European Journal of Biology and Biotechnology

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EISSN : 2684-5199
Published by: Europa Publishing (10.24018)
Total articles ≅ 112
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Prawesty Diah Utami, Varidianto Yudho
European Journal of Biology and Biotechnology, Volume 2, pp 19-23; https://doi.org/10.24018/ejbio.2021.2.5.260

Abstract:
S.hermanni is a marine biota that contains active components that are anti-fungal, anti-bacterial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer. The research focused on examining the antiplasmodial activity of an ethanol extract of S. hermanni on the proliferation of P. falciparum in vitro. The total sample size was 30 mediums, which included: (G1). No extract or chloroquine administration in the P.falciparum medium (G2). Chloroquine treatment administration on P. falciparum medium (G3). P. falciparum medium with S. hermanni extract. Parasitaemia, growth percentage, inhibitory rate, and IC50 were among the parameters evaluated. Administration of extract serial doses succeeds in reducing the percentage of parasite growth and parasitemia levels. G3 demonstrated an inhibitory rate of 88.51 % with a dose of 100 µg/ml and an IC50 of 2.86 µg/ml, indicating high antimalarial activity, although chloroquine had greater antimalarial activity than S. hermanni extract. In vitro studies on S hermanni, ethanol extract indicated that it contains bioactive components and can be an effective antiplasmodial agent.
A. B. Kouakou, G. G. Doué, , A. E. S. Djoman
European Journal of Biology and Biotechnology, Volume 2, pp 53-59; https://doi.org/10.24018/ejbio.2021.2.5.252

Abstract:
Shea nuts shells and press cake are shea butter processing byproducts. Their content in phenolic bioactive compounds and their antioxidant capacity were studied. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents ranged between 16.962-21.395 mg GAE/100g DM and 0.243-1.83 mg QE/100g DM, for press-cake and shells, respectively. Antioxidant capacity values assessed by EC50 using DPPH, ABTS and FRAP methods were in the range of 0.398-0.235 mg/mL, 0.623-0.465 mg/mL and 0.137-0.154 mg/mL for shea press-cake and shells, respectively. Shea shells recorded the highest total phenolic and flavonoid compounds positively correlated with DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging. Catechins, arbutin and gallic acid were the most abundant phenolic compound identified by GC-MS chromatography with 10.4; 2.1 and 0.8 g/100 g in shea shells and 2.2; 2.6 and 2.6 g/100 g in press-cake. Based on this phenolic composition shea nuts shells and press cake could be of great importance in cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries, and also contribute to preventing metabolic and cardiovascular diseases.
J. R. Latournerié-Cervera, A. R. Estrada-Ortega, A. K. Escobar-Álvarez, A. J. Quino-Trejo, R. G. Barrera-Pastrana, Y. Nacif-Osorio
European Journal of Biology and Biotechnology, Volume 2, pp 60-65; https://doi.org/10.24018/ejbio.2021.2.5.249

Abstract:
The protected natural area (ANP), Ejidos de Xochimilco and San Gregorio Atlapulco (SGA), is a priority area of ecological conservation in Mexico City (CDMX), that still have remnants of the ancient lake system of the Valley of Mexico watershed that have been modified for decades due to the impact of human activities and that threaten their continuity, despite been declared as a RAMSAR site and historical and cultural heritage of CDMX. Given the above, the present study aimed to compare the spatial-temporal variability of physical-chemical factors and phytoplankton as indicators of anthropogenic impact to diagnose the current state of this locality and propose possible alternatives for sustainable management in the study area. The research design considered comparing the area of channels and lagoons of the SGA wetland in two contrasting climatic seasons: dry and rainy. Eleven sampling stations were delimited: three in the channels area and eight in the lagoons, during the months of March and July. Nine physical-chemical variables were measured: temperature, pH, total solids, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, as well as the concentrations of ammonium, nitrites, nitrates, and soluble phosphorus in surface and bottom samples from each sampling station. The statistical design took into account a factorial design of fixed effects (epochs - locations and strata), with Tukey's "post hoc" test to delimit subsets and various multivariate analysis techniques. Phytoplankton samples were taken in both localities, which were identified down to the genus level, evaluating the relative frequency of the various taxa, as well as their association through the saprobity and diversity indexes. The water quality variables indicated that both the area of channels and the lagoons of the wetland are sites with hypereutrophic characteristics, but the wetland due to its semi-isolation is an area that presents on average levels of nitrates 2.4 times lower than in the channel zone, nitrite concentrations are almost imperceptible, and ammonia is within tolerable limits for the existing biota. It also presents space-time homogeneity in its physical-chemical dynamics, in contrast to the area of channels. The composition of species indicating saprobity also differed between both sites, denoting a lesser impact on the wetland area, so it is suggested to use this site for reintroduction activities of species removed from the channel area and preserve the remaining biota in the lake system.
Jannatul Ferdousi, Mohammad Zakaria, Azizul Hoque, Satya Ranjan Saha, Nasrin Akter Ivy, Iqbal Hossain
European Journal of Biology and Biotechnology, Volume 2, pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.24018/ejbio.2021.2.5.254

