Open Journal of Preventive Medicine

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2162-2477 / 2162-2485
Current Publisher: Scientific Research Publishing, Inc. (10.4236)
Total articles ≅ 439
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Latest articles in this journal

Jasna Frljak, Asmira Husić Mulabećirović, Senita Isaković, Enver Karahmet, Almir Toroman
Open Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 11, pp 9-22; doi:10.4236/ojpm.2021.111002

According to official data, about 2000 mushrooms belong to the category of medical mushrooms, while over 600 have already confirmed medical properties. The aim and task of this work were to collect, analyze and process scientific and expert data of biologically active components of selected Basidiomycetes fungi: Letinula edodes, Ganoderma Lucidum, Grifola frondosa, Trametes versicolor and Inonotus obliquus. Areas of fungi therapy and the search for new immunomodulatory agents are far from being restricted to these species alone, however, these five may serve as typical representatives of widespread medicinal fungi used in both traditional medicine and modern biomedical research. Their biologically active components have different pharmacological effects, and beta-glucan polysaccharides, which are recognized as immunomodulators, are of particular importance. Many of the fungal beta-glucans tested have switched to pharmaceuticals such as Lentinan, Sonifilan, Krestin and GanoPoly, which speaks to their pharmacological and research potential. Citing the results of scientific advances in the last two decades, the results of preclinical tests and the results of clinical studies can confirm that supplementation with medical fungi can increase treatment success or mitigate the negative side effects of different therapies. A long-term weakened immune system is a risk factor for malignancies, so it can be concluded that disease prevention is beneficial for each individual and deserves the same attention paid to treating the disease.
Hsien-Jin Teoh, Millie Darvell
Open Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 11, pp 63-70; doi:10.4236/ojpm.2021.112006

Extremely long Australian paediatric outpatient waiting lists have resulted in large numbers of children waiting to see a paediatrician. Analyses of the patient referrals suggest that a large proportion of children may benefit from allied health input, in addition to being seen by the paediatrician. This paper provides an organisational strategy that involves streamlining Allied Health clinical services in an effort to assist with bringing down a Paediatric Out-patient waitlist. The paper describes principles to guide the formation of a Paediatric Allied Health Multi-Disciplinary team that proposes assessment and brief interventions. The service would focus on supporting the paediatricians through the use of structured procedures, telephone intakes, multidisciplinary triage, shared and standardised assessments, collaborative formulations and reports, brief interventions, clinical-community linkages, and allied health student support. A variety of additional important organisational principles are proposed to facilitate patient flow from the perspective of streamlining administrative processes, having adequate administrative support, shared responsibilities, teamwork, flexibility, carrying out intake assessments, determining which referrals were appropriate for allied health, and working closely with medical staff.
Xiong Su, Xiaoyu Gao, Li Jiang, Jing Zhang, Zhifang Wang, Baofeng Chi, Hairong Zhang, Chi Baofeng, Ran Zhang, Baihui Yun, et al.
Open Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 11, pp 1-8; doi:10.4236/ojpm.2021.111001

Objective: The quantum dots are the useful materials in microelectronics and biomedical research. However its toxicity has to be considered. We studied the effect of cell inhibition with ZnS core quantum dots and CdTe quantum dots modified with Thioglycolic acid or Cysteine functional group (TGA-CdTe, TGA-CdTe/ZnS, Cys-CdTe, Cys-CdTe/ZnS) on Caco-2 cell proliferation. Methods: We studied the effect of cell inhibition with ZnS core QDs and CdTe QDs modified with functional group on Caco-2 cell proliferation by MTT assay at 0, 12.5, 25, 50, 100 μg/ml and 6, 24, 48 h. Result: Our results showed that all QDs have inhibited cell proliferation and reached maximum 79.21%. The inhibition rate of Cys-modified QDs increased with the increase of concentration and reached maximum 66.72%. The inhibition rate of TGA-modified QDs increased with the increase of time. The ratios of Cys-modified to TGA-modified were less than 1 at all concentrations and three exposure times (P ≤ 0.01). The average ratios of Cys-CdTe/ZnS to Cys-CdTe reached 1.11 only for 48 h (P ≤ 0.05). The ratios of TGA-CdTe/ZnS to TGA-CdTe were closed to 1 at all concentrations and exposure times. Conclusion: The regularity of QDs modified with functional group is that inhibition of TGA-modified higher than Cys-modified. Inhibition exhibited dose-dependent for Cys-modified while exhibited time-dependent for TGA-modified. The regularity of CdTe-QDs with ZnS or not is that the inhibition of Cys-CdTe/ZnS was higher than Cys-CdTe while TGA-CdTe/ZnS and TGA-CdTe were consistent.
Augustine Kumah, Emmanuel Tormeti, Gideon Dzando, Hillary Selassi Nutakor, Wonder Andrea Yayra Amenuvor, Charles Komla Anagblah, Honore Mordenu, Evans Awutey, Hope Akpeke, Prosper Kpobi
Open Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 11, pp 43-53; doi:10.4236/ojpm.2021.111004

