SocioEconomic Challenges

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2520-6621 / 2520-6214
Published by: Sumy State University (10.21272)
Total articles ≅ 237
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M. Korbaa Fouad, Gadi Ibtissem
Published: 1 January 2022
SocioEconomic Challenges, Volume 6; https://doi.org/10.21272/sec.6(1).63-78.2022

Abstract:
Algeria is oriented towards the promotion of non-hydrocarbon exports. The value of this enterprise is due to reach five billion dollars in 2021.This new economic policy should rely on the dynamic of ports platforms. The port is a complex organisation similar to a network company, it is an implantation location for companies concerned with optimizing their import/export operations. The port of Arzew is a main gateway for Algerian exports. For non-hydrocarbons, Customs notes that five products exported to western Algeria totaled more than 75% of non-hydrocarbon exports. These are mineral or chemical nitrogen fertilizers (urea), anhydrous ammonia oils, finished products from the steel industry, cement and others. Today, ports must be exemplary in terms of governance policy, installation, infrastructure and logistical tools. Certainly, a new role is taking shape and imposing itself on the port authority, its new functions are described as ‘new governance agenda’. This concerns its role, which is called upon to contribute with other actors in all areas (environmental, economic, social, territorial, etc.). Increasingly, ports have become creators of public value. This concept is closely linked to the establishment of collaborative governance because of the importance of stakeholders. public value is the result of the coordination of different actors-networks, with this in mind, authors insist on making the link between public action and the stakeholders by clarifying the objectives and purposes of the public products and services that must include the production of value not only for the individuals directly affected but also for the communities concerned. Nowadays, ports must be exemplary in terms of governance policy, installation, infrastructure and logistical tools. The objective of our research is to examine the governance in place in supporting non-hydrocarbon exports in a Algeria west region. The approach pursued in this work is based on the applicability of a model of the creation of public value or ‘network governance’. The results obtained have made it possible to highlight the positive impact of port facilities on exports, while the governance in place is of capital importance.
Sabah Fadel, Khaled Rouaski, Ahmed Zakane Ahmed Zakane, Asmaa Djerboua
Published: 1 January 2022
SocioEconomic Challenges, Volume 6; https://doi.org/10.21272/sec.6(1).24-40.2022

Abstract:
This document aims to investigate the potential influence of climate on the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic, the direct and indirect effects of climate are felt all over the planet, although their magnitude and manifestations vary. According to estimates by the World Health Organization (WHO), climate change could be the cause of nearly 250,000 additional deaths per year worldwide between 2030 and 2050 (Word Health Organization, 2021). This study focused on examining the relationship between climate (Temperature, humidity, and wind speed) and hospitalizations due to COVID-19 in a well-selected sample of wilayas in Algeria. In this brief, we want to shed light on the likely course and geographic spread of the epidemic. The purpose of this article is to answer the main question of the study: We do this by examining the effect of climate (temperature, humidity, and wind speed) on hospitalizations due to COVID-19 in the wilayas of Algiers, Blida, Oran, Adrar, Setif and Tamanrasset. The choice of wilayas is based on the availability, quality, and consistency of the data required. Our analysis suggests that high temperature and humidity or high relative wind speed tend to hamper the spread of the virus and that a high population density tends to facilitate its transmission. This does not mean that higher temperatures are enough to contain the disease. The climate potentially plays a role in the spread of many respiratory viruses. It appeared important to know if this could also be the case for the new coronavirus, COVID-19. While the role of climate in the transmission is still difficult to quantify, it is clear that other factors are taken into account in the transmission of COVID-19, namely mainly compliance with the rules of physical distancing and barrier gestures. This study focused more particularly on the effects of absolute climate (Temperature, humidity, and wind speed). 90% of infections would have occurred in areas where the temperature is between 3 and 17 degrees and the absolute humidity is between 4 and 9 g / m3, 35 to 85% relative humidity (Bukhari Q., Jameel Y., 2020). We address the issue of the impact of climate on the spread of COVID-19, we use the SUR (Seemingly Unrelated Regression) model to estimate the relationship between climate and COVID-19 cases in Algeria during the period between April 18th, 2020, and April 17th, 2021 inclusive. The results of the SUR model estimate, also showed that there is no real climate that can damage the pandemic situation in Algeria during the period studied.
Dayo Ojaleye,
Published: 1 January 2022
SocioEconomic Challenges, Volume 6; https://doi.org/10.21272/sec.6(1).41-62.2022

