Berkala Kedokteran

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ISSN / EISSN : 1412-0550 / 2338-2198
Total articles ≅ 112
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Talitha Lailatul Hafizah, Dedi Afandi, Chunin Widyaningsih, Fajri Marindra Siregar
Berkala Kedokteran, Volume 16, pp 61-72; doi:10.20527/jbk.v16i2.9206

Abstract:
Height is one of the data needed in forensic identification process of a remains that is difficult to identify in an incomplete condition. Height estimation can be determined by the proximal phalanx of the fingers which are long bones. This study was conducted on 113 men and 125 women in several places in Riau Province age 18 - 45 years. The height and dimensions of the proximal phalanx of the fingers are measured to get the correlation and linear regression formula for height. There are 6 dimensions measured on the fingers of the left and right hand. The study design was cross sectional. The statistical test used is Pearson correlation to determine the correlation between dimensions of the proximal phalanx on fingers with height and linear regression analysis for height regression formula. The results show that some dimensions of the proximal phalanx of the fingers are significantly correlated with height. Keywords: identification, height, dimensions of the proximal phalanx bone fingers, correlation, regression formula.
Maria Winney Natania, Monica Claudia, Refita Maharani, Muhammad Ali Faisal, Triawanti Triawanti
Berkala Kedokteran, Volume 16, pp 105-112; doi:10.20527/jbk.v16i2.9223

Abstract:
Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is known to accelerate cataractogenesis because it may cause hyperglycemia-induced stress oxidative in the eye lens. HbA1c test can be performed to monitor glycemic control. Glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) is an enzyme that scavenges and prevents the formation of free radical. Advanced Oxidation Protein Products (AOPP) is a marker to estimate the degree of oxidative protein modification. Malondialdehyde (MDA) can reflect cells damage. This study was an observational analytic study, conducted in September 2019-January 2020, and aimed to determine the correlation of HbA1c level with GSH-Px enzyme activity, AOPP, and MDA levels in the eye lenses of diabetic cataract patients. Data of HbA1c level and eye lenses sample was obtained from 29 cataract patients with DM who underwent phacoemulsification surgery in Ulin and Bhayangkara Hospital in Banjarmasin and fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Spearman’s correlation test showed that there was no significant correlation of HbA1c with GSH-Px activity (p=0,095), AOPP (p=0,084), and MDA (p=0,084) levels in the eye lens of diabetic cataract patients. Keywords: Diabetes mellitus, cataract, HbA1c, glutathione peroxidase, AOPP, MDA
Nurul Hidayah, Andreas Budi Wijaya
Berkala Kedokteran, Volume 16, pp 141-148; doi:10.20527/jbk.v16i2.9246

Abstract:
Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis (SSPE) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that attacks the central nervous system, especially in the population of children and early adolescents, due to persistent measles virus infection. The incidence of SSPE is quite rare, and data shows that in developing countries it is still quite high compared to developed countries. Diagnosis is based on clinical, supporting examinations such as EEG, as well as increased antibodies against measles virus in serum and cerebrospinal fluid. Symptoms can include changes in behavior, myoclonus, memory problems, and persistent pyramidal or extrapyramidal movements. Management to date has not provided satisfactory results and is individualized. Most SSPE patients experience a progressive and gradual course, leading to death within 1-3 years. The challenge of SSPE in children is the approach to diagnosis and management. Until now, the approach to treating SSPE in children is still based on the pathophysiological mechanisms from several existing research studies. That why therapy guidelines for children with SSPE are still varied. This paper aims to discuss the topic of SSPE in children with a major focus on diagnostic and therapeutic approaches based on the latest scientific evidence. Keywords: Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis (SSPE), children, diagnosis, therapy
Yusriandi Ramadhan, Zainal Abidin, Ardik Lahdimawan Lahdimawan
Berkala Kedokteran, Volume 16, pp 119-126; doi:10.20527/jbk.v16i2.9225

