Education Sciences

Journal Information
EISSN : 2227-7102
Current Publisher: MDPI AG (10.3390)
Total articles ≅ 1,228
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Published: 25 February 2021
Education Sciences, Volume 11; doi:10.3390/educsci11030091

Abstract:
The present paper offers a definition of peer assessment and then reviews the major syntheses on its effectiveness. However, the main part of this paper is preoccupied with how to do PA successfully. A typology of 44 elements explains the differences between the many types of peer assessment. Then a theoretical model outlines some of the processes which may occur during PA. Initially, only a few of these will be used, but as those engaged in PA become more experienced, an increasing number of elements will feature. However, these may not appear in the linear order set out here, and indeed may be recursive. The implications for the design and organisation of PA are outlined, as well as the implications for future research.
Published: 25 February 2021
Education Sciences, Volume 11; doi:10.3390/educsci11030089

Abstract:
Teachers’ diagnostic competences are essential with respect to student achievement, classroom assessment, and instructional quality. Important components of diagnostic competences are teachers’ professional knowledge including content knowledge (CK), pedagogical knowledge (PK), and pedagogical content knowledge (PCK), their diagnostic activities as a specification of situation-specific skills, and diagnostic accuracy. Accuracy is determined by comparing a teacher’s observation of classroom incidents with subject-specific challenges to be identified from scripted instructional situations. To approximate diagnostic situations close to real-life, the assessment of science teachers’ diagnostic competences requires a situated context that was provided through videotaped classroom situations in this study. We investigated the relationship between professional knowledge (PCK, CK, PK) of 186 pre-service biology teachers, their diagnostic activities, and diagnostic accuracy measured with the video-based assessment tool DiKoBi Assess. Results of path analyses utilizing Rasch measures showed that both PCK and PK were statistically significantly related to pre-service teachers’ diagnostic activities. Additionally, biology teachers’ PCK was positively related to diagnostic accuracy. Considering higher effect sizes of PCK compared to PK, the findings support previous findings indicating the importance of PCK, thus demonstrating its importance in the context of subject-specific diagnosis as well.
Published: 25 February 2021
Education Sciences, Volume 11; doi:10.3390/educsci11030090

Abstract:
Learner-centered coaching and feedback are relevant to various educational contexts. Spaced retrieval enhances long-term knowledge retention. We examined the efficacy of Blank Slate, a novel spaced retrieval software application, to promote learning and prevent forgetting, while gathering and analyzing data in the background about learners’ performance. A total of 93 students from 6 universities in the United States were assigned randomly to control, sequential or algorithm conditions. Participants watched a video on the Republic of Georgia before taking a 60 multiple-choice-question assessment. Sequential (non-spaced retrieval) and algorithm (spaced retrieval) groups had access to Blank Slate and 60 digital cards. The algorithm group reviewed subsets of cards daily based on previous individual performance. The sequential group reviewed all 60 cards daily. All 93 participants were re-assessed 4 weeks later. Sequential and algorithm groups were significantly different from the control group but not from each other with regard to after and delta scores. Blank Slate prevented anticipated forgetting; authentic learning improvement and retention happened instead, with spaced retrieval incurring one-third of the time investment experienced by non-spaced retrieval. Embedded analytics allowed for real-time monitoring of learning progress that could form the basis of helpful feedback to learners for self-directed learning and educators for coaching.
Published: 23 February 2021
Education Sciences, Volume 11; doi:10.3390/educsci11020087

Abstract:
Prior research has shown that both teacher-led and recitation questions dominate in classrooms; teachers ask closed-ended questions more than open-ended questions. Even though classroom questioning has been studied in many previous studies there has been very limited research addressing the questioning of student teachers during inquiry-based biology lessons focusing on the inquiry stages: introduction, examination, and conclusion. In this study, a total of 21 lessons by 12 student teachers in primary and secondary schools were video- and audio-recorded. The recorded discussions were transcribed and the qualities of the questions were analyzed using content analysis, and the questions of student teachers were categorized into 10 different question categories. The findings revealed that primary school student teachers asked mainly for factual knowledge, concepts, and basic knowledge of species in all inquiry stages. Secondary school student teachers also asked mainly for concepts and basic knowledge of species. They also asked students to generate ideas and explain their answers, especially in the examination and conclusion stages. The present study indicates that student teachers’ questioning needs to be developed more towards higher-order questioning such as analyzing, synthetizing, and evaluating to scaffold students in inquiries and develop future teachers’ questioning skills in teacher education.
Published: 23 February 2021
Education Sciences, Volume 11; doi:10.3390/educsci11020086

