to acclimatize for 7 days and fed with the cattle hide processed with scrap tyre (group 1-3) and cattle hide processed with firewood (group 4-6) while group 7 which served as control was fed with normal standard rat pellet feed. It was observed that consuming these processed hides increased the marker enzymes for heart, kidney and liver damage like lactate dehydrogenase, alanine and aspartate aminotransferases, creatine kinase and alkaline phosphatase with groups that were fed with the hide singed with scrap tyre showing severe elevations. Consuming the singed Kanda also significantly decreased the serum concentrations of K+, Na+, Cl- , and significantly increased HCO3- and urea concentration. An examination of the organ tissues also revealed serious morphological changes. In conclusion, consuming singed Kanda had detrimental effects on the vital organs studied.
J. O. Babalola, , V. E. Onyiaoha, O. C. Adejumobi, N. O. Oladipo, O. J. Oyelade
European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety pp 20-28; https://doi.org/10.9734/ejnfs/2021/v13i630428

Abstract:
As a result of cost considerations, local grinding machine manufacturing outfits are employing non-stainless-steel components for equipment fabrication. Despite the fact that the components are known to corrode, the number of the manufacturing outfits has increased over the years. Corrosion is a major concern to the food industry because the ingestion of corroded metals can harm and affect the function of some body organs. Potentiodynamic polarization method and a weight loss approach at room temperature was used to investigate the influence of tomato, pepper, and onion pulps on the electrochemical characteristics and weight loss of mild, galvanized, and stainless steel over a period of 30 days, at 5-day intervals. The results revealed that highest corrosion rate was found in mild steel (2.95x10-8mm/y) but low compared to the corrosion value obtained for galvanized steel (3.4x10-8mm/y) in the hybrid medium. Consequently, the use of mild steel as a substitute for stainless steel is suggested, provided that it is coated, and that the machine is cleaned regularly to remove residues from the metal surface or to inhibit microbiologically induced corrosion.
Patience Abisola Ayeni, , Gani Oladejo Kolawole, Beatrice Iyabode Olayemi Ade-Omowaye
European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety pp 113-126; https://doi.org/10.9734/ejnfs/2021/v13i530425

Abstract:
Aims: Food insecurity is a major problem in developing countries, to overcome this problem, fertilizers are used to increase yield of agricultural produce. However, fertilizer may affect the quality of processed products. This study aimed to investigate the influence of fertilizer treatments levels on yield and quality properties of garri from two improved cassava varieties (TME 419 and TMS 01/1412). Methodology: Cassava roots were planted with varying fertilizer levels [50% (45, 20 and 35 kg/hectare of NPK-12-12-17, Muriate of Potash and Urea, respectively) and 100% (90, 40 and 70 kg/hectare of NPK-12-12-17, Muriate of Potash and Urea, respectively)]. Garri yield, chemical, physicochemical, pasting properties, and sensory attributes of garri were evaluated. Results: Results showed 30% and 22% increase in garri yield from 100% fertilized TME and TMS cassava root, respectively. The chemical contents of the garri samples increased with increasing fertilizer level. Cyanide contents of the garri samples decrease with increasing fertilizer level. Garri from 100% fertilizer treatment had higher water absorption capacity (3.51 g/ml and 3.32 g/ml), reconstitution index (72.75% and 77.20%) and gelation index (7.0% and 8.0%), but lower swelling capacity (3.43 g/ml and 3.02 g/ml) and bulk density (0.55 g/cm3 and 0.51 g/cm3) in TME and TMS cultivar, respectively. Conclusion: High level of fertilizer application improved the chemical components, reduced the cyanide contents and pasting properties of garri samples from the two cassava cultivars.
, Ano Guy Serge Ehouman, Kouassi Clément Kouassi, Ibrahim Konate
European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety pp 106-112; https://doi.org/10.9734/ejnfs/2021/v13i530424

