European Journal of Biology and Biotechnology

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EISSN : 2684-5199
Total articles ≅ 71
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Faith Uchenna Babalola, Oluwatobi Emmanuel Fajoye
European Journal of Biology and Biotechnology, Volume 2, pp 45-50; doi:10.24018/ejbio.2021.2.2.163

Abstract:
Soybean is gaining wider acceptability as a cheap source of protein for human consumption and is therefore fast becoming a strong competitor with conventional (cow) milk. The challenge of undetermined standard cooking temperature and time was addressed using a statistical design software for Design of Experiment, analysis of results, derivation of mathematical models and optimization analysis. The optimization model maximized protein, carbohydrate, fat, and fibre while minimizing moisture and ash at the optimum cooking temperature of 118 oC and cooking time period of 30 minutes. The model was used to determine the optimum nutritional contents for six nutrients namely moisture (88.490%), ash (0.582%), fat (0.928%), fibre (1.459%), protein (3.698%), and carbohydrate (4.843%). The model was further tested by carrying out the experiment at the determined optimum cooking conditions. The result gave a very close match for most of the nutrients.
Hugo V. C. Oliveira, Spartaco Astolfi-Filho, Edmar V. Andrade
European Journal of Biology and Biotechnology, Volume 2, pp 19-25; doi:10.24018/ejbio.2021.2.2.158

Abstract:
Antisense oligonucleotides exhibit high potential for use as therapeutic agents. '10-23' DNAzymes are antisense molecules with a high chemical stability and catalytic efficiency. In the present study, we developed a phagemid containing a DNAzyme expression system regulated by two promoters. One of these promoters, pA1, promotes constitutive expression of Moloney murine leukemia virus reverse transcriptase (MoMuLV-RT). The other promoter, plac, regulates transcription of the RNA substrate from which MoMuLV-RT produces the DNAzyme by reverse transcription. The ftsZ DNAzyme was used to validate this expression system in the phagemid, named pDESCP. ftsZ DNAzyme expression altered the morphological pattern of Escherichia coli from a bacillary to filamentous form. In E. coli FtsZ is the primary component of the cell division apparatus, forming a structure known as Z-ring, which is the place of division. It is suggested that the DNAzyme ftsZ is decreasing the translation of this protein. Delivery of pDESCP into F+ strain of E. coli cells, using VCSM13, and the possible insertion of other DNAzymes into the cassette makes this phagemid an important prototype for phage therapy.
G. S. Haruna, M. O. Enemali, O. B. Asogwa, M. H. Sani, B. A. James
European Journal of Biology and Biotechnology, Volume 2, pp 39-44; doi:10.24018/ejbio.2021.2.2.160

Abstract:
The present study evaluated the dynamics of kidney function indices and lipid profile of albino rats after administration of palm-wine to them. The fresh palm-wine was collected from a local palm-wine tapper on daily basis and divided in to two portions. The first portion was labelled “Fresh palm-wine” and administered (15 ml/kg) to group 2 and (30 ml/kg) to group 4, the second portion was allowed to ferment for additional ten hours and labelled “prolonged-fermented palm-wine” and administered (15 ml/kg) to group 3 and (30 ml/kg) to group 5. Group one served as the control and received distilled water, all for 28 days. Each group was randomly allocated four rats. Results (mmol/ml) revealed a significantly(p
S. B. Uneze, P. F. Chollom, Y. A. Agabi, D. J. Mawak, O. J. Egbere, M. M. Dashen, J. O. Okojokwu, J. K. Richard, P. M. Lar
European Journal of Biology and Biotechnology, Volume 2, pp 1-5; doi:10.24018/ejbio.2021.2.2.153

Abstract:
The conventional methods of identification of Salmonella involving microbiological enrichment and successive identification mostly are tedious, time consuming and not specific. Therefore, the aim of this study was to utilize molecular techniques to characterize Salmonella species isolates from some Hospitals in Jos, Nigeria. The 10 isolates collected from some Hospitals in Jos, Nigeria were screened for Salmonella using conventional biochemical methods. The positive isolates were identified using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for discernment of invasion A (invA) gene at explicit molecular size (284 bp) utilizing explicit primers (forward and reverse). Sequencing of the invA gene was performed and the similarities and differences between our invA gene and published sequences on GenBank were assessed. Seven out of ten confirmed Salmonella species isolates were positive to the invA gene while the remaining three were negative. The homology level of nucleotide sequence (97.746%) demonstrated high similitude between the local isolates and the other sequences on GenBank. Molecular characterization of the Salmonella isolates provides data about the virulence of the pathogen just as its relatedness to different organisms which offer data about the genome of the organisms and are helpful for epidemiological examinations. Therefore, Molecular methods which enable the detection of virulent genes are extremely important surveillance tools that are required to assist in curbing the escalation of infections caused by Salmonella.
A. L. Siyal, A. G. Chang, N. Shaikh, J. K. Sootaher, T. Jatt, F. K. Siyal, M. S. Chang
European Journal of Biology and Biotechnology, Volume 2, pp 87-91; doi:10.24018/ejbio.2021.2.2.177