Background: Hepatitis-B (Hep-B) infection is a global public health problem of great concern which affects more than 5% of the local population in Sub-Saharan Africa. This study assessed students’ knowledge, attitude and practices towards Hepatitis B infection and vaccination at the University of Health and Allied Sciences, Ghana. Methods: A cross-sectional quantitative descriptive survey was conducted among 262 Public Health students of the University of Health and Allied Science of the Volta region of Ghana, using a multi-stage sampling technique in selecting participants. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data from the participants. Data was analyzed using SPSS Version 20.1. Results: Study respondents were mostly males, forming 69.8% as against 30.2% of their female counterparts. All (262) respondents had knowledge on Hep-B infection and the availability of a vaccine for preventing Hepatitis infection. However, despite their knowledge of existence, the majority (56.9%) of the respondents felt they did not need to be protected from Hep-B infection. Majority (58.8%) of the total respondents have been vaccinated against Hep-B infection. The study identified the cost of vaccines as a major setback to non-vaccination. However, out of the 41.2% respondents who were not vaccinated against Hep B infection, majority (50.9%) of them were not willing to be vaccinated even if it was offered to them at no cost. Conclusion: There was a significantly high level of knowledge on Hep-B infection and the availability of vaccine for Hep-B infection among students. However, the majority of the respondents felt they did not need to be protected from Hep-B infection. More education is needed on the importance of vaccination as an effective measure for controlling Hepatitis infection.
Shailesh Advani, Rumana J. Khan, Kristen Brown, Lisa A. DeRoo, Ruihua Xu, Jessica Lewis, Sharon K. Davis
Open Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 11, pp 23-42; doi:10.4236/ojpm.2021.111003

Background: African Americans (AA) are disproportionally affected by cardiovascular disease as compared to other racial-ethnic groups. Exposure to adverse socioeconomic conditions may partially explain disparities in risk factors and prevalence and cardiovascular diseases for AA. We aim to study the impact of poverty status on metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components among African Americans. Methods: We used data from the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES) cycles 2001-2006. We defined MetS using the Joint Scientific Definition as the presence of any 3/5 components: elevated blood pressure (BP), elevated triglycerides (TGL), lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), elevated fasting plasma glucose (FPG), and elevated waist circumference (WC). Poverty to income ratio (PIR) was categorized as below poverty (3) groups. We used multivariable survey-weighted logistic regression models to study the impact of poverty status of prevalence of MetS and its components among AA men and women. Results: Overall, the average aggregate prevalence of MetS among AA sample was 22% in our study with prevalence being 25% for women and 18% among men (p 3) (OR = 1.57, 95%CI = 1.00 - 2.46, p = 0.05) with no association observed among men (OR (PIR = 1) = 0.70, 95%CI = 0.43 - 1.19, p = 0.13). Further, similar associations were observed for individual components among women including: elevated waist circumference (OR = 2.04, 95%CI = 1.37, 3.01, p 3). No association of poverty status with MetS and its components were observed among AA men. Clustering of factors identified key groups that define MetS among women included WC. Conclusion: African American women living below poverty have a higher likelihood of having MetS and 4 of 5 individual components. Clustering of these factors differ across men and women and should be further explored as tools for clinical management. Main Points: 1) Metabolic syndrome remains an important public health burden among African Americans and shows disparities by socioeconomic status; 2) Women living below poverty were more likely to have MetS and associated components as compared to women living above poverty; 3) Clustering of components gave us snapshot of factors that should be considered to develop gender specific targeted health interventions for MetS among African Americans.
Baiyi Wang, Shan Bao, Min Guo, Zhixiang Chen, Yu Lin, Changwang Luo, Fei Li, Shengshi Lu
Open Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 11, pp 55-62; doi:10.4236/ojpm.2021.112005

Leading talents and innovation team are the key to build an innovative hospital. It is necessary and practical to recognize the importance, characteristics and value of leading talents and innovative teams. This paper summarizes some characteristics, values and importance of leading talents and innovative teams in China’s General hospitals (General hospitals with complete medical specialties and advanced equipment) for reference.
Tsigaras George, Goulios Vasileios, Exadaktylou Sotiria, Besios Thomas, Milioudi Maria, Chandolias Kostastantinos, Laspa Victoria, Xristara Alexandra, George Tsigaras, Vasileios Goulios, et al.
Open Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 10, pp 217-244; doi:10.4236/ojpm.2020.108015

Introduction: Pediatric Flat Foot (PFF) is a deviation consisting of loss of the Medial Longitudinal Arch in children. Purpose: Aim of this study is to collect information on the recent literature and to investigate through clinical assessment and parental observations the effectiveness of the use of foot orthotics by children with SFFF. Method: 20 children aged 6 - 7 years old with mobility difficulties were evaluated before and after a six-month treatment with orthotics regarding pain, post-game pain, fatigue during game, balance impairment, gait deviations, falls, clumsiness, activity avoidance and worn soles. Results: Study results indicate that foot orthotics (FOs) appears to have a positive impact on the advance of pain, post game pain, gait deviations and worn insoles. It is implied that orthoses have a great potential as a treatment for SFFF. Thorough comprehension of the literature evidence, as well as composition of supplementary studies of larger pediatric populations is essential in order to reach a consensus on the use of foot orthotics (FOs) by children SFFF.
Nkechinyere Elizabeth Harrison, Kenneth Ejiofor Oruka, Uzoamaka Concilia Agbaim, Olatunde Ademola Adegbite, Obiyo Nwaiwu, Nathan Anelechi Elvis Okeji
Open Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 10, pp 233-253; doi:10.4236/ojpm.2020.108017