Abstract:
Sweet pepper is one of the most important nutritious vegetable and its demand is increasing day by day in Bangladesh indicating need to characterize and assess morphological variability for varietal improvement programme. Twenty-one sweet pepper genotypes from native and alien sources were characterized for twenty-six morphological traits using vegetative and reproductive appearances at Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University, Gazipur, Bangladesh from October 2018 to March 2019. Marked variation was exhibited among twenty-six qualitative traits (26) studied. Twenty-two (22) characters showed undeniable variation among the genotypes. The presence of higher percentage (61.90%) of light purple color at node were observed indicated high amount of anthocyanin content. Leaf shape is used as genotypes identifier at vegetative stage and herein three types of leaves were found with dark green color (76.19%) that is highly correlates with yield. In case of flower, same level of stigma exertion (61.90%) with 100% white color corolla indicates higher number of fruit sett were exhibited. Entire genotypes exerted one or more exclusive characters especially fruit shape and color in Bangladesh perspective which could be used as an important breeding tools. Fruit color was observed in various categories at intermediate and mature stage as for instance yellow, green, purple, orange, red etc. in addition higher percentage of blocky fruit shape (38.09%) were observed and these are the consumer fascinating attributes of sweet pepper. However, selection of genotypes with desirable morphological trait can be used for their exploitation of future breeding programme.
Karim Omar, Ibrahim Elgamal
European Journal of Biology and Biotechnology, Volume 2, pp 34-47; https://doi.org/10.24018/ejbio.2021.2.5.261

Abstract:
The process of developing a conservation programme for endemic plant species, in particular those with a small geographical size in mountain ecosystems, whether in situ of ex situ, is a very complex matter, especially if data on the state of the environment and conservation are unavailable. Silene leucophylla and Silene oreosinaica are perennial plants endemic to St. Catherine Protected Area (SCPA), which locate at South Sinai, Egypt. For long time, the second species has not been observed in the field. As a result, the purpose of this study was to increase understanding of the two species' ecological and conservation statuses by: The first step is to confirm their existence on the ground; the second step is to determine the present ecological and conservation conditions through an extinction risk assessment by using IUCN Red List methodology; and the third step is the use of Species Distribution Model (SDM) to locate and extract current appropriate habitat suitability. The field research, which was conducted between March to December 2017, resulted in building knowledge of the current distribution, characteristics of current species populations, and status of ecology and habitat, in addition to identifying the main threats. Both species have been recorded in 20 major sites, in a very restricted area, particularly in a high mountain region (19 sites of Silene leucophylla and 3 sites of S. oreosinaica), with Extent of Occurrence about 468.2 km2 for Silene leucophylla and 24.5 km2 for S. oreosinaica. The population size was very small and fragmented and the extreme drought and overgrazing clearly affected both species. Based on the collected data, the extinction risk was calculated as Critically Endangered for S. oreosinaica and as Endangered for S. leucophylla according to IUCN Red List. For both species, appropriate habitat is concentrated in the high mountain ranges in the central north section of the SCPA, according to SDM. For Silene leucophylla, a presence probability of 20.5 km2 was anticipated, whereas for S. oreosinaica, a presence probability of 62.1 km2 had been predicted. Conservation methods are advocated both in situ (via recovery) and ex situ (by seed collecting and storage, awareness building, and grazing control).
Anna Goc, Vadim Ivanov, Svetlana Ivanova, Madhurima Chatterjee, Matthias Rath, Aleksandra Niedzwiecki
European Journal of Biology and Biotechnology, Volume 2, pp 24-33; https://doi.org/10.24018/ejbio.2021.2.5.258