Abstract:
Climate change is a major threat to most of crops grown globally in sub-tropics and tropics. One of the consequences of climate change is drought, which has a negative effect on crop growth and productivity. However, present research drought affected breed wheat was tested to examine the quality of wheat selection for different stage using morphological and phenological traits. Ten genotypes along with two local check varieties were tested in randomize complete block design were used for this experiment. The experiment was conducted in the field of Southern Wheat Research Station, Agriculture Research Institute, Tandojam, in winter season to determine the different levels of tillers per plant, growth vigor, early growth habit, plant type, Leaf type, content of proline in (μ mol. g-1 fresh wt), osmotic potential in (-Mpa) and relative water content in (%) analyzed for significance. The genotypes showed positive significantly differ in response to studied traits. Ten genotypes were sown in three replications, in two blocks. The genotypes were significantly different in response to the moisture stress. There were highly significant differences for all traits. The positive association for studied the parameters between the field trials demonstrated that greater seedling vigor of root and shoot is key factor influencing in wheat. Therefore, our finding suggested that these genotypes had potential to grow well and perform better than other genotypes and check varieties.
T. S. Atsuwe, E. U. Amuta, G. N. Imandeh, E. T. Azua
European Journal of Biology and Biotechnology, Volume 2, pp 114-118; doi:10.24018/ejbio.2021.2.2.181

Abstract:
A study on the occurrence of mixed infection of tick-borne haemoparasite of cattle in selected abattoirs in Makurdi Metropolis, Benue State, Nigeria was carried out. Blood sample were collected randomly from a total of 216 cattle slaughtered at abattoir in both dry and wet season at Wurukum abattoir, Wadata abattoir, Modern Market Abattoir, Cattle Market Abattoir North Bank, Cattle Market North Bank and University of Agriculture cattle farm, Makurdi and analyzed using Microscopic method by thin blood film. Horn method was used to determine the age of the examined cattle and the collected data was analyzed using T-test, p values at ≤ was considered statistically significant. The result showed that the rate of infection was seen to increase progressively in cattle of age 6–7 through age 10–11 with the highest prevalence recorded in age 10–11 in dry season and the lowest percentage of infection recorded in age 2–3 and cattle of age 0–1 showed the highest (27(75.00 %)) rate of infection while age 6–7 showed the lowest rate of infection in wet season. But the difference was not statistically significant (p ˂ 0.05). Male cattle recorded a non statistically significant (p ˂ 0.05) higher (53.13 %) occurrence of infection while female recorded a lower occurrence of 50.0 %. The result of mixed infection revealed the occurrence of Bebesia, Anaplasmamaginal, Anaplasma central and Theileria. 100 % of mixed infection of Bebesia&Anaplasmamaginal and Anaplasma central and Anaplasmamaginaloccurred in West African Dwarf cattle and Sokoto gudali respectively. There was no occurrence of mixed infection of Theileria and Anaplasma central across all the examined species of cattle. White Fulani recorded mixed infection of Anaplasma central&Anaplasmamaginal, Bebesia&Anaplasma central and Bebesia&Anaplasmamaginal of 4(30.8 %), 4(30.8 %) and 5(38.5 %) percent respectively.Muturu species did not record any occurrence of mixed infection of tick borne haemoparasite.The result of the study shows that mixed infection of tick-borne haemoparasite infection are very high and common among cattle hence, preferences should be given to inspection of older male cattle and optimal management of all ruminant animals against ticks and tick-borne related infection.
E. U. Eric, V. E. Boloya, A. E. Osuamkpe
European Journal of Biology and Biotechnology, Volume 2, pp 51-59; doi:10.24018/ejbio.2021.2.2.176

