Journal of Clinical Oncology

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ISSN / EISSN : 0732-183X / 1527-7755
Total articles ≅ 128,070
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Journal of Clinical Oncology; https://doi.org/10.1200/jco.21.01252

Abstract:
Fatigue is common and troublesome among breast cancer survivors; however, limited tools exist to predict its risk. Participants with stage I-III breast cancer were prospectively included from CANTO (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01993498), collecting longitudinal data at diagnosis (before the initiation of any cancer treatment) and 1 (T1), 2 (T2), and 4 (T3) years after diagnosis. The main outcome was severe global fatigue at T2 (score ≥ 40/100, European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Quality of Life Questionnaire-C30). Analyses at T3 were exploratory. Secondary outcomes included physical, emotional, and cognitive fatigue (EORTC Quality of Life Questionnaire-FA12). Multivariable logistic regression models retained associations with severe fatigue by bootstrapped Augmented Backward Elimination. Validation methods included 10-fold internal cross-validation, overoptimism-corrected area under the receiver operating characteristic curves, and external validation. Among 5,640, 5,000, and 3,400 patients at T1, T2, and T3, respectively, the prevalence of post-treatment severe global fatigue was 35.6%, 34.0%, and 31.5% in the development cohort. Retained risk factors for severe global fatigue at T2 were severe pretreatment fatigue (adjusted odds ratio v no 3.191 [95% CI, 2.704 to 3.767]); younger age (for 1-year decrement 1.015 [1.009 to 1.022]), higher body mass index (for unit increment 1.025 [1.012 to 1.038]), current smoking behavior (v never 1.552 [1.291 to 1.866]), worse anxiety (v noncase 1.265 [1.073 to 1.492]), insomnia (for unit increment 1.005 [1.003 to 1.007]), and pain at diagnosis (for unit increment 1.014 [1.010 to 1.017]), with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.73 (95% CI, 0.72 to 0.75). Receipt of hormonal therapy was a risk factor for severe fatigue at T3 (v no 1.448 [1.165 to 1.799]). Dimension-specific risk factors included body mass index for physical fatigue and emotional distress for emotional and cognitive fatigue. We propose a predictive model to assess fatigue among breast cancer survivors, within a personalized survivorship care framework. This may help clinicians to provide early management interventions or to correct modifiable risk factors and offer more tailored monitoring and education to patients at risk of severe post-treatment fatigue.
Josephine M. N. Lopes Cardozo, , Emiel J. T. Rutgers, , , Anke Witteveen, , , , Coralie Poncet, et al.
Journal of Clinical Oncology; https://doi.org/10.1200/jco.21.02019

Abstract:
PURPOSE: Patients with 70-gene signature ultralow-risk breast cancers have shown excellent survival in historic cohorts, including randomized trials. The ultralow-risk subgroup was characterized to help avoid overtreatment. We evaluated outcomes of ultralow-risk patients in the largest cohort to date. METHODS: Of the 6,693 patients enrolled in the EORTC-10041/BIG-3-04 randomized phase III MINDACT trial, profiling revealed an ultralow-risk 70-gene signature in 1,000 patients (15%). Distant metastasis-free interval (DMFI) and breast cancer–specific survival (BCSS) were assessed in patients stratified by 70-gene signature result (high, low, and ultralow) by Kaplan-Meier analysis and hazard ratios with 95% CI from Cox regression. RESULTS: Median follow-up was 8.7 years. Of the ultralow-risk patients (n = 1,000), 67% were > 50 years, 81% had tumors ≤ 2 cm, 80% were lymph node–negative, 96% had grade 1 or 2 tumors, and 99% were estrogen receptor (ER)-positive. Systemic therapy was received by 84% of patients (69% endocrine therapy, 14% endocrine therapy plus chemotherapy, 1% other) and 16% received no adjuvant systemic treatment. The 8-year DMFI for ultralow-risk patients was 97.0% (95% CI, 95.8 to 98.1), which was 2.5% higher than for patients with low-risk tumors (n = 3,295, 94.5% [95% CI, 93.6 to 95.3]). The hazard ratio for DMFI was 0.65 (95% CI, 0.45 to 0.94) for ultralow versus low risk, after adjusting for clinical-pathologic and treatment characteristics. The 8-year BCSS for ultralow-risk patients was 99.6% (95% CI, 99.1 to 100). CONCLUSION: Patients with an ultralow-risk 70-gene signature have the best prognosis, distinctive from low risk, with 8-year BCSS above 99%, and very few patients developed distant metastases with an 8-year DMFI rate of 97%. These patients could be candidates for further de-escalation of treatment, to avoid overtreatment and the risk of side effects.
Jean Marc Phelip, Jérôme Desrame, , Emilie Barbier, Eric Terrebonne, Pierre Michel, Hervé Perrier, Laetitia Dahan, Vincent Bourgeois, Faiza Khemissa Akouz, et al.
Journal of Clinical Oncology, Volume 40, pp 262-271; https://doi.org/10.1200/jco.21.00679