Abstract:
The input-output table provides summary information on the industrial structure of an economy in a specific period. This table contains information on the flow of goods and services between industries and economic sectors. The backward and forward links are descriptive measures of the economic interdependence of sectors in terms of the volume of transactions. Sectors with strong backwards and forward linkages are vital sectors and play an essential role in a country’s development strategy. This paper aims to construct a symmetric input-output table for Nigeria and examine the Nigerian economy’s production structure by using the results applying traditional backward and forward linkage methods developed by Chenery-Watanabe and Rasmussen. Our study identifies the key sectors with backward and forward linkages as Crop and Animal production, Manufacture of Food products, Textiles, Refined petroleum products, Chemicals, Motor vehicles, Furniture, Machinery and equipment, Wholesale/retail trade, Land transport and Telecommunication. In addition, through the constructed symmetric input-output table, sector development can be further done in line with the relationship matrix, as it serves as a conduit for investment strategy, local linkage matrix and policy development. So, for the development strategy it is very important to determine which industries possess high backward and forward linkages, then stimulating final demand or primary inputs namely of these industries could positively influence the economic activity of the country. The results from this work may be used by policy makers in terms of which sectors of the economy stimulate (for example, by means of creating extra final demand, decreasing taxes, or with the help of subsiding) in order to gain better results in the sphere of economic development of Nigeria.
Meleq Hoxhaj, , Erkinela Nushi
Published: 1 January 2022
SocioEconomic Challenges, Volume 6, pp 29-41; https://doi.org/10.21272/sec.6(2).29-41.2022

Abstract:
Albania has seen significant political and socioeconomic changes in the last 30 years, owing mostly to its participation in democratization and the transition to an open market economy. The purpose of this study is to investigate demographic dynamics in Albania to better understand the country’s current population situation and the near future projection for the period 2025-2031. The relevance of analyzing this topic is to better understand actual demographic changes in Albania and to have a detailed projection of the situation in the near future. The article begins by analyzing important demographic changes and their effects on a country’s economy, specifically the labor market. Furthermore, we demonstrated the trajectory of demographic changes in Albania for various main demographic parameters such as births, deaths, natural increase, marriage, divorces, and numbers of foreigners in Albania, using data from the Institute of Statistics in Albania (INSTAT). The following are presented population projections for ten coming years. The changes that have happened in the labor market are presented here to better comprehend the effects and repercussions of these demographic changes. The descriptive analysis of the main demographic indicators shows that the population is rapidly declining, posing a serious problem with numerous consequences, particularly in the labor market, necessitating the implementation of immediate policies to mitigate this phenomenon and its consequences. It makes a technical contribution by employing an approach that allows for fresh estimations of the amount of internal migration, demographic changes, and labor market issues in Albania. The results of the research can be useful for policymakers to initiate social, fiscal, and incentive policies to mitigate the decline and aging of the population.
Belen Suarez Lopez, , Antonio Vargas Alcaide
Published: 1 January 2022
SocioEconomic Challenges, Volume 6, pp 94-105; https://doi.org/10.21272/sec.6(2).94-105.2022

Abstract:
In an increasingly digitized world and after the disruption of the covid-19 pandemic, the internet and social networks are becoming the central backbone of interactions between individuals, organizations, and governments worldwide in general and defending the democratic values in Ukraine in particular. The influence capacity of social networks on creativity and innovation has grown in recent years and has been an objective of the study. This paper analyses the interaction between innovation and social networks from a balanced assessment, considering opportunities and risks. The interaction between social networks and innovation could redesign the value creation process. The proliferation of social media platforms coincides with the expansion of the open innovation paradigm and has demonstrated its efficiency in facilitating solutions in different fields such as science, statistics, engineering, production and the generation of social policies. On the other hand, risks have to be analyzed and mitigated. The social networks and search engines could have become a proxy for organizing and accessing information and knowledge on a large scale; however, evidence points out how the fake data and concentration could suffocate innovation. The research develops a theoretical framework to analyze how the organizational structure of social networks could influence the knowledge absorption capability and innovation; what is the influence of the social networks on creativity and innovation; and their role as drivers to create the social value. The results of the research could be practically valuable for many stakeholders: Chief Innovation Officers and Communication Managers, Teams responsible for Stakeholders Engagement and Open Innovation programmes, Policy Makers, and the Scientific Community interested in developing empirical research on the topic, as well as citizens to understand their role as change-makers contributing to developing Innovation and Creativity.
Paul Gentle
Published: 1 January 2022
SocioEconomic Challenges, Volume 6, pp 67-82; https://doi.org/10.21272/sec.6(2).67-82.2022

Abstract:
The demonstrations in 2019, 2020 and thereabouts for the preservation of certain civil rights in Hong Kong, led to some suppression by the Chinese National central government. As a result, some of the special trade advantages between Hong Kong and the U.S. were lost. The economics and cultural special traits helped Hong Kong thrive. Having a judicial system separate from that of Mainland China, allowed for a more commerce producing judiciary. A key requirement for Hong Kong to be treated differently than Mainland China was for Hong Kong to have some independent autonomy, sufficient for the U.S. to see Hong Kong as a separate area politically from Mainland China. In July 2020, the U.S. made the formal decision to take away Hong Kong’s special status, because a sufficiently independent Hong Kong no longer exists. This article examines the history of this phenomena and the results of having that special trade policy changed. Data from recent years show how the economy with Hong Kong and trade with Hong Kong has changed. Unfortunately, some cultural ties and exchanges between the United States and Hong Kong have also been curtailed. These changes regarding cultural ties are beyond the scope of this article. In regard to Chinese support for the United States, Ukraine and NATO, Ukraine in the war between Ukraine and Russia, this should be pointed out. China should support Ukraine, since it is in China’s best interest, and it is the right action to take.
Oladayo Nathaniel Awojobi
Published: 1 January 2022
SocioEconomic Challenges, Volume 6; https://doi.org/10.21272/sec.6(1).5-23.2022