Abstract:
SARS-CoV-2 pandemic remains a challenge to human health and economy worldwide. Previously we have shown that a combination of active plant-derived compounds and plant extracts can dose-dependently inhibit binding of RBD-spike protein SARS-CoV-2 to the ACE2 receptor and its expression on human alveolar epithelial cells. Here we use eGFP-luciferase-SARS-CoV-2 spike protein pseudo-virions and SARS-CoV-2-RdRp, to show if the antiviral effectiveness of this combination of plant-derived compounds and plant extracts expands to other important key mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Or results revealed that this combination of five plant-derived compounds inhibited the attachment of the SARS-CoV-2 pseudo-typed particles with lung hACE2/A549 cells. In addition, it down-regulated the activity of key enzymes known to be crucial for the entry of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, such as TMPRSS2, furin and cathepsin L, but not their expression at protein level. This combination did not affect ACE2 binding to and ACE2 enzymatic activity, but modestly decrease cellular expression of neuropilin-1 molecule and significantly inhibited activity of viral RdRp. This study demonstrates inhibitory effects of this combination on key cellular mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 infection. The findings further support the use of plant-derived compounds as effective health measures against SARS-CoV-2-caused infection.
Blaise Bikandu Kapesa, Marc Sosef, Steven Janssens, Timothée Le Péchon, Félicien Lukoki Luyeye
European Journal of Biology and Biotechnology, Volume 2, pp 9-18; https://doi.org/10.24018/ejbio.2021.2.5.256

Abstract:
Black nightshade, or the Solanum nigrum complex, includes a number of species that botanists consider problematic due to their morphological resemblance and the high rate of hybridization. As part of the revision of the family Solanaceae for the Flora central Africa,we realized a molecular study of the Solanum nigrum complex in the western part of the Democratic Republic of Congo. A total of 21 samples of this complex were collected and identified using the recent revision by [11]. The DNA of each specimen was extracted and then amplified by PCR for 4 molecular markers: the two nuclear regions waxy and ITS, and the two chloroplastics markers trnL-F and trnH-psbA. Additional sequences of specimens reliably identified were obtained from GenBank. The combined molecular data set allowed for the identification of two distinct groups. The first we conclude that in the western part of D.R. Congo, two species of the Solanum nigrum complex occur, both showing high morphological variability, while the true Solanum nigrum is absent from that region. The two species are Solanum americanum Mill. and Solanum scabrum Mill. The results confirm the taxonomic decisions of [11]. The generally low resolution in the analyses did not allow to visualize a geographical signal in the variation.
Issa Nahoua Ouattara, Claver Zea Bi Ue, Siaka Berte, Bakagnan Kamagate
European Journal of Biology and Biotechnology, Volume 2, pp 48-52; https://doi.org/10.24018/ejbio.2021.2.5.222

