Open Journal of Preventive Medicine

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2162-2477 / 2162-2485
Published by: Scientific Research Publishing, Inc. (10.4236)
Total articles ≅ 471
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Chris Griffiths, Farah Hina, Harmony Jiang
Open Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 12, pp 31-58; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojpm.2022.122003

Abstract:
Background: In primary care, social prescribing (SP) is where a patient is referred to a “link worker”, who considers their needs and then “prescribes” or connects them to appropriate community-based resources and services. Recent policy and guidance in the UK has significantly expanded the provision of SP to improve patient health and wellbeing. Methods: This study conducted a systematic review of evidence for SP effectiveness and to report needs addressed, interventions provided, and behaviour change techniques employed. Inclusion criterion was patient referral from primary care to a SP link worker. Online databases were searched for studies published from February 2016 to July 2021. Searches were restricted to English language only. Risk of bias assessment and a narrative analysis were undertaken. Results: Eight studies were included. All studies reported some positive outcomes. There were weaknesses and limitations in study design and in reporting of results: a lack of comparative controls, short duration and single point follow-up, a lack of standardised assessments, missing data, and a failure to consider potential confounding factors. All studies had features which indicated a high risk of bias. Conclusion: Evidence for the value and positive impact of SP is accumulating, but evaluation design remains relatively weak. There is a need to improve evaluation through robust methodological design and the adoption of universal outcome measures and evaluation/analytical framework. SP should seek to assess patient wellbeing, self-management, and quality of lifeoutcomes systematically, and adopt behaviour change techniques to enable healthier lifestyles in the short and long term.
Avita Aliza Usfar, Ju Lan Phan
Open Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 12, pp 10-29; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojpm.2022.121002

Abstract:
The purpose of the study is to assess the knowledge on Balanced Nutrition and its practices among pre-school teachers in Subang district, West Java, Indonesia before and during the COVID-19 pandemic (before March 2020 vs. October 2021) and to seek differences in the knowledge and practices of teachers who attended nutrition training and those who did not attend any nutrition training. We evaluated the knowledge and practice of 142 teachers based on 10 messages of the 2014 Indonesian Balanced Nutrition Guidelines, using google online survey platform. The top three messages mostly selected by the teachers were consuming a variety of staple foods (87%), drinking adequate and safe water (87%), and eating plenty of vegetables and fruits (86%), while the least selected were enjoying a variety of foods (41%) and reading food labels (28%). A slight increase was found in teachers who consumed fruits daily, while the practice of washing hands before and during the pandemic was statistically and significantly increased (58% to 72%; p < 0.05). A slight decrease was found in teachers who consumed vegetables and animal protein, as well as performed physical exercise daily. Majority of teachers (80%) participated in some kinds of nutrition training in the last four years. The top three gaps of knowledge between trained and non-trained teachers were on physical activity and maintaining ideal body weight (64% vs. 33%; statistically significant at p < 0.05); limit intake of sweet, salty, and fatty food; and consuming high protein food, with the range between 20 to 35 percentage points. We concluded that teachers acquired knowledge on nutrition to some degree, but its application faced limitations during the pandemic. Dissemination of Balanced Nutrition should continue.
Monique S. White, Clifton C. Addison, Brenda W. Jenkins
Open Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 12, pp 59-72; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojpm.2022.123004

