Taikomoji kalbotyra

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EISSN : 2029-8935
Published by: Vilnius University Press (10.15388)
Total articles ≅ 139
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Alina Yevchuk
Published: 31 August 2022
Taikomoji kalbotyra, Volume 17, pp 79-94; https://doi.org/10.15388/taikalbot.2022.17.4

Abstract:
Near-synonyms are words which share certain semantic similarities, yet differ in their contextual usage (e.g. acquire vs obtain, evaluate vs judge). The current study compares lexical preferences and rationalizations for choosing near-synonyms of advanced C1 level non-native speakers of English (n = 45) to those given by native speakers of English (n = 58). The data has been collected using a forced-choice questionnaire which also included a justification section meant to explore respondents’ reasoning behind their lexical choices. The findings of the study suggest that EFL students may lack the depth of vocabulary knowledge necessary to choose the most suitable word from a pair of near-synonyms. Insufficient knowledge of target words resulted in EFL learners’ lexical choices and justifications being statistically different from those given by native speakers. Based on the findings of the study, it is recommended that EFL teachers increase students’ exposure to various contexts as well as focus on vocabulary depth.
Robertas Kudirka
Published: 26 July 2022
Taikomoji kalbotyra, Volume 17, pp 62-78; https://doi.org/10.15388/taikalbot.2022.17.3

Abstract:
The article analyses 246 hybrid verbs of Slavic origin with the suffixes -inti, -uoti, -yti, -ėti, -auti from the Lithuanian slang and non-standard dictionary. The study reveals that borrowings with affixal adaptation are always adapted to the linguistic system. The most popular suffix is -inti (190 hybrid verbs). There are some (64) derivative hybrids with this suffix, hybrids are formed from the adapted basic words, and therefore, in such cases hybrid verbs are derivations of the suffix -inti. There are twice as many adaptive hybrids (126), which are morphologically adapted by replacing the derivative suffix of the language donor with the suffix of the language recipient. Other suffixes are rare: -uoti (21), -yti (12), -ėti (12), -auti (11), with which derivative hybrids are usually formed from already adapted basic noun in slang.
Dalia Pinkevičienė
Published: 21 July 2022
Taikomoji kalbotyra, Volume 17, pp 36-61; https://doi.org/10.15388/taikalbot.2022.17.2

Abstract:
This paper qualitatively examines mixed speech styles within the context of two single-gendered white-collar Lithuania-based workplaces situated in Vilnius: an IT company and a company producing cosmetics (COSM). In Lithuanian contexts, mixed speech styles could be broadly defined as a flow of speech consisting of linguistic resources from languages other than Lithuanian (mainly English and Russian) incorporated into otherwise Lithuanian talk. The paper focuses on situated usage of mixed speech styles employed in talk at work. It aims to see how the linguistic enactment of mixed speech styles varies according to the working team and how such variation may influence the construction of participants’ complex identities. The research is based on naturally occurring recorded speech, and the method applied could be determined as ethnographically informed Interactional Sociolinguistics. The analysis shows that the two single-gendered communities of practice examined do not draw on the same non-native linguistic resources and that such dissimilar speaker choices and identity work can be predetermined by an intricate interplay of social and situational factors.
Anu Kalda
Published: 30 January 2022
Taikomoji kalbotyra, Volume 16, pp 86-109; https://doi.org/10.15388/taikalbot.2021.16.6

Abstract:
Explaining the process of translation has become a challenging aim for different research fields. Rather than just relying on the analysis of translated texts, it is vital to analyse the process of translation: what are the reasons behind the translator’s choices and what are the factors that influence the process? This article uses data from three experiments involving a total of 102 participants, who were asked to translate English perception metaphors into Estonian. The empirical results indicate that there are different factors that either hinder or enable translation. Most importantly, context supports the translating of both cross-cultural and culture-specific metaphors. Also, previous translation experience helps participants deal with metaphoric language. Another salient factor was living in an English-speaking country: participants with such experience found it less challenging to translate metaphoric language even if the metaphors were novel. Finally, educational background in translating facilitates the translation of metaphors
Ona Aleknavičienė
Published: 30 December 2021
Taikomoji kalbotyra, Volume 16, pp 56-75; https://doi.org/10.15388/taikalbot.2021.16.4

