International Journal of Clinical Virology

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EISSN : 2692-4994
Total articles ≅ 26
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Mbula Mmk, Longo-Mbenza B, Situakibanza Hnt, Mananga Gl, Makulo Jrr, Longokolo Mm, Mandina Mn, Mayasi Nn, Bepouka B, Mvumbi Gl, et al.
International Journal of Clinical Virology, Volume 5, pp 087-095; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.ijcv.1001040

Abstract:
Background: The survival of people living with HIV (PLWHIVs) is increased and Health systems will have to deal with the early-aging-associated medical conditions. Objective: The objective of this study is to compare the clinical and biological profiles of PLWHIVs aged 50 and over and those aged less than 50 years. Material and methods: This study conducted at Kinshasa University Teaching Hospital (KUTH) covers 6 years. The clinical and biological characteristics of PLWHIVs aged 50 and over were compared with those under 50. Statistical analysis used the means ± SD, the calculation of frequencies, Student’s t-test and Chi-square. Results: PLWHIVs aged 50 or over represented 35.1%. Their average age was 58.0 ± 4.8 years. Women predominate among those under 50 and men among those 50 and over. Married people were more numerous (54% among those under 50). There were more unemployed (50% of PLHIV under 50). Patients 50 years and older were significantly classified as WHO stage 4 with a high frequency of history of tuberculosis, genital herpes, high blood pressure, smoking, vomiting, hepatomegaly, moderate elevation of diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and sytolic blood pressure (SBP), tuberculosis and anemia. Those under 50 had a significantly increased frequency of shingles, hepatitis B-hepatitis C, headaches and more survivals. The mean of Hb, HDL-C, and CD4s+ were significantly lower in patients 50 years and older, and urea, LDL-C, and ALAT levels were significantly higher. Conclusion: The average age was higher from 50 years old. These PLWHIVs were more frequently in WHO stage 4 with more common TB and anemia. Their Hb, HDL-C, and CD4s+ levels were lower while their urea, LDL-C and ALAT levels were significantly elevated.
Nadeem Haleema, Ayesha Mahnoor, Saeed Umar, Piracha Zahra Zahid, Tahir Rafia, Ul-Ain Noor-, Mehtab Farrah, Fatima Rida, Uppal Rizwan
International Journal of Clinical Virology, Volume 5, pp 072-081; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.ijcv.1001038

Abstract:
The SARS-Cov-2 virus was firstly identified in Wuhan, China and caused catastrophic destruction all over the world. COVID-19 virus primarily effects lungs of its hosts and impairs it in number of ways. It can also damage multiple organs like Heart, kidney, endocrine glands, skin, brain and several others. Kidneys are also damaged to a great extent. In Heart it can cause acute coronary syndrome, Heart failure, Myocardial infarction. SARS-CoV-2 effect brain especially psychologically. It also causes serious lymphocyte apoptosis. It also neutralizes human spleen and lymph nodes. SARS-CoC-2 can be harmful for those having already liver diseases. Similarly, SARS-CoV-2 has a direct impact on endocrine glands. It is responsible for the various injurious changes in hormones, causes various diseases like acute pancreatitis, decrease in GH, hypoparathyroidism etc. and lead to cause tissues damage in glands. It also some minor effects on nose, and respiratory pathways. It also has some minor effects on eyes and ears whereas it causes several devastations in GIT.
Ul-Ain Amjad Qurat-, Saeed Umar, Piracha Zahra Zahid, Kanwal Kashmala, Munir Madiha, Waseem Atika, Nisar Tayyaba, Shoukat Arisha, Uppal Rizwan
International Journal of Clinical Virology, Volume 5, pp 082-086; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.ijcv.1001039

