Highlights in BioScience
EISSN : 2682-4043
Published by: International Library of Science (10.36462)
Total articles ≅ 49
Latest articles in this journal
Highlights in BioScience; https://doi.org/10.36462/h.biosci.202204
The recent pandemic that has hit the world has affected humanity in all aspects of life. Since the outbreak of this worldwide epidemic, a huge amount of data has been generated. In this article, we have provided a new simplified insight into the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) using the Pareto principle to highlight the main contributors to morbidity and mortality. A time series database of confirmed cumulative cases and deaths for all countries was processed from the Humanitarian Data Exchange website provided by the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs. More than 85% of the incidents recorded worldwide were from the AMRO, EURO, and SEARO WHO regions, and the United States, Russia, and India were found to account for the largest proportion of cases and deaths in these affected areas. The application of Pareto analysis is useful in finding focus groups for further study and modeling
Highlights in BioScience; https://doi.org/10.36462/h.biosci.202201
In this review, it is discussed the prominent effect generated from aquaculture wastewater considered as the major water polluting crisis in the entire world. The cause rose due to intense development and improvement in aquaculture by the aquatic habitat species triggering quite a challenge in the environment. Scrutinizing this problem, researchers have found a way to tackle it by cultivating algal species in aquaculture wastewater in order to remove its high content of organic and inorganic pollutants. The theory proves wastewater serves as a nutrient source for algal growth and development such as phosphorous, nitrogen, and other trace elements. Besides harvesting the algal biomass from aquaculture wastewater, the extraction of lipid is also processed for biofuel production. Hence, the discussion includes conversion of wastewater into organic and inorganic pollutant-free water with low cost-effective method via algal cultivation in wastewater and high lipid yield for biofuel with a carbon-free and sustainable environment.
Highlights in BioScience; https://doi.org/10.36462/h.biosci.202111
Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are common liver diseases that lead to death in Egypt, especially in men. The current study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic sensitivity of arginase (ARG) activity, alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT), and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) in the sera of patients with HCV (with & without viremia) and HCC. A total of 190 men classified as 40 healthy used as control (G1), 100 infected with HCV (subdivided into 50 with viremia (G2) and 50 without viremia (G3), and 50 with HCC (G4). The activity of ARG significantly decreased in HCV and HCC groups along with significant elevation in the level of AAT and AFP as compared with the control. Although a non-significant variation was scored in AST/ALT, significant differences were observed among AST/ARG and ARG/ALT in the pathogenic groups as compared with the healthy group. Moreover, significant variations in ARG, AAT, AFP, AST/ARG, and ARG/ALT were observed between viremia and non-viremia. Although AFP scored significant change among the viremia and HCC, the rest parameters scored non-significant changes between both groups. Furthermore, a receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) showed the diagnostic ability for the selected parameters with high sensitivity and multiple linear regressions exhibited good associations between those parameters. These findings suggest the using possibility of ARG, AAT, and AFP in the diagnosis and/or follow-up of patients with HCV or HCC.
Highlights in BioScience; https://doi.org/10.36462/h.biosci.202110
The purpose of this study was to provide more light on the effect of Qatada (Acacia hamulosa) honey from Saudi Arabia as a dressing on pilonidal sinus wound healing, antibacterial activity, and cytokine levels. The results revealed that the pH of 3.56 of tested honey, where glucose was 378 mmol/l also the specific gravity was 1.435, while contents of total phenolic and flavonoid and DPPH activity (32.15 mg GAE/100 g honey), (54.27 mg RE/100 g honey) and (127.83 mg/ml) respectively. The mean duration of pilonidal sinus wounds to be ready for surgical closure was 43.5 days in the control (standard dressing) group where the honey dressing group was 28.5 days. Less pain, edema, and foul-smelling discharge were expressed in the honey group if compared with the standard dressing group. The total bacterial count was 9 × 109 at the begging of the experiment then it reduced after the application of standard dressing traditional therapy to (9 ×105) and honey treatment group (9 ×102) after 21 days post-treatment. Significant reduction (p<0.05) was observed in serum TNFα(-52), IL6 - 46), and IL-17 (-60) relatively to pre-treatment values. Based on our findings, we may conclude that Qatada honey bioactivities aided wound healing by increasing tissue growth while decreasing overall bacterial count and inflammation.