Abstract:
The present paper examines the principles of the language policy designed in the Kingdom of Prussia at the junction of the 18th-19th centuries. This research aims to identify the main factors affecting the introduction of the Lithuanian language as the official regional language in the Kingdom of Prussia and to evaluate the parameters applied to such language planning. The main research objects in this study are the prefaces to Christian Gottlieb Mielcke’s dictionary Littauisch-deutsches und Deutsch-littauisches Wörter-Buch (1800) and the archival material of the end of the 18th century, which provide information on the preconditions, directions, goals, and objectives of the language policy of the time.The politics favorable to the Lithuanian language was preconditioned by the political changes in the 18th century. After the third partition of the Commonwealth of the Two Nations (1795) and with the annexation of Užnemunė to Prussia, the range of the Lithuanian language use expanded, and the ideas of regional particularism strengthened.Christoph Friedrich Heilsberg, the author of the third preface to Mielcke’s dictionary, a counsellor in the Königsberg Chamber of War and Domains, and an inspector of East Prussian schools, was well aware of the Lithuanian attitudes to the influence of language on identity, motives for language learning, legislation, and the potential of schools and churches. On the grounds of this versatile expertise, he undertook language status planning.With regards to Mielcke’s observation about civil servants who need to learn Lithuanian and the Lithuanian approach to language, Heilsberg took a practical position on language planning. He suggested expanding the Lithuanian language use in the public sphere rather than considering the idea of German as a common state language. At Heilsberg’s initiative, the Lithuanian language had to be used in such important areas as education, church, law, business, and administration. Heilsberg sought to ensure that it did not lose its cultural or administrative functions. Such plans presuppose the status of Lithuanian as an official regional language, equivalent to linguistic autonomy, where the language of a national minority has political autonomy and coexists with the official language of the state.Heilsberg initiated not only the development but also the implementation of language policy. He developed the directions and measures of corpus planning: to help non-Lithuanians to learn Lithuanian, he encouraged Mielcke to prepare a Lithuanian-German and German-Lithuanian dictionary and supervised the publication of a Lithuanian grammar and a collection of sermons. This highlights the priorities of his education policy, which aimed to develop the language skills of teachers and priests, and to create conditions for civil servants working in the province to learn the Lithuanian language.Three statements of Heilsberg as a high-ranking state official were important for increasing the prestige of the Lithuanian language: 1) language is a guarantor of identity; 2) provincial languages must be learned by civil servants and not vice versa; and 3) language must be nurtured.The author of the fourth preface to Mielcke’s dictionary, the German philosopher Immanuel Kant, raised the criterion of language purity. Considering that only pure language is important for the maintenance of the nation’s distinctiveness, for science, and especially history, he emphasized the need to preserve the purity of language and proposed two ways to achieve this: to use pure language in schools and churches, and to expand the domains of its use.This is the earliest attempt in the history of Prussian Lithuanian culture to give the Lithuanian language the status of an official regional language. Such policy ensured its functioning in all spheres of public life, its use in the education system, and created conditions for maintaining identity.
Laura Kamandulytė-Merfeldienė
Published: 30 December 2021
Taikomoji kalbotyra, Volume 16, pp 76-85; https://doi.org/10.15388/taikalbot.2021.16.5

Abstract:
The aim of the study is to examine Lithuanian children’s with developmental language disorder abilities in forming comparative and superlative degrees of adjectives. We report the data from a Sentence Completion Study with 80 Lithuanian children with developmental language disorder (age range 4;6-6;5) and 80 typically developing Lithuanian children (age range 4;6-6;5). For the picture-based comparative and superlative formation task, 30 adjectives were selected to control for the following variables in Lithuanian: obligatory morphonological palatalisation of root-final dentals, the variables syllabic length (bisyllables vs. trisyllables) and underived vs. derived adjectives.The results confirmed our first hypothesis that correct production of both comparatives and superlatives is influenced by several factors: the general length effect, morphological complexity of the adjective (whether derived or not), morphotactic transparency/opacity (opacifying morphonological palatalization). The results confirmed our second hypothesis that Lithuanian children with developmental language disorder faced more difficulties in performing the adjective gradation task than typically developing children. In addition, the results have shown that children’s performance on comparatives was better than on superlatives. The better performance of comparatives could be explained by the fact that the superlative is morphosemantically and morphotactically more marked than the comparative. On the other hand, it could be, according to Layton and Stick’s hypothesis (1979), that the later acquisition of the superlative suffix is due to limitations in cognitive and perceptual abilities, which may be seen as one cause of morphosemantic markedness.
Akvilė Matulionytė, Kristina Jakaitė-Bulbukienė
Published: 30 December 2021
Taikomoji kalbotyra, Volume 16, pp 110–130-110–130; https://doi.org/10.15388/taikalbot.2021.16.7

Abstract:
Lithuania’s national language policy has been a frequently discussed topic in the broad Lithuanian society over the recent years. Due to this, it has been made known that Lithuania’s national language policy is an issue that is currently significant to various members of the speech community. Understanding how a speech community views and accepts their country’s national language policy is crucial in developing that policy well and having the community embrace it. The aim of the research presented in this article was to assess Lithuanian students’ attitudes towards the country’s current national language policy and the standard Lithuanian language. A qualitative questionnaire, which 125 respondents participated in, was conducted to reach this aim. The analysis of the students’ language attitudes revealed that they tended to view the standard language as highly prestigious and to associate the use of this language variant with socially admirable cognitive qualities (especially with formal education though preconceptions about the personality qualities of such speakers were differentiated, either negative or positive. The students tended to associate the use of non-standard written language forms (colloquially called ‘language mistakes’) with socially unadmirable cognitive qualities (especially a lack of formal education) though they also tended to normalise it and not express strong negative attitudes towards such persons. The students tended to express neutral attitudes towards the current national Lithuanian language standardisation; however, they also named more negative aspects of the current national standardisation practices than positive ones, mainly centered around a perceived dissonance between standard forms and language forms widely used by the speech community, stagnation of national language standardisation processes, as well as excessive or unfunctional translation of foreign terms. The students’ attitudes towards national language standardisation were found to be positively related to their aesthetic attitudes towards the standard language. Positive attitudes regarding the matter were also more prevalent in female research participants and philology students (especially in students of Lithuanian philology). However, the students that had had experience in professional text editing tended to express more negative attitudes. The research presented in this article may be useful in the efforts to improve Lithuania’s national language policy, as well as in the development of further research on the Lithuanian speech community members’ language attitudes.
Rūta Petrauskaitė, Virginijus Dadurkevičius
Published: 26 October 2021
Taikomoji kalbotyra, Volume 16, pp 42-48; https://doi.org/10.15388/taikalbot.2021.16.3