Abstract:
COVID-19 is a disease that is caused by SARS-CoV-2 and very speedily spreading all over the world. The blood group’s effect on COVID-19 is not clear. The main aim of this article is to determine the relationship between sensitivity of COVID-19 and ABO blood group. For this study we have observed that the individuals with blood group A are at higher risk of getting COVID-19 because they contain the higher concentration of Angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 that provide the site to virus for entry. But in other blood groups the natural Anti A antibodies block the interaction between host receptor and virus and disturb their interaction. Certain studies show that the infectivity and mortality rate in covid patients is not affected by AB blood group system. But according to research, increased ventilator usage, ICU stay was observed in critically ill patients with AB blood group than of other blood groups. O blood group has proved to be protective against SARS-CoV-2 due to the presence of both anti-A and anti-B antibodies as they prevent the binding of the spike protein S of the virus with the ACE2 receptors which are present on the surface of cells. Moreover, furin also plays a major role in penetration of virus in the host cells. Furin is required for the activation of the spike protein S of the virus and due to the low efficiency of furin cleavage in blood group O it is protected from SARS-CoV-2 and other chronic diseases. Mortality rate of covid 19 depends upon the environmental factors, number of people living in the area and also some economic factors. The different strains of COVID-19 effect the different people differently and as the time passes the strain of COVID-19 has changed and thus according to this the mortality rate of different provinces and areas varies due to environmental factors. Pregnant women have no any kind of transportation of covid to their fetuses but mostly patients of blood group A are being affected by COVID-19 and hence their fetuses are somehow effected. And those pregnant women having blood group O does not have any risk of COVID-19 of severe stages.
Khan Abdul Ashik, Dutta Tanmoy, Mondal Palas, Mandal Manab, Chowdhury Swapan Kumar, Ahmed Minhajuddin, Baildya Nabajyoti, Mazumdar Sourav,
International Journal of Clinical Virology, Volume 5, pp 054-069; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.ijcv.1001036

Abstract:
The Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), has become a worldwide pandemic and the scientific communities are struggling to find out the ultimate treatment strategies against this lethal virus, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus–2 (SARS-CoV-2). Presently, there is no potential chemically proven antiviral therapy available in the market which can effectively combat the infection caused by this deadly virus. Few vaccines are already developed but it is not clear to the scientific community how much efficient they are to combat SARS-CoV-2. Mode of transmission and symptoms of the disease are two important factors in this regard. Rapid diagnosis of the COVID-19 is very much important to stop its spreading. In this scenario, a complete study starting from symptoms of the disease to vaccine development including various SARS-CoV-2 detection techniques is very much required. In this review article, we have made a partial analysis on the origin, virology, global health, detection techniques, replication pathways, doses, mode of actions of probable drugs, and vaccine development for SARS-CoV-2.
Raja Anupam, Pk Saifuddin, Shekhar Nishant, Singh Harvinder, Sarma Phulen, Prakash Ajay,
International Journal of Clinical Virology, Volume 5, pp 047-053; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.ijcv.1001035

Abstract:
More than 200 countries have been devastated by the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. The health workers exposed to SARS patients have been confirmed to be infected with coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), regardless of the degree of their exposure. The increasing complexity of virus existence and heterogeneity has cast doubt on disinfectants as a viable choice. Hence, the present systematic review aims to achieve the comparative analysis of established disinfectants against enveloped and non-enveloped viruses including SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV. Three databases (Pubmed, Google scholar, and Medline) were searched to frame the systematic review. Our comparative analyses with 34 studies have found that 85% ethanol-based hand sanitizers and 7.5% Povidine Iodine based soaps/surgical scrub could be used to deter the SARS-CoV-2 virus as preferred hand sanitizers. For surface eradication, 0.5% sodium hypochlorite or a mixture of glutaraldehyde, Quaternary Ammonium Compounds (QAC), and isopropanol could have more efficacies as compared to hydrogen peroxide, phenol, and QAC alone. Moreover, the accelerated hydrogen peroxide as an active ingredient in the automatic quick surface disinfectant (tunnel system), maybe a positive indication for quick whole-body sanitation. Additionally, the alternative method for avoiding the rapidly increasing chain of infection with SARS and restarting regular life has been exclusively discussed.
, Padhiary Seema Rani
International Journal of Clinical Virology, Volume 5, pp 041-046; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.ijcv.1001034

Abstract:
Rotavirus induced disease are a main source of dreadful, serious and drying out gastroenteritis in kids (less than five years old). Instead of the worldwide presentation of immunizations for rotavirus longer than 10 years back, rotavirus infections still result in more than 200,000 yearly passings, generally in developing countries. Rotavirus basically infects enterocytes and cause diarrheal through the demolition of absorptive enterocytes. Intestinal secretions are invigorated by rotavirus (non-auxiliary/structural protein) to enactment of the enteric sensory system. Rotavirus diseases can prompt viraemia and antigenaemia (term related with more serious indications of intense gastroenteritis). Rotavirus reinfections are regular throughout the life, even though the sickness seriousness is diminished with rehash contaminations. The resistant relates of assurance against rotavirus reinfection and recuperation from disease is inadequately perceived. This study takes a step forward to the administration of rotavirus disease centers, primarily on control and cure of dehydration, even though the utilization of antiviral and hostile to purgative medications can be demonstrated at some cases.
Mishra Kp, Mishra Priyanka, Singh Ak, Singh Sb
International Journal of Clinical Virology, Volume 5, pp 032-036; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.ijcv.1001032