Abstract:
Filamentous fungi are frequent contaminants of many plant substrates and certain animal products. Their presence can improve the organoleptic quality of the product or alter it and lead to the accumulation of toxic secondary metabolites, such as mycotoxins. The objective of this work is to characterize the filamentous fungi isolated from the rice "deni kachia" stored and sold on public markets in the city of Daloa. A count and isolation of filamentous fungi, followed by macroscopic and microscopic identification was carried out. Several genera of filamentous fungi was identified. These are the genera Aspergillus, Penicillium and others. The different species of molds identified by conventional biochemical techniques were confirmed by the API 50 CH freezer.The genera Aspergillus and Penicillium are the most predominant in the samples analyzed. The presence of these species with their ability to produce mycotoxins suggests that contaminated rice poses a risk to the health of consumers.
Zia Parveen,
European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety pp 98-105; https://doi.org/10.9734/ejnfs/2021/v13i530423

Abstract:
The main objective of the study is to evaluate the nutritional composition of orange peel and tomato for the development of natural colour to increase the awareness about the use of natural food colour which reduces the risk assessment of artificial colour. Fruits are very important constituents of the diet and provide nutrients such as, vitamin, minerals, and fibre etc. Orange is one of the most popular fruits in the world. It is rich in nutrient like vitamin C, folic acid, carotenoids, flavonoids etc. These nutrients are very useful for boosting immunity. In this study we discus about nutritional composition of orange peel and tomato. Proximate analysis of each sample was conducted to evaluate the moisture, fat, protein, ash etc. The morphological analysis of the samples was done by using scanning electron microscope which helps in identifying the different structural forms of the samples. Results of the study suggest that orange peel and tomato both have a good nutritional property. The fat, protein, ash and fibre content in orange peel was found to be 3.4, 4.8, 4.2 and 8.3 respectively while in tomato the values are 0.24, 2.26, 0.18 and 1.19 respectively. Orange peel removed the amount of cholesterol and fight against heart diseases in your body because orange peel contains pectin and natural fibre, it controls our blood pressure and helpful for weight loss. Tomato is an edible, red berry types of fruits. Tomatoes contribute to a healthy well-balanced diet. Because they are rich in nutrients like minerals, vitamins (B and C), sugar and dietary fibre. Tomato is a good source of lycopene; it is a red colour pigment present in high amount (2573 μg) per 100 tomatoes is a very good sources of raw materials for fruits and vegetables industry.
Christiana Naa Atsreh Nsiah-Asamoah, Deborah Amoasi, Jacob Setorglo
European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety pp 82-97; https://doi.org/10.9734/ejnfs/2021/v13i530422

Abstract:
Aim: Generally, it is assumed that health professionals are knowledgeable about healthy eating and as such studies aimed at assessing their dietary practices and the factors that influence these practices have been largely neglected. These studies are important because the dietary habits of healthcare professionals (HCPs) can have an impact on their well-being, health status and even their work output. Largely, there is a dearth of information about the dietary practices of HCPs during working hours. This study was aimed at assessing the dietary practices of HCPs during working hours at a referral teaching hospital in Ghana. Study Design: This was a cross-sectional study in which a questionnaire was administered to 320 HCPs. Methodology: A questionnaire was administered to the HCPs in the hospital after obtaining informed consent (written) from the HCPs. The questionnaire solicited information about their socio-demographics, dietary practices and nutritional knowledge. Descriptive statistics were summarized as frequencies and proportions. Results: Approximately 13.1%, 47.5% and 39.4% were underweight, normal weight and overweight respectively. Carbonated beverages, baked foods and fried foods were consumed four (4) or more times in a week by more than half of the HCPs because they were regarded as convenience foods which could be eaten while working. About 76.9%, 52.8% and 58.4% skipped their breakfast, lunch and supper meal respectively at least once in the past one (1) week before the study. Conclusions: The findings reveal concerns about the unhealthy dietary habits and basic nutrition knowledge gaps among the surveyed HCPs. Most HCPs skipped breakfast and ate a lot of unhealthy foods such as carbonated beverages, baked foods and fried foods frequently during working hours. Recommendations made include the need for hospital management to provide canteens that serve healthy meals for HCPs at their job sites. There is also the need for management to organize the work-schedules of HCPs in order to manage their workloads in a manner that enables them have adequate breaktimes to access and eat healthy foods while at work.
Josiah Ndukwe, Antoinette N. C. Okaka, Victor Henry Azubuike Enemor, Uchechukwu Chibuzo Ogbodo, Precious Uchenna Ezeobi
European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety pp 73-81; https://doi.org/10.9734/ejnfs/2021/v13i530421