Abstract:
Ball bearing (BB) and pellet guns are non-power guns but their related injuries have been reported worldwide. They represent a significant cause of injury especially among children and teenagers. Their potentially harmful and lethal effects have been well documented in the medical literature since the early 1980s. Fatality rate is closely related to the damaged part of the brain and the level of the damage. In this Case Report we documented a 6-years-old girl was getting shot at the head by herself, who initially want to play around, using her neighbour’s Air gun rifle. The pellet trajectory passed through the left frontal lobe, left temporal lobe, left posterior putamen, posteriorly left crus posterior of internal capsule, left occipital horn of lateral ventricle, left occipital lobe, and ended at left cerebral falx between both medial surfaces of occipital lobes. Directional slope of the pellet was medially upward, with its tracking left Intracerebral Hemorrhage (ICH) with perifocal edema and Intraventricular Hemorrhage (IVH) dominant in the left lateral ventricle. After 8 days management, the patient was discharged from our hospital with stable condition, GCS 15 without any significant neurological deficits. Intracranial intracerebral pellet due to air gun shot injury, may have fatal and lethal manifestation if the pellet damage the eloquent area and/or deep area of the brain (hypothalamus, thalamus and brain stem). If accessible the foreign body or pellet should be removed immediately for better outcome. Keywords: Head Injury, Air Gun Shot, Intracerebral Haemorrhage
Darini Kurniawati, Kunti Nastiti
Berkala Kedokteran, Volume 16, pp 95-104; doi:10.20527/jbk.v16i2.9220

Abstract:
Candidiasis is an infection caused by the fungus Candida, especially Candida albicans. It often occurs in the mouth and sex organs, also in the nails, respiratory tract, digestive tract, and anus. Betel leaf stew is often used by people to gargle and clean the intimate organs. The nature of the betel leaf solution is easily oxidized and turns brown. Therefore, research needs to be done by mixing betel leaf (Piper betle L) with lime (Citrus aurantifolia) to maintain the color of betel leaf, coupled with natural ingredients that have antimicrobial properties, namely lime peel and bundung plants (Actinoscirpus grossus). With the hypothesis of the joining of three natural materials that have antimicrobial activity can strengthen the inhibitory activity of the fungus Candida albicans. This research was conducted by making a betel leaf infusion formulation, lime peel extract, and bundung extract with a concentration of 20%, 30%, 40%, and 50% which were then tested to determine the effect of the infusion formulation on the inhibitory activity of Candida albicans by the method spread on Saburoud Dextrose Agar media. Based on Zuraidah's research (2015), 80% and 100% betel leaf extraction has activity on Candida albicans. From the results of this study significant results were obtained at a concentration of 50% of a mixture of betel leaf infusion formulations, extracts of lime peel and bundung extract had the same inhibitory properties as the hand sanitizer antiseptic liquid against Candida albicans. Thus it can be concluded that the 50% test formulation of betel leaf infusion mixture with lime extract and bundung extract has greater potential than betel leaf extract alone as a candidiasis therapy. Keywords: Piper betle L, Citruss aurantifolia, Actinoscirpus grossus, Antiseptik, Kandidiasis, Candida albicans
Hafni Zuchra Noor, Nunik Agustriani
Berkala Kedokteran, Volume 16, pp 135-140; doi:10.20527/jbk.v16i2.9227

Abstract:
Mesenterial cysts are rare tumors, incidence 1: 100,000-200,000. We report the case and the treatment. Case report, 3-year-old woman with complaints of a lump in the abdomen. Complaints in the last 1 year ago, sometimes she felt pain, physical examination showed a lump of cystic impression with a size of ± 5x10 cm in the epigastric region, mobile, firm boundary. It can be diagnosed with a suspected intra-abdominal tumor with a mesenterial cyst, differential diagnosis of teratoma. Surgery was performed and a mass was found in retroperitoneal with a size of ± 20x5 cm up to the pelvic cavity, cystic and mobile, the mass could not be taken at all, we decided to do marsupialization, and left kidney is not visible. Postoperative diagnosis is retroperitoneal (type IV) mesenterial cyst lymphangioma with agenesis ren sinistra. Mesenterial cyst Lymphangioma is a tumor that is very rarely found and is benign. For a good prognosis, it depends on the type and therapy that is performed. Keywords: Mesenterial cyst lymphangioma, a tumor in children, mesenterial tumor
Rahmi Noorhayati, Wahyu Wardhana Wardhana
Berkala Kedokteran, Volume 16, pp 113-118; doi:10.20527/jbk.v16i2.9224

Abstract:
Symptoms and findings in acute perforated appendicitis (APA) may not always typical in children, becomes difficult to establish the diagnosis preoperatively. Rapid and accurate diagnosis is important to reduce the risk of sepsis and even death. Another biomarkers for diagnosis are needed. This study investigated the diagnostic accuracy of indicators of platelet activation, namely mean platelet volume and platelet distribution width, in children with non perforated acute appendicitis (NPAA) and APA. This retrospective study compared 15 patients with APA (Group I), 15 patients with NPAA (Group II) between January 2016 to December 2018. Patient white blood cell (WBC) count, platelet (PLT) count, MPV, PDW, and hematocrit (HCT) were analyzed. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of these indices in AP. Positive correlation was found between MPV and the degree of AP; as well as negative correlation between PDW and degree of AP. This is the first study to assess the MPV and PDW in pediatric patients with AP. This study showed the MPV is reduced and the PDW is normal in patients with AP. A decreased MPV value could serve as a marker to diagnose AP preoperatively. More studies are needed to establish relationship between PDW and MPV with AP. Keywords: Appendicitis perforations; Mean Platelet Volume; Platelet distribution width
Nurhafizah Rafiani, Renny Aditya, Noor Muthmainah
Berkala Kedokteran, Volume 16, pp 73-80; doi:10.20527/jbk.v16i2.9208