Abstract:
In the paper the method is presented how to update traditional digitalised dictionaries based on comparison of the dictionary lemmas and a big corpus. Hunspell platform is used for generation of all the word forms from the dictionary lemmas. 6th edition of The Dictionary of Modern Lithuanian was chosen for its comparison with the lexical data from The Joint Corpus of Lithuanian. The outcome of the comparison was two lists of non-overlapping lexis: the list of the dictionary lemmas unused in the present-day Lithuanian and the list of the dictionary gaps, i.e., frequently used words and word forms ignored by the dictionary. The latter is discussed in greater detail to give lexicographers a clue for updates.
Skirmantė Kubiliūtė
Published: 11 October 2021
Taikomoji kalbotyra, Volume 16, pp 25-41; https://doi.org/10.15388/taikalbot.2021.16.2

Abstract:
This article aims to investigate the development of ethnic identity. The main focus of the study is the young generation of Russian minority living in Lithuania’s biggest cities – Vilnius, Kaunas and Klaipėda. The hypothesis of this study is based on previous research and tends to examine whether the younger generation of Russians have difficulties identifying themselves as members of a specific ethnic group and/or have hybrid ethnic identity. In order to collect the necessary data, qualitative and quantitative methods were used. The main age group of this study was youngsters aged from were 15 to 29 y.o. There were also a control group of older Russians aged from 45 to 60 y.o. The latter group was selected in order to compare the data. The study has shown that around 20 percent of all young participants have double or hybrid ethnic identity. The majority of them identified with two ethnic groups and described themselves as Russian-Lithuanians. Almost half of the young participants had certain doubts in categorizing themselves as members of a particular ethnic group. Even more, around a tenth of all the participants avoided assigning themselves to any ethnic group and defined themselves as “humans”, “Europeans” or “world citizens”. Certain differences between the three cities have been observed as well. Both older and younger Russians from Klaipėda and Vilnius have stronger bonds with their ethnic group and language comparing to Russians from Kaunas. Therefore, the processes of assimilation in this city are more prominent that hybridization. This study has revealed not only the latest tendencies of identity development within Russian minority group, but also numerous different factors that might influence these trends. Complex processes of self-identification as well as the formation of hybrid ethnic identity in young individuals might be caused by globalization, active migration of people, rapid spread of information, multilingualism.
Jogilė Teresa Ramonaitė, Meilutė Ramonienė
Published: 2 July 2021
Taikomoji kalbotyra, Volume 16, pp 1-24; https://doi.org/10.15388/taikalbot.2021.16.1

Abstract:
The present paper deals with the attrition of the first language. It presents a general overview of language attrition as a research field and discusses the main characteristics of the phenomenon by examining some typical lexical, grammatical, and phonological properties of attriters’ speech. Our attention is drawn here to a variety of factors, such as age, time spent in the L2 environment, frequency of first language use, language attitudes, and other aspects that have an impact on language attrition. The paper also reflects on and motivates the choice of the term ‘attrition’ in the Lithuanian academic use. The current empirical analysis focuses on an extreme case of first language attrition in the situation of international adoption of an early-teenager (~12 years old) Lithuanian girl adopted to Italy. The linguistic development of the girl was normal, and at the time of adoption she was regularly literate in Lithuanian L1. With the adoption, her language environment switched completely from Lithuanian to Italian. This case study is based on longitudinal observation and speech recordings mainly from the final stage of the observation period, i.e., 14 months after her departure from the country of origin. The paper examines Lithuanian utterances and other elements of the Lithuanian language in the girl’s communication. Her spontaneous speech is analysed mostly on the lexical and grammatical level, but some other language levels are also touched upon. The analysis shows a very advanced stage of first language attrition not only on the most evident – lexical – level, but also substantial changes on the grammatical level. The data shows that categories of tense, aspect, indefiniteness, case, and even gender, which differ in the two – Lithuanian and Italian – languages, have been impacted by the new dominant language. To conclude, even though the girl’s age and particularly positive attitudes towards the Lithuanian language were quite likely the most important factors for her maintaining some of the language one year later, the attrition of her L1 is still very advanced.
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