Abstract:
This study was conducted to evaluate the feeding levels on survival, growth performance and feed utilization in the Brazil strain of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. Four (4) batches of larvae with mean initial weight 0.012 ± 0.005 g and mean initial total length 9 ± 0.003 mm were formed in triplicate, three per feeding rate. The rationing rates according to fry biomass applied in this trial were: batch 1: 50, 40, 30 and 25%, batch 2: 40, 30, 25 and 20%, batch 3: 30, 25, 20 and 18% and batch 4: 25, 20, 18 and 15% of biomass. The different feeding rates were tested during the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th week of larval rearing respectively. The fish were all fed a commercial feed (48% protein) distributed manually at a frequency of 5 meals per day. After 28 days of rearing, the results show that apart from the survival rate, the other parameters such as final average weight, daily growth and food consumption index were affected by the different rationing rates tested. The larvae of batch 2 rationed at 40, 30, 25 and 20 % of their biomass during the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th week of rearing respectively recorded significantly higher growth parameters (MWF: 1.092±0.027 g and DG: 0.038±0.000 g) and a more interesting food converion ratio (0.88 ) than the other batches of fry. From this study, it is concluded that an optimal feeding rate of 40, 30, 25 and 20% of the larval biomass during the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th week of rearing, respectively, should be applied in order to avoid either wastage or underfeeding of the subjects during hormone treatment with 17 α-methyltestosterone.
T. D. Tizhe, J. K. Dagze, C. S. Yusuf, J. Jacob, S. M. Mallum
European Journal of Biology and Biotechnology, Volume 2, pp 6-10; https://doi.org/10.24018/ejbio.2021.2.4.230

Abstract:
The effect of 2, 3-dichlorovinyl dimethyl phosphate (sniper) application on the nutritional contents of cowpea over a period of time has been investigated. The chemical free cowpea samples were purchased directly from local farmers in Mubi town, Adamawa State. Three different treatment rates of 5, 10 and 15 ml of sniper were used. Each of the treatment rates was applied to 13 kg of cowpea and was placed in an air tight galloon. Another galloon containing 13 kg of cowpea without chemical treatment was used as the control sample. These were kept for a period of 30 and 60 days before analysis. The proximate and mineral components of the cowpea were analyzed using standard procedures. Assessment of the proximate composition revealed varied concentrations of protein, carbohydrate, ash, fat, crude fibre and moisture that ranges between 22.79-26.16%, 58.85-60.86%, 3.85-5.88%, 2.25-2.53%, 1.52-1.76% and 5.90-6.85%, respectively. Most of the proximate compositions were observed to decrease with increase in sniper concentration and storage duration. The proximate contents at 60 days after treatment application were observed to be significantly lower than that at 30 days. The mineral components analyzed ranges between 185.03-195.54 mg/100 g (P), 226.32-245.76 mg/100 g (Ca), 80.76-85.92 mg/100 g (Mg) and 595.25-642.34 mg/100 g (K) respectively; and at day 60 it ranges between 186.54-198.65 mg/100g, 251.07-262.73 mg/100 g, 86.48-90.12 mg/100 g and 650.06-700.04 mg/100 g respectively. The mineral contents were observed to increase with increase in treatment concentrations as well as storage duration. Therefore, sniper has significant effect on the proximate and mineral contents of cowpea. The effect depends on the rate and duration of storage. The use of sniper as an insecticide in the storage of cowpea should therefore be discouraged.
Olubodun A. Adebiyi, Danladi A. Ameh, Elewechi Onyike, Dorcas B. James
European Journal of Biology and Biotechnology, Volume 2, pp 20-27; https://doi.org/10.24018/ejbio.2021.2.4.234

Abstract:
Scoparia dulcis (Linn) is a widespread herbal medicine; it bears an enormous number of pharmacological activities. The present study was undertaken to find out the chronic toxicity profile of oral administration of Scoparia dulcis ethanol leaf extract (SDELE) on the liver and the kidney of wistar rats. The animals were grouped into four and administered varying doses of SDELE (100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg, 400 mg/kg body weight and 0.2 ml distilled water respectively) for a period of fourteen weeks (100 days). The acute toxicity, body weight, relative organ weight, hematological parameters, biochemical markers for liver and kidney damage were monitored and histopathology of the liver and kidney of the rat were carried out. The LD50 of SDELE was found to be 1131 mg/kg body weight. There was a significant (p0.05) in the relative weight of the organs. There was also a significant increase (p0.05) in any of the parameters studied in the group administered 100 mg/kg body weight dose when compared with the controlled group. Ethanol leaf extracts of Scoparia dulcis showed hepatotoxic and nephrotoxic tendencies and should be used with caution especially when employed in the treatment of chronic diseases
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