Abstract:
A cesarean delivery increases the risk of wound infection it should be prevented by using antibiotics. This study was to determine the pattern of bacterial sensitivity in surgical wounds of cesarean section patients for selected antibiotics, i.e ceftriaxone, cefixime, sulbactam ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clindamycin and gentamicin.This observational study was conducted at the Ulin Public Hospital in Banjarmasin from July to September 2019. Using a cross sectional approach Samples of bacteria were identidied from 36 that were pusposively sampled, i.e., Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Escherichia coli. Antibiotic sensitivity test showed that Staphylococcus aureus was sensitive against gentamicin (100%),whereas Staphylococcus epidermidis and Escherichia coli. Were intermediately sensitive towards gentamicin (62.5%) and ceftriaxone (80%) Keywords: Antibiotic susceptibility, caesarean section, surgical wound
Haryati Haryati, Marsheilla Riska
Berkala Kedokteran, Volume 16, pp 127-134; doi:10.20527/jbk.v16i2.9226

Abstract:
Lung cancer and pulmonary tuberculosis become a global problem in the world. The similarities of clinical symptoms and radiological appearances often complicates diagnosis especially in TB endemic countries. A 43-year-old man presented with shortness of breath for 6 months, accompanied by intermittent cough mixed with blood streaks. He had been taking anti-tuberculosis for 2 months, but there’s no improvement. On physical examination, ronchi were heard in the lower 2/3 of the right lung and heart sounds diminished. Motoric movement of the left hand was difficult to grasp hard. A contrast-enhanced CT scan of the head revealed hyperdense multiple nodules. Chest X-ray showed cardiomegaly with right lung consolidation and a primary malignant right lung mass accompanied by pericardial effusion at thoracic CT scan. Cytology and EGFR examination of pericardial effusion found adenocarcinoma metastasis with exon 18 and 21 mutations. Evaluation of clinical symptoms and radiological examination during tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapy showed improvement. Lung cancer can resemble pulmonary tuberculosis in various manifestations. Adenocarcinoma with positive EGFR mutations is more commonly found in Asians. Cytology and EGFR examination of pericardial effusion became the basis of diagnosis in this case. He was given TKI therapy. Re-evaluation must be carried out in patients who do not improve with antibiotics or anti-tuberculosis. Patient reported a good response after consuming EGFR-TKI. Keywords: lung cancer, tuberculosis, tyrosine kinase inhibitors
Farida Heriyani, Lia Yulia Budiarti, Nurlaili Rafina, Normaida Novianti, Puspa Astri Sella
Berkala Kedokteran, Volume 16, pp 89-94; doi:10.20527/jbk.v16i2.9219

Abstract:
Temporary Disposal Site (TDS) of Gadang Village Banjarmasin is one of the temporary landfills in Banjarmasin. The negative effects of waste can pollute the environment, including water and air. The purpose of this study was to identify airborne contaminant bacteria and fungi as well as the Most Probable Number (MPN) of Coliform value of piped water in the residential houses around Gadang TDS Banjarmasin. The research method is descriptive observational. The sample of this study were air and piped water. Air sampling is done by open plate and MPN Coliform sampling was obtained by purposive sampling method. The results of this study showed the air contaminant bacteria in the house were Staphylococcus aureus (55.56%) and Escherichia coli (44.44%) in the environment around the TDS all results were obtained with the same percentage. Aspergillus niger was dominantly found at a distance of 20-30 m and 40-50 m while Aspergillus flavus was mostly found at the distance around 30-40 m. MPN Coliform in piped water showed coliform bacteria contamination with MPN coliform index of 2.0-7.5/100ml water samples. In conclusion, Staphylococcus aureus bacteria is more common than Escherichia coli. Most fungi species found in this study was Aspergillus niger. In the piped water examination for all samples MPN Coliform was found in the low risk category. Keywords: Air contaminant bacteria, air contaminant fungi, piping water MPC coliform, Temporary Disposal Site
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