Abstract:
Objective: This study examined the perceptions and practices of medical personnel regarding the spirituality in the treatment management plan of their patients. Methods: A spirituality survey was administered to doctors and nurses, soliciting responses about their beliefs and willingness to include spirituality practices in treating patients within their facility. Respondents were asked to give their views on daily practices regarding the use of spirituality in patient care and patient response to treatment. Results: The doctors’ responses suggest that they believe that solutions to medical problems, patient recovery, and coping are related to mind and body stress issues that surgery and drugs may not necessarily cure. The emphasis on self-care for some of these medical problems can put the patient back in control and eliminate the use of excessive drugs in the treatment process. Chances for health and well being of patients are improved if good medical practices are combined with a strong mental and psychological disposition to provide a vital foundation for directly confronting diseases. Conclusion: Spiritual engagement helps to support a psychological outlook that is necessary for fighting diseases and coping adequately with life’s tragedies. This approach provides a well-balanced attack on disease and increases the patient’s chances of coping and surviving.
Ousseynou Ka, Djiby Sow, Elhadji Mouhamadou Seck, Ndeye Fatou Ngom Guéye, Martial Coly Bop, Mountaga Elimane Dia, Abdoul Aziz Ndiaye, Papa Gallo Sow, Maimouna Mbaye Ndour
Open Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 12, pp 1-9; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojpm.2022.121001

Abstract:
Introduction: Diabetic patients adhering to their treatment are less likely to face complication from their disease. For this reason, we studied the compliance of diabetics with their treatment. Materials and Method: This was a comprehensive cross-sectional study of adherence in diabetic patients. All patients meeting the inclusion criteria were enrolled in the study. This study took place at a private pharmacy called “pharmacy Elhadj Seydou Nourou Tall” located in the city of Pikine during the period from April 1 to September 30, 2019. Results: In total, the study population was composed of 125 diabetics; frequency of 8.47%. The average age was 62.5 years and there were more women (58.4%). Of the patients, 87% had a low socioeconomic level and 72% a low educational level. Only 65.6% of the patients knew their diabetes type. Even though 97.6% of the patients were confident in the treatment but due to financial reasons 20.8% did not adhere to the prescribed treatment and 16.8% to their diets. Moreover, 15.2% of the patients had changed the dosage of the prescribed medication, 44.4% had forgotten to take their medication regularly. 78.4% of them thought they were taking too much medication. No factors were found to be statistically associated with poor adherence, but the proportion of poor adherence patients was higher in patients over 60 years of age, with low socio-economic status and low education. Conclusion: Low socio-economic status is the main barrier to good adherence. Recommendations have been formulated to improve this adherence.
Yvonne Valerie Yolande Mavoungou, Ange Clauvel Niama, Rubenne Celina Koussiemi Nombo, Gloria Mavoungou Voumbo, Gilbert Ndziessi, Clautaire Itoua
Open Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 12, pp 85-95; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojpm.2022.125006

Abstract:
Introduction: Since the deployment of preventive measures against malaria in pregnant women in Congo, the coverage rates in Intermittent Preventive Treatment for malaria in pregnancy using Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine (IPTp-SP) and Long Lasting Insecticidal Nets (LLINs) remain low compared to the objectives set by WHO. This study aimed to analyze the knowledge and practices of pregnant women in the prevention of malaria in Brazzaville. Population and Method: This is an analytical cross-sectional study, conducted from September 15th to October 30th, 2021. The sample consisted of pregnant women who performed at least three antenatal care consultations one month apart each; obtained from a two-stage random sample. Data were collected from a self-administered questionnaire and analyzed with Epi-Info version 7.2.6 software. The odds-ratios and their 95% confidence intervals were calculated to assess the associations between the variables. Results: A total of 331 pregnant women were selected. The mean age was 27 years (22; 31). Most women were single (82.8%), multiparous (63.4%) and 74.9% had secondary level education. The level of knowledge was insufficient in 53.8% of respondents; nearly 64.7% had good preventive practices. Pregnant women with no education are 8 times more likely to have insufficient knowledge of malaria prevention (OR = 8.33 [2.02 - 34.17]; p = 0.0036). Also, those whose gestational age is between 22 - 27 weeks are 2.54 times more likely to have insufficient knowledge than those with gestational age of 36 weeks and above (OR = 2.54 [1.33 - 4.46], p = 0.0071). Conclusion: It is important to strengthen the awareness in order to bring pregnant women to improve their knowledge of malaria prevention and change their behavior.
Y. V. Y. Mavoungou, A. C. Niama, G. M. Voumbo, Jean Claude Mobousse, Levi Mankoussou, Arnold Mangani, Clautaire Itoua
Open Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 12, pp 73-84; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojpm.2022.124005