Abstract:
Background: Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathophysiology of various disease conditions with concomitant toll on the body’s defense mechanism against free radicals. To continuously sustain and support the efficiency of the body’s antioxidant defense system, natural plant sources are required. Thus, the need for alternative options especially of plants that are neglected and under-utilized. Hence, this study aimed at investigating the proximate and phytochemical compositions and in-vivo antioxidant effect of ethanol leaf extract of C. olitorius on antioxidant enzyme activities in CCl4-induced oxidative stress in Wistar rats. Methods: Thirty albino rats of Wistar strain (120-150g) were divided into six groups (A – F) of five rats each. Groups A, B and C served as test groups and were administered 200 mg/kg, 400 mg/kg and 600 mg/kg doses of C. olitorius leaf extract respectively while Group D served as normal control. Groups E and F served as the positive and negative controls and were administered 50 mg/kg Silymarin and distilled water respectively. The administration lasted for 15 days after which blood was collected via cardiac puncture. Results: Findings showed that the leaf was rich in total phenol (21.47 ± 0.00 mgGAE/g) and tannin (23.34 ± 0.75 mgTAE/g) with little quantity of oxalate (0.48 ± 0.09 mg/g), cardiac glycosides (0.30 ± 0.07 %) and phytate (0.25 ± 0.01 %). The result of the proximate composition revealed that the leaf was rich in carbohydrate (44.16 ± 1.21 %), ash (20.31 ± 0.51 %) and protein (11.29 ± 2.06 %) with negligible quantity of lipid (0.46 ± 0.11 %). More so, the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase were all increased in the extract treated group when compared to the controls. Conclusion: From the above findings, it can be concluded that the ethanol leaf extract of C. olitorius may possess exploitable nutritional components and potential antioxidant activity against the debilitating effects of free radicals.
Eze U. Miriam, N. J. Okonkwo, Iroka F. Chisom
European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety pp 62-72; https://doi.org/10.9734/ejnfs/2021/v13i530420

Abstract:
In Africa, Prostephanus truncatus is a destructive pest of economic importance which has assumed a serious pest status on stored maize and dry cassava chips. This study investigates the effect of processing methods of cassava varieties Manihot esculenta on the proximate composition before and after exposure to P. truncatus. The four cassava varieties used for this study were; TMS 0505, TME 419, NR 8082 and TMS 0581 subjected to two processing method parboiling and plain sun-drying at temperature 28-34oC and relative humidity of 65-75%. The experiment was carried out in a Complete Randomized Design. Proximate composition was carried out to determine the Moisture, Ash, Crude fibre, Fat, Crude Protein and Carbohydrate of the different samples. Analysis of Variance was used for the statistical analysis of the data obtained. The result reveals that the proximate composition of the sundried chips are significant at P<0.05%. All the proximate contents of the sample were significant at P<0.05% before the introduction of P. trucatus. After the introduction of P. truncatus and the storage period of 30days, the sundried sample had a higher reduction in the moisture contents of TMS 0505 with 13.05±0.00a and carbohydrate contents of NR 8082 with 50.0±0.00a. The activity of P. truncatus also has a negative impact on some of the nutritional components of cassava chips.
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