Highlights in BioScience; https://doi.org/10.36462/h.biosci.202109
The scope of this study was to investigate the presence of pathogenic bacteria in milk from female camels with mastitis and to select antibiotics for treatment with antibiotic susceptibility testing. A total of 40 milk samples taken from 20 dromedarian females, after application of CMT test and determination of SCC values, the camels were diagnosed with subclinical mastitis. Milk samples were inoculated into blood agar for identiﬁcation of bacterial agents leading to mastitis. A total of 4 (12.5%) Staphylococcus aureus, 4 (12.5%) S. auricularis, 2 (6.25%) S. pettenkoperi, 2 (6.25%) S. cohnii spp. cohnii, 2 (6.25%) S. equorum, 2 (6.25%) S. capitis, 2 (6.25%) Streptococcus agalactiae, 2 (6.25%) S. dysgalactiae, 4 (12.5%) Escherichia coli, 2 (%) 6.25) Pseudomonas pseudalcaligenes, 2 (6.25%) Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, 2 (6.25%) Aerococcus viridans and 2 (6.25%) Gemella morbillorum were identiﬁed. Gram-positive bacteria were sensitive to Levoﬂoxacin, Linezolid and Tetracycline and Daptomycin, resistant to Beta lactam-group antibiotics and macrolides. Vancomycin resistance was determined in S. aureus and S. cohnii spp. cohnii strains. Gram-negative strains are found generally susceptible to Cefepime and Pipersilin; resistant to Trimethoprim-sulfomethoxazole and Amoxicillin-Clavulanic acid. As a result, it is recommended to use antibiotic use to prevent the development of antimicrobial resistance as well as mastitis control methods such as the prevention of infection and monitoring the health status of the mammary of camels.
Highlights in BioScience; https://doi.org/10.36462/h.biosci.202108
Melanoma is one of the most dangerous skin cancers in the world. It accounts for 55% of all deaths associated with skin cancer. Researchers believe that skin cancer increases the risk of other cancers if not diagnosed early. Therefore, prompt and timely diagnosis of this disease is very important for the successful treatment of the patient. This system can detect melanoma lethal carcinoma from other skin lesions without the need for surgery, with a low cost, accuracy of about 98.88% and specificity 99%. In this article, a new, intelligent and accurate software (Delphi) system has been used to diagnose melanoma skin cancer. To detect malignant melanoma, the ABCDT rule, asymmetry (A), boundary (B), color (C), diameter (D) and textural variation (T) of the lesion are calculated and finally, an artificial neural network (ANN) is used to obtain an accurate result. The ANN with Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP) contains the five extraction Characteristics (ABCDT) of lesions is used as inputs, two hidden layers, and two outputs. Very good results were obtained using this method. It was observed that for a dataset of 180 dermoscopic lesion images including 80 malignant melanomas, 20 benign melanomas and 80 nevus lesions. Due to its automatic recognition and ability to be installed on a computer, this system can be very useful for dermatologists as well as the general public.