Abstract:
Introduction: The professional exhaustion syndrome, also referred to as burnout, combines deep fatigue, disinvestment in professional activity, a feeling of failure and incompetence at work resulting from the chronic constraints suffered by the worker. The purpose of this work is to assess its prevalence among caregivers of the maternity wards in the district hospitals of Brazzaville. Methodology: This is a descriptive cross-sectional study carried out in four maternities of respectively Bacongo, Makélékélé, Mfilou and Talangai hospitals in Brazzaville between February 1st and February 28th, 2021. Socio-demographic and professional characteristics were collected from a sample of midwives and nurses. The level of exhaustion was evaluated using the “Maslach Burnout Inventory” scale defined as “high” when the 3 dimensions are reached, “moderate” when only 2 are reached, and low for any other result. Results: Among the 143 caregivers investigated (62.9%) of respondents declared being in burnout. According to the dimensions of the Maslach Burnout Inventory scale, 53.1% are caregivers are in high emotional exhaustion; 53.1% have a high level of depersonalization and 75.5% have a low level of personal accomplishment. Workload (OR = 13.69; [4.28 - 61.27]; p < 0.001), non-civil servant status (OR = 19.80 [6.50 - 79.28]; p < 0.001), and inadequacy of the tasks according to the caregivers’ knowledge (OR = 42.98 [4.74 - 1344.39]; p = 0.004) are risk factors for burnout. On the other hand, satisfactory relationships between colleagues (OR = 0.01; [0.00 - 0.07]; p < 0.001) or with hierarchical superiors (OR = 0.05; [0.00 - 0.06]; p = 0.001) have a lesser risk to be in burnout. Conclusion: In our study, all dimensions of burnout were high. It is therefore a real phenomenon among caregivers in the four maternities of the district hospitals of Brazzaville. The associated factors can be avoided through prevention.
Amel A. Sulaiman, Abdullah M. Al-Saigul, Ahmed A. Al Meman, Omar Abdulaziz Al Yahia, Saleh A. Al Gabbany, El-Gamri El-Rady, Fahad Al Bejaidi, Khaled N. AlKhitan
Open Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 12, pp 96-110; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojpm.2022.125007

Abstract:
Background: The Institutional Review Board (IRB) or Research Ethics Committees (RECs) is established to review the research proposals and ensure that participants’ ethical standards, scientific merit, and human rights are protected. Purpose: The authors report the experience of the REC at Qassim Region, Saudi Arabia over 10 years period. Methods: All proposals submitted to Qassim REC during the period 2008-2017 were studied using a 30 items data collection form based on The National Committee of Bioethics Regulations. Data extracted included; principal investigator characteristics, numbers of proposals reviewed, applications completeness, approval decision status, reported ethical issues, classification of the ethical review, and committee review duration. The structure, workload, and review process of Qassim REC were addressed redundant. Results: During 10 years, Qassim Research Ethics Committee (QREC) witnessed a progressive increase in the number of submitted proposals, from 9 to 149 proposals. Out of 508 submitted applications, 439 (86.4%) proposals were eligible for ethical review. Of these, 50 (11.4%) proposals were incomplete due to nonresponse of the principal investigators to the QREC comments. The final decision was made for 389 (88.6%) completed proposals. The approval rate was 85.4%, while the rejection rate was only 1.1%. The median time taken for ethical review was 13 days. Proposals that underwent full board review had a long review duration (Median: 19 days) in comparison to the expedited review (Median: 10 days). Incomplete Committee requirements, unclear research methodology, or possible ethical violation opportunities were the main reasons for delayed decisions. Conclusion: The workload of the Qassim ethics committee is high and growing progressively. However, the process indicators as per National Bioethics Committee rules were satisfactory. Rejection of proposals was rare as most of the reviewed proposals were descriptive studies with infrequent ethical matters.
Katon Harwood, Joe Frye
Open Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 12, pp 119-125; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojpm.2022.126009