Introduction: Traditionally, Prevention of Maternal-to-Child Transmission (PMTCT) of HIV involves women and excludes men despite their important roles. There is a need for more data on factors influencing male participation in PMTCT programs. Design: This was a cross-sectional, descriptive study of married HIV-positive men receiving care at the adult ART clinic, 68 Nigerian Army Reference Hospital Yaba. Data were collected from March 15 to April 30, 2018. Result: Out of the 366 respondents, 333 (91%) were aware that HIV can be transmitted from mother to child. However, only 43.2% correctly identified that it can be transmitted during pregnancy, while 30.2% stated during labour. Almost all of the respondents (96.4%) would also accept that their positive partners take antiretroviral treatment to protect her unborn baby, 86.9% would support non breastfeeding option after delivery, and 95.6% indicated readiness to buy formula milk for the baby. Similarly, majority believed that a pregnant woman can be tested for HIV without the permission of her partner (Mean = 1.47 ± 0.893), and that men should accompany their spouse to ANC/PMTCT clinics (Mean = 1.86 ± 0.921). Conclusion: This study revealed that despite low knowledge of PMTCT among men, there is a good level of attitude and involvement among them. We recommend further study to fully explore the impact of education on men’s participation.
Casey Mace Firebaugh, Tishra Beeson, Amie Wojtyna, Lilian Bravo, Teresa Everson, Jaclyn Johnson, Alberto Saldana
Open Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 10, pp 288-297; doi:10.4236/ojpm.2020.1011021

Yakima County, Washington, a rural county with an urban core suffered disproportionately under the conditions presented by the COVID-19 pandemic and summer wildfires of 2020. With an infection rate of over 700 per 100,000 population at the height of the pandemic, the county concurrently experienced 14 consecutive days of an air quality index in the unhealthy to hazardous range in August 2020. This paper examines the contributing socioeconomic, geographic, and environmental vulnerabilities that make Yakima County particularly susceptible to the continuum of expected COVID-19 disease and related outcomes and suggests comprehensive areas of investigation to mitigate its impact on special populations, including Hispanic-Latino communities, agricultural, food production, and other essential workers.
Donald Mogoi, Eric M. Muchiri, Alfred M. Mutuma
Open Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 10, pp 9-43; doi:10.4236/ojpm.2020.102002

The epidemiology of vaccine preventable diseases has been modified by use and implementation of various vaccination programs in many countries. However, because of observed suboptimal vaccination rates, debate has emerged on the benefits of such vaccines worldwide. Maternal and childhood vaccinations have been evaluated and found extremely effective at preventing illness in pregnant women and new-borns despite low uptake of such vaccines in many areas. The objective of this study was to determine the Vaccination Coverage and factors that influence uptake of newly introduced vaccines among children aged less than 23 months in Laikipia North Sub-County. The study used multistage sampled parents and guardians of children below 23 months of age but residents of Laikipia North Sub-County within Laikipia County. Trained interviewers visited sampled households and administered a standardized pretested questionnaire. Mothers and guardians were interviewed and asked to show the interviewers Mother-Child Post Natal Booklets for the study enrolled children. Key informant questionnaires were also administered to Health facility staff. Data entry and analysis were performed using SPSS and Microsoft Excel. Chi-Square for Proportion and Student T-test were used to assess factors influencing uptake of vaccines in the sub-county. The study found that slightly above half (59%) of the care givers indicated that their child had been vaccinated. Majority (61%) of the care givers had their children given rotavirus vaccine while an equal number (61%) had their children given Pneumococcal vaccine. 52% of the care givers indicated that their children were given IPV (Inactivated Polio Vaccine). 53% of the children who were given rotavirus vaccine received the required 2 doses. Among social-cultural factors, the need for permission from mother-in-law (p = 0.003), belief that vaccination makes girls infertile (p = 0.046) and belief that vaccination at a very young age can harm the child (p = 0.021). Migration with animals or nomadic lifestyle (p = 0.033) and the need for permission from my husband to have Child Immunized (p = 0.038) were significantly related to uptake of vaccination among the care givers. Occupation of the care giver (p = 0.044), the breadwinner in the family (p = 0.025) and the means of transport used to go to the facility (p = 0.007) and average household income (p = 0.033) were also significantly related to uptake of vaccination. None of the health system factors under investigation was found to significantly relate to uptake of vaccination. The study finding indicates that low uptake of vaccination was due to social cultural and social economic factors and recommends that Health education campaigns on the need of vaccination should target all members of the population. It further recommends that poverty eradication measures should be stepped up in the study area.
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