Highlights in BioScience, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.36462/h.biosci.20226
A study was conducted on research farm of National Maize Research Program (NMRP), Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal during winter season of 2015/16 laid out in split-split plot design with three replications consisting of two FYM levels (FYM at 10 t ha-1 and no FYM application), three nitrogen levels (100, 75 and 50% N of recommended dose P and K remaining constant) and two levels of seed inoculation (Azotobacter chrococcum seed inoculation and no inoculation) with Rampur-2 maize hybrid in Nepal. One of the major factor affecting maize production is weather and this paper is prepared to assess the suitability of weather condition at different growth stages of winter season hybrid maize in condition of western Chitwan, Nepal at NMRP. The result shows that the requirement of the maize crop during different growth stages i.e. temperature, rainfall, relative humidity were fulfilled which helped to obtain remarkably higher grain yield (4.26 t ha-1) in the experiment compared to average national grain yield (2.84 t ha-1) of maize
Highlights in BioScience, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.36462/h.biosci.202107
Currently mosquitoes control is the cornerstone to minimize the rising number of mosquito borne diseases. There is an urgent need looking for alternatives to the current reliance on synthetic insecticides for the vectors control. Application of active toxic agents from plant extracts as an alternative control strategy was available from ancient times. These are non-toxic, easily available at affordable prices, biodegradable and show broad-spectrum target-specific activities against different species of vectors. Natural products with repellency properties are urgently needed. An insect repellent works by masking human scent, and a number of natural and synthetic mosquito repellents were studied. The main aim of this study was to identify the phytochemicals and compare their potentials as mosquito repellents from the ethanol (Et. OH) and hexane (hex) leaf extracts (LEs) of Ocimum basilicum, Coleus forskohlii, Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Cymbopogon flexuosus under laboratory conditions at 50 and 100% concentrations. Phytochemical analysis showed that alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids, terpenes, tannins and terpenoids were present/or absent in the 4 plant-LEs. At 50% concentration of Et. OH extracts, C. forskohlii exhibited higher repellency potential on Anopheles gambiae with protection time of 137.3 min, while O. basilicum, E. camaldulensis and Cy. flexuosus registered protection time of 30.6, 15.3 and 19 min, respectively. At 100% concentration of ethanol- extracts, C. forskohlii caused the highest protection time against the vector with protection time of 182 min. O. basilicum, E. camaldulensis and Cy. flexuosus were equally less potent against the insect, with protection time 42.6, 32.6 and 28 min, respectively. Regarding hex-extract, at 50% concentration of C. forskohlii, the highest repellency potential , with protection time of 174 was registered, while O. basilicum, E. camaldulensis and Cy. flexuosus registered protection times of 44, 18 and 28.6 min, respectively. However, the 100% concentration of Et. OH-extracts of, C. forskohlii and O. basilicum exhibited the highest protection time, with protection times of 228 and 116min, respectively. E. camaldulensis and Cy. flexuosus were less potent, with protection times 28.6 and 54.6 min, respectively. The EOs of C. forskohlii and O. basilicum L EOs proved to have potentials as repellency agents against Anopheles. GC-MS analysis of the extracts identified the compounds of both solvents extracts and the terpens were the major compounds. According to the results, further studies are required, especially on the extracts of basil and coleus since they proved to be effective.
Highlights in BioScience; https://doi.org/10.36462/h.biosci.202105
Coronavirus, the current pandemic that takes lives of 1,936,632 until the time of the paper. Scientists over the world exhibited all efforts to fight the virus. Many supplements developed to fight coronavirus by supporting the immune system which is the strongest worrier against it for now. One of the neglected strategies to enhance immunity is music therapy. Music therapy can drive immunity into different conditions. Not only able to boost and suppress immunity but also many physiological and psychological diseases are treated with music therapy. It is more than just entertainment, and research shows that music therapy may be helpful and cost-effective to support standard therapy. This systemic review tries to explore the effect of music therapy and arrives at a conclusion suggesting routine procedures to support the patient with music therapy. However, the idea of using music therapy in improving the immune system must undergo clinical and medical confirmation to be used
Highlights in BioScience; https://doi.org/10.36462/h.biosci.202106
Jatropha curcas is a highly promising species for biodiesel production in Burkina Faso and other countries in the tropics. It is rustic, grows in warm regions and is easily cultivated. These characteristics and high-quality oil yields from the seeds have made it a priority for biodiesel programs. Consequently, this plant merits genetic investigations aimed at improving yields. The present study was conducted to determine the extent of genetic variability and relationships among 30 accessions from Burkina Faso using 7 qualitative characters and 20 quantitative characters. For most of the traits, there were highly significant differences among the accessions. A positive and significant correlation between the 100-seed weight trait and the oil content trait was observed. The oil content trait is significantly and positively influenced by growth traits such as plant height and crown diameter. Based on the petiole base pigmentation, three morphotypes were identified: green morphotype, purple morphotype and brown morphotype. The green morphotype was characterized by very high oil content and high 100-seed weight while the brown morphotype presents low oil content and low 100-seed weight. The purple morphotype registered a high oil content and medium 100-seed weight. These results are important for the continuity of breeding programs, aimed at obtaining cultivars with high grain yield and high oil content in seeds.