Abstract:
This paper summarizes the arguments and counterarguments within the scientific discussion on cash transfers and child health. The main purpose of the research is to assess the effects of cash transfers on children’s health and development outcomes in sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America. Systematization of the literary sources indicates that studies have justified cash transfer as social-income support that addresses a vital social determinant of health (income) for children in low-and-middle-income countries. The methodological basis of this study is a systematic review that searched a wide range of electronic databases such as PubMed, ResearchGate and ScienceDirect. Studies included in this review included randomized controlled trials (RCTs), cluster-RCTs, quasi-experimental and mixed methods studies of cash transfer interventions in children 0-18 years. Inclusion criteria were met by eight studies, four from Africa and four from Latin America. The systematic review presents the results of data synthesis of the included studies that mainly reported the effects of cash transfer programmes on child anthropometry outcomes, cognitive development, morbidity, and healthcare utilization. The review found cash transfer programmes to improve these variables among children in households receiving cash transfers. This systematic review has added to the debate on cash transfers and children’s health outcomes. In general, the systematic review indicates that cash transfer programmes intended for children are effective at improving anthropometric, health, and cognitive outcomes, as well as access to healthcare. However, there is a need for more research to clarify the multiple pathways by which cash transfers can improve children’s health and nutritional outcomes. It is also necessary to clarify what factors explain the variety of effects of cash transfer programs on child health and nutritional status. Finally, cash transfer interventions are not permanent mechanisms for promoting access to healthcare. Policymakers in developing countries should borrow ideas on how to finance healthcare services for improving the socio-economic wellbeing of citizens.
Slimane Mrabet, Sidi Mohammed Benachenhou,
Published: 1 January 2022
SocioEconomic Challenges, Volume 6; https://doi.org/10.21272/sec.6(1).100-112.2022

Abstract:
There is a gap in marketing literature related to impact of service quality dimensions on perceived service quality and patient satisfaction, in the private healthcare industry. The healthcare system is responsible for improving the general population’s health in a country. To differentiate from competitors, the quality of service is mainly considered a critical success factor for hospitals (Azmit et al., 2017). Therefore, competition is essential for improving quality and patient satisfaction in healthcare institutions (Kitapci et al., 2014). This article aims to determine the relationship between health service quality dimensions and patient satisfaction in the healthcare sector. Specifically, the paper seeks to find out the most critical dimensions of service quality, which is used to evaluate the characteristics of private healthcare service quality as perceived by patients. A field study was carried out on a sample of 208 patients in Tlemcen city in Algeria. The questionnaire developed for this study was based on a SERVQUAL model specifically, based on Parasuraman, Zeithaml, and Berry, (1985) variables that identified the influence of five dimensions (i.e., reliability, tangibility, assurance, responsibility, and empathy) in healthcare service environments on patient satisfaction. The results have found after the application of structural equation modelling that: reliability, tangibility, assurance, responsibility was more significant in contributing to patient satisfaction, while empathy was not significant. This indicates that patients tend to have a positive perception about the health service if they consider the perceived quality of the health service to be credible, reliable, tangible, and responsive, even though they may feel that the health provider does not empathize with them. Hence, healthcare industry practitioners can consider this model as an instrument to assess healthcare and help improve their service quality. Therefore, service provider managers can use this instrument to assess private hospital service quality in Algeria and other African countries.
Johnson Kolawole Olowookere, Adesola Olufunmilola Oluwatuyi, Morufu Oladehinde Oladejo
Published: 1 January 2022
SocioEconomic Challenges, Volume 6; https://doi.org/10.21272/sec.6(1).113-122.2022

Abstract:
This study examined the determinants of audit quality among Consumer goods companies listed on the Nigerian stock exchange from 2009 to 2018. This study made use of secondary data obtained from fact books, annual reports, and account of selected consumer goods company under study. The relevant data were subjected to statistical analysis Pearson Correlation while the diagnostics test conducted were Multicollinearity, Autocorrelation, Normality, and Heteroscedasticity Test. The study’s findings showed that board size and company liquidity have a substantial positive influence on financial results, while audit fees, firm size, and audit committee meetings have a negative but non-significant impact. The study concluded that, since board size has a substantial positive effect on audit quality, the governmental body should track firms to ensure that the required board size is met as part of strategies to enhance audit quality among Nigeria’s publicly traded consumer goods companies.
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