Abstract:
Objectives: To investigate the ameliorative effect of garlic extract on Aluminum Phosphide induced toxicity on the liver and kidney of adult Wistar rats. Materials: Thirty six (36) male adult Wistar rats weighing 180±20 – 250±30 g were purchased from Dantom Farms, Swali, Bayelsa State and moved to the animal house of the department of Medical Laboratory Science, Niger Delta University. The animals were assigned into six (6) major groups with six (6) animals in each group after the period of acclimatization: Animals in Group A (Control): received pelleted growers mash (feed) and water. Group B (Positive Control received 0.014 mg of Aluminum Phosphide only. Group C: received 0.014 mg of Aluminum Phosphide and 250 g of garlic extract. Group D: received 0.014 mg of Aluminum Phosphide and 500 mg of garlic extract. Group E: received 500 mg of garlic extract, Group F: received 0.6 ml of oil at the end of the treatment, the liver and the kidney of each sacrificed rat were processed for paraffin sectioning and stained with Harris hematoxylin and eosin. Result: Photomicrograph of the liver of animals in Groups B, C and D show central venous congestion, degeneration, hemorrhage, sinusoidal dilation, bile stasis, centrilobular necrosis, Kupffer cell hyperplasia, inflammatory cells and fat infiltration which are features of hepatic injury also photomicrograph of the kidney of animals in Groups B, C and D shows membranous defect, contracted glomeruli with marked presence of mesangial cells, areas of tubular necrosis with mesangial cells proliferation. while the other groups (Group A, E, F) did not show any histological change in comparison with control. Conclusion: The present study proves that the oral ingestion of Aluminum Phosphide induces hepatotoxicity and inflammation of the liver and kidney. It also shows that the use of garlic at various concentrations (250 mg/l and 500 mg/l) aggravates the tissue damage even more, and also garlic extract does not have ameliorative effect on aluminum phosphide toxicity on the liver and kidney of albino wistar rats.
O. M. Adeoti, A. T. Usman
European Journal of Biology and Biotechnology, Volume 2, pp 26-38; doi:10.24018/ejbio.2021.2.2.159

Abstract:
Plant growth promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) are important in the agricultural sector. Although different microorganism live in the soil but thrive in PGPR rhizosphere zones, improve the production and protection to them from diseases by production of metabolites, volatile compounds and phytohormones and Induced Systemic Resistance (ISR). This study was aimed at isolating and characterize molecularly the bacteria from the rhizosphere of pepper (Capsicum annuum), vegetable (Spinacia oleracea), rice (Oryza sativa) grown in Saki. The rhizosphere sample of pepper, rice and vegetable were collected between the hours of 1:40-2:00pm. The colonial characteristics, Gram staining techniques, biochemical test were carried out. The isolates were tested against eight antibiotics (Ceftriaxone, Gentamicin, Ceftazidime, Ofloxacin, Augmentin, Cefuroxime, Erythromycin, and Cloxacillin) by using disc diffusion method. PCR techniques and subsequent use of sanger method was used for sequencing. DNA extract was obtained using the lysozyme-SDS-phenol chloroform method in the prepared kits by Jena Bioscience. Amplification of the 16S rRNA gene was performed with the use of T1-Thermocycler PCR machine with 1492R primers pA (5′-TAC GGYBTAC CTT GTT ACG ACT T3′) and 27F primers pH (5′-AGAGTTTGATCMTGGCTCAG3'). This Primer was used for PCR amplification of 16S rRNA gene. All bacterial isolates were catalase (+) and indole (-). Antibiotics screening showed that all isolates resist most of the antibiotics except Ofloxacin and ciprofloxacin while sample 1, 2, 5 and 6was susceptible to Gentamicin. Six bacterial isolates obtained were characterized on molecular basis of 16S rRNA sequencing. The identified isolates were: Bacillus thuringensis B. weidmanii, B. cereus.
Michel Leclerc, Loïc Baerlocher
European Journal of Biology and Biotechnology, Volume 2, pp 60-62; doi:10.24018/ejbio.2021.2.2.170

Abstract:
MHC genes have been discovered in Echinodermata (Invertebrates containing 5 classes).2 classes (Ophuirids, Crinoïds) out of 5 possess HLA E, HLA B (Class I), HLADRB1, HLADQB1 (Class II). By the use of Mapping we identified 2 other MHC genes (Class II) in another Echinodermata: the sea star Asterias rubens (Asterids).
Michel Leclerc
European Journal of Biology and Biotechnology, Volume 2, pp 85-86; doi:10.24018/ejbio.2021.2.2.175

Abstract:
In 2014 we have isolated and cloned the sea star Igkappa gene which induced an anti-HRP primitive invertebrate antibody. We attempt, in the present work, for the first time in Invertebrates, to produce a SIP Young 6 His protein through HeK 293 EBNA cells.
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