Abstract:
The cyber archaeometry concerns a new virtual ontology in the environment of cultural heritage and archaeology. The present study concerns a first pivot endeavor of a virtual polarized light microscopy (VPLM) for archaeometric learning, made from digital tools, tackling the theory of mineral identification in archaeological materials, an important aspect in characterization, provenance, and ancient technology. This endeavor introduces the range of IT computational methods and instrumentation techniques available to the study of cultural heritage and archaeology of apprentices, educators, and specialists. Use is made of virtual and immersive reality, 3D, virtual environment, massively multiplayer online processes, and gamification. The VPLM simulation is made with the use of Avatar in the time-space frame of the laboratory with navigation, exploration, control the learning outcomes in connection to the archaeometric multisystem work. The students evidently learned to operate the VPLM following operations made via visual and home-made scripting, gaining experience in synergy, teamwork, and understanding. The resulting meaningful effects of the cyber-archaeometry with virtual operations and virtual hands, texts, and video equip students especially for e-learning with the required basic knowledge of mineralogical examination, which help to understand and evaluate mineral identification from material culture and provides readiness and capacity, which may be refined in a real polarized light microscopy (PLM) environment.
Published: 23 February 2021
Education Sciences, Volume 11; doi:10.3390/educsci11020088

Abstract:
A family-centered approach (FCA) is recognized as a set of values, principles, and practices aimed at strengthening families’ abilities to promote the development and well-being of its members. Despite the limited information available, results show the positive relationship between the support model, based on the collaboration between families and specialists, and family empowerment. This paper seeks to analyze the opinions of families and specialists on their participation in an intervention program for families of youths and adults with disabilities. Thirteen families and eight specialists participated in the study that used qualitative techniques, such as interviews and discussion groups, and a questionnaire to gather information about the families’ and specialists’ viewpoints over one year. Results show that families welcomed their involvement in the program. Both families and specialists recognize that creating a space for the whole family is the main contribution of the program, as it highlights the importance of considering the family’s entire system as a support unit, as well as the close relationship between the individual’s and family’s quality of life (FQoL).
Published: 22 February 2021
Education Sciences, Volume 11; doi:10.3390/educsci11020085

Abstract:
The purpose of this article is to review recent literature on twice-exceptional students and consider implications for their education in the context of the trend towards increased inclusive education for students with disabilities. The review focused on teachers’ experiences and perceptions and the school experiences of twice-exceptional students. Fifteen articles were reviewed, published between 2000 and 2020, selected according to a systematic protocol from two widely used online databases. Findings indicated that the implications that need to be considered were the importance of teacher preparation, the need for a continuum of special education interventions, the need for collaboration with parents and specialists, and teachers needing to focus on developing strengths as much as remediating difficulties. It was concluded that twice-exceptional students can be taught effectively in inclusive education settings as long as they are able to access appropriate strategies and programs from the fields of special education and gifted education.
Published: 21 February 2021
Education Sciences, Volume 11; doi:10.3390/educsci11020083

Abstract:
(1) Background: An abacus is an instrument used to perform different arithmetic operations. The objective was to analyze the benefits of mathematical calculations made with an abacus to improve the concentration, attention, memory, perceptive attitudes, and creativity cognitive abilities of primary school students. (2) Methods: A total of 65 children, aged 7–11 years (8.49 ± 1.65) participated in this randomized controlled clinical trial. The children were randomly distributed into a control group (n = 34) and experimental group (n = 31). The questionnaires used were the D2 test to measure attention and concentration, the Difference Perception Test (FACE-R) test for the perception of differences, the test of immediate auditory memory (AIM), and the test to evaluate creative intelligence (CREA). (3) Results: No significant differences were found between both groups before the intervention. Significant improvements were observed in the cognitive parameters of concentration, memory, perceptive attitudes, and creativity after the intervention, using the abacus, with respect to the control group. (4) Conclusions: It is demonstrated that a calculation program based on the use of the abacus for 8 weeks has beneficial effects on the cognitive capacities of concentration, immediate auditory memory, perceptive attitudes, and creativity. In addition, the benefits of using the abacus to improve cognitive attitudes are reported.
Published: 21 February 2021
Education Sciences, Volume 11; doi:10.3390/educsci11020084