Abstract:
Corona Virus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) has become one of the most serious diseases in the history of mankind. It has captured the entire world and solutions are yet to be discovered to fight this global crisis. The outcomes of COVID-19 are influenced by a variety of pre-existing factors. The secondary microbial infections are one of the prominent ones that are major contributors for Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR) as they warrant the use of antimicrobial medications. The present review aimed at exploring the potential relationship between AMR under such circumstances and COVID-19 related outcomes. The published literature across the globe has delineated that the impact of COVID-19 may have worsened by a great degree due to the presence of secondary infections majorly bacterial ones. The consequences of COVID-19 have been fatal and a significant proportion can be a major attributor to AMR, either directly or indirectly. Although, there is a dearth of studies that can establish a very strong and direct relationship between AMR and negative COVID-19 outcomes so in-depth research on this topic is required to further explain this relationship in detail.
M Luisetto, Almukthar Naseer, Hamid Gamal Abdul, G Tarro, Edbey Khaled, Ba Nili, Mashori Ghulam Rasool, Rafa Ahmed Yesvi, Yu Latyshev O
International Journal of Clinical Virology, Volume 5, pp 022-031; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.ijcv.1001031

Abstract:
Before actual COVID-19 pandemia coronavirus was not so dangerous like now. In December 2019 - January 2020 in Wuhan first and then in other places this coronavirus was responsible of a first wave of severe pulmonitis responsible of many deaths. Wuhan and other region involved first was high level air polluted and industrial area. New COVID-19 variant in last part of 2020 and in first month of 2021 was responsible of great diffusion of this pandemic disease. UK, South Africa and brasilian new variant show higher diffusion then the first wave of COVID-19. Aim of this work is to analyze relationship with air pollution and the possibility that mutagen substantia inside of this microenvironment can produce new variant trough an genetic pressure process. RNA viruses are normally subjected by natural mutation but some phenomena can contribute to accelerate this process and their airborne – aeresols microenvironment is relevant. Some air pollutants are recognized as mutagen factors by literature.
International Journal of Clinical Virology, Volume 5, pp 011-021; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.ijcv.1001030

Abstract:
Introduction - the perennial pandemic: It is being increasingly realised that the COVID-19 may have become the new reality associated with human existence world over and the mankind may have to live with it for years or even decades. Further, the grievous nature of the disease is evolving further with the genomic changes in the virus in form of mutations and evolution of variants, with enhanced infectivity and probably virulence. There are serious challenges posed by the SARS-CoV-2 virus and COVID-19 as the disease. COVID-19 as acute and chronic disease: On exposure to the SARS-CoV-2 virus, not all patients develop a disease. Further, for those who develop the disease, there is a large variation in disease severity. The known factors including the constituent factors and several still unknown factors influence the disease manifestations, its course, and later the convalescent phase as well. In fact, substantial continuing morbidity after resolution of the infection indicates persisting multisystem effects of COVID-19. The ‘long COVID-19’ or ‘long haulers’: The patients who continue to suffer with persisting symptoms have been described as long haulers and the clinical condition has been called post-COVID-19 or ‘long COVID-19’. The diagnosis should be entertained if various symptoms and signs linger well beyond the period of convalescence in COVID-19. With the chronicity, there occur inflammatory changes and damage in various organs, and the extent of organ damage determines the long-term effects. Management of ‘long COVID’ syndrome: The ‘long COVID’ syndrome has multi-system involvement, variable presentation, and unpredictable course. Following clinical and investigational assessment, the patients should be managed as per clinical manifestations, extent of organ damage and associated complications. The findings from various studies indicate that preventing further organ damage in ‘long COVID’ is crucial. The long COVID’s prognostic challenges: As apparent, the ‘long COVID’ afflictions are more common than realized earlier. The symptoms can escalate in patients with co-morbid conditions. The persistent symptoms among COVID-19 survivors pose new challenges to the healthcare providers and may be suitably managed with a combination of pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments, and holistic healthcare.
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