Abstract:
Objective: This study looks to review different methods of lifestyle changing interventions, examine and compare them to determine usefulness, efficiency, and outcome in regard to future ventures to help control the rise of this type 2 diabetes. Methods: Three systematic reviews were found and compared based on efficacy and key differences in their approach to the ever-growing problem of type 2 diabetes. Outcomes and intervention styles of the studies were noted and critiqued based on their statistical significance. Conclusion: The first study revealed that multiple behavior change techniques (BCTs) correlate with a reduction in weight and HbA1c, especially when they work synergistically alongside one another. The second study spoke of how community intervention had an inclusive quality about it, which allowed for population variability to not affect implementation. It also showed that small incremental changes were best when trying to establish a change long-term across a large population. Finally, the third study revealed that, as the participant got closer to maintaining a good physical activity regiment, their self-efficacy also increased. The attributes of these studies give evidence that interventions that use multiple approaches are most effective when looking to improve physical activity and diet in Type 2 diabetics.
Jessica Ballin, Meike Niederhausen, Kerry S. Kuehl, Diane L. Elliot, Wendy McGinnis, Carol De Francesco
Open Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 11, pp 237-250; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojpm.2021.116019

Abstract:
Corrections professionals experience high levels of acute and chronic work-related stress. This stress leads to increased mental and physical illness, early disability and mortality, and increased healthcare costs. Reducing stress requires identifying and prioritizing factors that contribute to it. Corrections professionals (n = 296) working at six different Oregon Department of Corrections facilities completed a cross-sectional survey, including demographics, work history and validated stress and occupational constructs. The outcome of perceived stress was measured using the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-4 Short Form). Using a linear mixed effects regression model, we found that perceived stress increases with increased work-related stress (p = 0.02), work hours (p = 0.03), operational stressors (p = 0.002), and lack of procedural injustice (p = 0.03) and decreases with more time employed at current facility (p = 0.06), improved job satisfaction (p < 0.001), and among married or partnered individuals (p = 0.05). Identifying these predictors of stress can inform the development of policy changes to mitigate the stress of this challenged work force.
Mbathio Diop, Serigne Dame Dieng, Aida Kanouté, Bineta Faye, Mansoum Ndiaye, Cheikh Mouhamadou Mbacké Lô, Daouda Faye
Open Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 11, pp 80-89; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojpm.2021.113008

Abstract:
The prescription must include the name of the drugs or products prescribed, dosage form, dosage, directions for use and duration of treatment. However, sometimes errors can occur that can have consequences for the health of patients. Our study concerns the use of medical prescriptions received in pharmacies in the Dakar department. The survey was conducted in 90 pharmacies in these communes, which represent one third of the 270 pharmacies in the department of Dakar. This allowed us to study 2700 prescriptions. The study took place from 1 December 2016 to 30 June 2017, i.e. over a period of 7 months. Our results show that neurologists and urologists have a longer average treatment time than other specialists, with an average of 120 days and 90 days of treatment respectively. Then, the specialists who take a long time the drug represent more than 27%, and require renewal of the drug. In 63.90% of the cases, no notification on the duration of treatment was given by the prescriber. Only 5.39% were only given the mention “to be renewed”. At the end of our analysis, we can say that the prescription must be perfectly legible to avoid confusion by the patient or the pharmacist. The pharmacist then participates in the therapeutic education of the patient and thus helps him/her to live better with his/her disease. Therefore, socio-professional health associations and organisations must provide more continuous training on prescribing to ensure good compliance and above all avoid people buying medicines in the parallel circuit in order to better control health expenditure.
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