Abstract:
PURPOSE: Whether triplet chemotherapy is superior to doublet chemotherapy in advanced biliary tract cancer (BTC) is unknown. METHODS: In this open-label, randomized phase II-III study, patients with locally advanced or metastatic BTC and an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0 or 1 were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive oxaliplatin, irinotecan, and infusional fluorouracil (mFOLFIRINOX), or cisplatin and gemcitabine (CISGEM) for a maximum of 6 months. We report the results of the phase II part, where the primary end point was the 6-month progression-free survival (PFS) rate among the patients who received at least one dose of treatment (modified intention-to-treat population) according to Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors version 1.1 (statistical assumptions: 6-month PFS rate ≥ 59%, 73% expected). RESULTS: A total of 191 patients (modified intention-to-treat population, 185: mFOLFIRINOX, 92; CISGEM, 93) were randomly assigned in 43 French centers. After a median follow-up of 21 months, the 6-month PFS rate was 44.6% (90% CI, 35.7 to 53.7) in the mFOLFIRINOX arm and 47.3% (90% CI, 38.4 to 56.3) in the CISGEM arm. Median PFS was 6.2 months (95% CI, 5.5 to 7.8) in the mFOLFIRINOX arm and 7.4 months (95% CI, 5.6 to 8.7) in the CISGEM arm. Median overall survival was 11.7 months (95% CI, 9.5 to 14.2) in the mFOLFIRINOX arm and 13.8 months (95% CI, 10.9 to 16.1) in the CISGEM arm. Adverse events ≥ grade 3 occurred in 72.8% of patients in the mFOLFIRINOX arm and 72.0% of patients in the CISGEM arm (toxic deaths: mFOLFIRINOX arm, two; CISGEM arm, one). CONCLUSION: mFOLFIRINOX triplet chemotherapy did not meet the primary study end point. CISGEM doublet chemotherapy remains the first-line standard in advanced BTC.
Adam J. Lamble, , Todd A. Alonzo, Jim Wang, Laura Pardo, , , , , , et al.
Journal of Clinical Oncology, Volume 40, pp 252-261; https://doi.org/10.1200/jco.21.01595

Abstract:
Increased CD123 surface expression has been associated with high-risk disease characteristics in adult acute myeloid leukemia (AML), but has not been well-characterized in childhood AML. In this study, we defined CD123 expression and associated clinical characteristics in a uniformly treated cohort of pediatric patients with newly diagnosed AML enrolled on the Children's Oncology Group AAML1031 phase III trial (NCT01371981). AML blasts within diagnostic bone marrow specimens (n = 1,040) were prospectively analyzed for CD123 protein expression by multidimensional flow cytometry immunophenotyping at a central clinical laboratory. Patients were stratified as low-risk or high-risk on the basis of (1) leukemia-associated cytogenetic and molecular alterations and (2) end-of-induction measurable residual disease levels. The study population was divided into CD123 expression–based quartiles (n = 260 each) for analysis. Those with highest CD123 expression (quartile 4 [Q4]) had higher prevalence of high-risk KMT2A rearrangements and FLT3-ITD mutations (P< .001 for both) and lower prevalence of low-risk t(8;21), inv(16), and CEBPA mutations (P< .001 for all). Patients in lower CD123 expression quartiles (Q1-3) had similar relapse risk, event-free survival, and overall survival. Conversely, Q4 patients had a significantly higher relapse risk (53% v 39%, P< .001), lower event-free survival (49% v 69%, P< .001), and lower overall survival (32% v 50%, P< .001) in comparison with Q1-3 patients. CD123 maintained independent significance for outcomes when all known contemporary high-risk cytogenetic and molecular markers were incorporated into multivariable Cox regression analysis. CD123 is strongly associated with disease-relevant cytogenetic and molecular alterations in childhood AML. CD123 is a critical biomarker and promising immunotherapeutic target for children with relapsed or refractory AML, given its prevalent expression and enrichment in patients with high-risk genetic alterations and inferior clinical outcomes with conventional therapy.
Andrea C. Enzinger, Kaushik Ghosh, , , Mary Beth Landrum, Alexi A. Wright
Journal of Clinical Oncology, Volume 40, pp 312-314; https://doi.org/10.1200/jco.21.02383

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