Abstract:
Experienced middle school mathematics and science teachers were recruited for a pilot study. The teachers separately responded to a survey related to determining expected learning outcomes based on their traditional teaching, classroom experiences and observations, and self-brainstorming. The teachers then received training on how to design, develop, and implement robotics-enabled lessons under a design-based research approach for experiential learning, and taught robotics-enabled lessons to a selected student population in classroom settings. The teachers then responded to the survey for the robotics-enabled teaching. For each case (traditional and robotics-enabled), the survey responses were analyzed, and a set of expected learning outcomes of math and science lessons was derived separately. The thematic analysis results showed that the expected learning outcomes for the robotics-enabled lessons were not only related to the educational gains (content knowledge) observed in traditional teaching, but also to the improvements in the behavioral, social, scientific, cognitive, and intellectual aptitudes of the students. Then, a set of metrics and methods were proposed for assessing the learning outcomes separately. To validate the assessment metrics and methods, teachers from different schools taught two selected robotics-enabled lessons (one math, one science) to same grade students, and separately assessed the learning outcomes of each student using the proposed metrics and methods. The learning outcomes were then compared and benchmarked between schools and subjects. The results of a user study with the teachers showed user acceptance, effectiveness, and suitability of the assessment metrics and methods. The proposed scheme of assessing learning outcomes can be used to assess and justify the benefits and advantages of robotics-enabled STEM education, benchmark the outcomes, help improve teaching preparations, motivate decision-makers to confer on robotics-enabled STEM education and curricula development, and promote robotics-enabled STEM education.
Published: 20 February 2021
Education Sciences, Volume 11; doi:10.3390/educsci11020082

Abstract:
In this study, experimental teaching was conducted through the artificial intelligence of things (AIOT) practical course, and the 4D (discover, define, develop, deliver) double diamond shape was used to design the course and plan the teaching content to observe the students’ self-efficacy and learning anxiety. The technology acceptance model (TAM) concept was used to explore learning effectiveness and satisfaction. A total of 36 Senior One students from a senior high school in Kaohsiung were selected as the research subjects in two classes per week for 13 weeks. Questionnaires and qualitative interviews were used to understand the correlation between students’ self-efficacy, anxiety, outcomes, and learning satisfaction with the AIOT course during the flipped learning process. The study used SmartPLS3 to analyze the measurement model and structural model, and bootstrapping to conduct the path analysis and validate the research hypotheses. Because this research provides students with relevant online teaching videos for linking and browsing in the textbooks, and the video time should not be too long, in the teaching process, small-scale online learning courses are adopted for flipped teaching, which promptly arouses students’ interest and enhances their learning participation. Through the sharing of homework with each other, its content deficiencies were modified, students’ anxiety in learning was reduced, and the effect of learning and thinking together was achieved; in the teaching mode, theoretical content was combined with physical and practical courses to implement cross-disciplinary. To learn, the principle of 4D double diamond design to make “reciprocal corrections” between curriculum planning and teaching implementation as the teaching model framework was used. The results of this study show ”self-efficacy” has a significant positive effect on the “perceived usefulness” and “perceived ease of use” of users. “Learning anxiety” does not significantly predict the “perceived ease of use” or “perceived usefulness” of flipped learning using online e-learning. The “perceived ease of use” and “perceived usefulness” have positive impacts on the prediction of “behavioral intention” in flipped teaching using online digital teaching materials. The “perceived ease of use” has a positive and high impact on “perceived usefulness”. “Learning engagement” positively affects students’ actual “behavioral intention” towards learning. Students are highly receptive to learning new knowledge about science and technology.
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