Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics
ISSN / EISSN : 0973-1482 / 1998-4138
Published by: Medknow (10.4103)
Total articles ≅ 3,666
Latest articles in this journal
Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics, Volume 17, pp 29-32; https://doi.org/10.4103/jcrt.jcrt_489_17
Invasion and metastasis are the fundamental properties of tumor biology and the root causes of cancer death. With the elucidation of genetic and epigenetic mechanisms, it has been postulated that cancer is a disease of imbalance. It is not merely a disease of tumor cells but also the body's mismanagement of those tumor cells. Tumor microenvironment plays an important role in tumor progression via the co-evolution of tumor cells and tumor stroma. Hence, exploring the complex mechanisms of tumor progression from perspectives of tumor stroma has become a new frontier. The major component of tumor stroma, the extracellular matrix (ECM), acts as a key regulator of cell and tissue function. Conventionally, the role of ECM was considered primarily as a physical scaffold that binds cells and tissues together. However, recent studies revealed the biochemical and biophysical signaling properties of the ECM as well that affect cell adhesion and migration, tissue morphogenesis and repair, and angiogenesis and cancer. The most abundant constituent of ECM, collagen, accounts for the major function of ECM, which can be associated with increased malignancy. The present review summarizes the dynamic interplay between collagen and tumor cells. It focuses on changes in physicochemical-biological properties of collagen. A new paradigm has been formulated that collagen can no more be considered playing a passive role over which tumor progression and metastasis takes place. Rather, its active role in the promotion of tumor progression and metastasis should be explored.
Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics, Volume 17, pp 401-407; https://doi.org/10.4103/jcrt.jcrt_228_17
Context: Rational screening of arylidene derivatives for biological activities has resulted in many lead molecules with anticancer properties with effective therapeutic window. Aims: In the current study, FCX, an arylidene derivative, was screened for anticolon and prostate cancer activity. Settings and Design: Prostate and colon cancer cell lines were used to check the FCX effect on proliferation, apoptosis, and mechanism of drug action. Subjects and Methods: LNCaP, PC-3, HCT-8, and HT-29 cells were treated with various concentrations of the FCX. MTT assay was performed to check proliferation, propidium iodide and Hoechst dual staining for DNA fragmentation, and Annexin V binding assay for apoptosis, and cell cycle assay was done using flow cytometry. Functional androgen-mutated receptor cells were used mechanistic pathway elucidation. Statistical Analysis Used: A minimum of three individual replicates at different time periods were taken as mean value. The data were expressed in mean ± standard deviation. Student's t-test and one-way ANOVA were used to assess the statistical difference between the groups. Results: FCX inhibited proliferation of prostate cancer cell lines in a dose-dependent manner with more selectivity toward LNCaP cells. Nuclear fragmentation and dose-dependent increase in Annexin V-positive LNCaP cells revealed apoptosis. Cell cycle G2/M phase arrest along with sub-G0/G1 population augmented the antiproliferative observations. Addition of FCX in the presence of estradiol, testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone, LNCaP cells markedly caused a dose-dependent increase in cell proliferation indicating the compound activity to be facilitated through androgen receptor pathway. Conclusions: Together with the results, it is evident that FCX has a wide therapeutic window in the in vitro inhibition of the prostate cancer cells mediated by hormone-dependent effects.
Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics, Volume 17, pp 150-151; https://doi.org/10.4103/jcrt.jcrt_95_18
Purpose: To describe the details of an in-house video goggles feedback system assembled from several commercially available components. The objective of this paper is to share our experience with this system, provide details on the equipment needed, system assembly, patient set up and user settings on some components. Materials and Methods: The system consisted of goggles (FPView3DHD, ITV, USA), RJ45(Registered Jack) to Digital Visual Interface (DVI) converter (Tripplite), DVI to HDMI converters, Local Area Network(LAN) cable, HDMI and power extender cables. The video coaching system was implemented both in CT simulator (GE Discovery)) and in treatment delivery machine True Beam v2.1 Varian Medical Systems (VMS, Palo Alto), which was integrated with respiratory motion management (RPM V 1.7.5) system. Results: The video feedback system is in clinical use since Aug 2017, so far, we have treated 13 patients, with approximately 150 fractions. The performance of the device was found to be satisfactory. All the patients were coached for DIBH and the usage of the goggles, which includes wearing the goggles, display details of the monitor, and the threshold levels of the breathing wave cycle. The patients understand the instructions very well and hence regulate the breathing cycle, which improves the treatment accuracy and efficiency. Conclusion: Video feedback system for motion management, for patients undergoing radiotherapy was implemented successfully both in CT simulator and in linear accelerator.
Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics, Volume 17, pp 275-275; https://doi.org/10.4103/jcrt.jcrt_302_18
Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS) is a rare, X-linked recessive disorder which causes alterations in androgen receptor gene leading to hormone resistance, which may present clinically under three phenotypes: complete AIS (CAIS), partial AIS, or mild AIS. The symptoms range from phenotypically normal males with impaired spermatogenesis to phenotypically normal women with primary amenorrhea. We report a case of a 35-year-old woman who was diagnosed with CAIS and presented with malignant transformation of the undescended testis. The histopathology confirmed the presence of seminoma. In this case report, we reviewed the literature which describes the biochemical and endocrinological abnormalities leading to the syndrome. It also highlights the potential for malignant changes of the undescended testes, diagnosis, and therapeutic management.
Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics, Volume 17, pp 193-197; https://doi.org/10.4103/jcrt.jcrt_199_19
Iridium-192 (192Ir) has been a widely accepted radioisotope for high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy. Recently, Cobalt-60 (60Co) radioisotope with a longer half-life (5.26 years) has been gaining popularity due to economic and logistical reasons as compared with the traditional 192Ir. This study aimed to evaluate and compare the integral dose (ID) to the target and organs at risk (OARs) with two HDR brachytherapy sources in brachytherapy treatment of carcinoma uterine cervix to find appropriate HDR radioisotopes for clinical benefit. This is a retrospective analysis of 52 computed tomography image-based brachytherapy plans of 52 patients who have received intracavitary treatment with 192Ir HDR source. For each patient plan, one additional set of plan was created using 60Co source in place of 192Ir source keeping the same dwell position, and again dose was optimized. The volume and mean dose for target, OARs, and volume structures of 400%, 200%, 150%, 100%, and 50% were recorded for the estimation and comparison of ID. The mean ID to high-risk clinical target volume was significantly higher by 5.84% in 60Co plan than that in 192Ir plan. For OARs, the mean ID to the rectum was significantly higher by 2.60% in 60Co plan as compared to 192Ir plan, whereas for bladder and sigmoid colon, it was lower in 60Co plan than that in 192Ir plan. The mean ID of central dose volume structures of 400%, 200%, 150%, 100%, and 50% was higher by 12.97%, 9.77%, 8.16%, 6.10%, and 3.22%, respectively, in 60Co plan than that of 192Ir plan. The results of our study concluded that 192Ir HDR radioisotope should be preferred for intracavitary brachytherapy due to its ideal physical characteristics for better clinical outcomes.
Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics, Volume 17; https://doi.org/10.4103/jcrt.jcrt_27_19
Hepatobiliary complications from yttrium-90 (90Y) radioembolization have been described previously but are often clinically inconsequential. This report describes the case of a patient in whom a large area of hepatic necrosis occurred after the patient underwent both stereotactic body radiotherapy and glass-based90Y radioembolization for the management of hepatocellular carcinoma. This case suggests that90Y microspheres can cause severe local hepatic injury when administered after external radiotherapy.
Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics, Volume 17, pp 471-476; https://doi.org/10.4103/jcrt.jcrt_14_19
Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics, Volume 17, pp 188-190; https://doi.org/10.4103/jcrt.jcrt_9_19
Context: Vulvar carcinoma accounts for 3%–5% of gynecologic malignancies. The past three decades has observed changes in the trends of clinical characteristics and treatment modalities used in managing this disease. Aims:The aim of the present study is to analyze the clinic-pathological characteristics and survival of women with squamous cell carcinoma vulva who underwent primary surgical management. Settings and Design:This was a retrospective observational study. Subjects and Methods: Case records of 30 consecutive patients with squamous cell carcinoma of vulva during the period of 2010–2016 were retrospectively reviewed and their clinical profile, treatment details, complications, and survival were analyzed. Statistical Analysis Used: Kaplan–Meier survival analysis, followed by logrank test, was used for survival outcome, and Cox proportional hazard model was used to assess significant risk factors. Results: The mean age of patients was 58 ± 12.9 years. The most common symptom was growth over vulva (73.3%), itching (63.3%), and nonhealing vulval ulcer (26.6%). The most common site for disease was labia majora. The surgical treatments ranged from wide local excision to radical vulvectomy. Postoperative adjuvant therapy was required for 16 patients. The median (95% confidence interval [CI]) overall survival was 27 (21.7–32.2) months. Five-year survival probability for early-stage disease (I + II) was 49% (95% CI: 12.9, 78.4) and for advanced disease (III + IV) was 24.8% (95% CI: 4.8, 42.6). Lymph node-positive status was found to have a significant impact on survival (hazard ratio of 4.9 [95% CI: 1.15–21.02,P = 0.02]). Conclusions: Despite advances in detection and management modalities, the survival for vulval malignancies has not improved.
Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics, Volume 17, pp 543-546; https://doi.org/10.4103/jcrt.jcrt_284_18
Objective: The objective of this study is to explore the radiosensitization effects of duramycin against the liver cancer hepatoma cells and relationship to reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Materials and Methods: MCA-RH 7777 cells were treated with various combinations of duramycin concentrations and radiation doses. After the treatment, cell viabilities were determined by a cell proliferation assay; intracellular ROS levels were detected with the flow cytometric method. Results: MCA-RH 7777 cell viability was found significantly reduced after combining duramycin and radiation exposure (comparing to that of either treatment alone). Increased intracellular ROS levels were observed in cells treated with combinations of duramycin and radiation. Conclusion: Duramycin increased the intracellular ROS generation and also increased the radiosensitivity of MCA-RH 7777 cells.
Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics, Volume 17, pp 593-595; https://doi.org/10.4103/jcrt.jcrt_605_18
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) accounts for about 85% of all renal neoplasms, 60% of which are diagnosed incidentally. Most are unilateral, but bilateral tumors, synchronous or asynchronous, have been found in 2%–4% of reported sporadic cases. The occurrence of synchronous bilateral renal neoplasms with different histology in the same individual is very rare. We report one such case in a 45-year-old male patient, who was successfully managed by performing bilateral partial nephrectomy in two sittings. The histopathological examination revealed different histology on each side. Both preservations of renal parenchyma and tumor eradication should be considered in bilateral synchronous sporadic RCC before formulating a therapeutic regime. Management by nephron-sparing surgery approach performed in a staged manner offers adequate cancer-specific survival while ensuring good renal function.