SSRN Electronic Journal

Journal Information
EISSN : 1556-5068
Published by: Elsevier BV (10.2139)
Total articles ≅ 57
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Naheem Noah, Sanchari Das
Published: 15 July 2021
SSRN Electronic Journal; doi:10.2139/ssrn.3825974

Abstract:
Research is increasingly being conducted to identify the benefits provided by the latest developments in the AR/VR domain, which has seen an increase in interest as a result of the stay-at-home phenomena in 2020. Of particular interest is the application of AR/VR to education, a discipline that has seen a rapid shift to online modules in 2020. To better understand the advancements in AR/VR enabled education, we conducted a systematic literature review consisting of N=61 papers published in the year 2020 that focused on AR/VR in the education sector. We particularly focused on papers where studies have evaluated user perceptions in different countries, academic fields, and at varied educational levels. We found that while most papers conducted user studies and evaluated the technical applications of AR/VR, user perceptions, impact, and awareness were not explored in detail. Our findings highlight trends that can drive critically needed innovations through AR/VR especially to help a globalized digital evolution in the education sector.
Charles L. Mitchell
Published: 14 July 2021
SSRN Electronic Journal; doi:10.2139/ssrn.3870891

Abstract:
The antecedent imagination about U.S. politics has been shattered by the Capitol riot of January 6, 2021. Virtual politics’ two decades of development, experienced difficulty when hundreds of virtually empowered protesters laid siege to the U.S. Capitol disrupting the Electoral College’s confirmation of president-elect Joseph Biden. Virtual guru and incumbent president Donald Trump refused to accept the election outcome and encouraged his media conditioned following to protest. This paper is presented with a belief that the analysis contained in the paper could prove useful in pragmatic and rational adaptation to technological innovation and politics.Analysis of recent presidential elections in the U.S. has emphasized the increasing importance of virtual politics. The elections of 2008 and 2016 witnessed outcomes influenced by the candidate's ability to skillfully use virtual politics to build a dependable following. Little is known of how virtual reality influences behavior. The January 6 Capitol riot is presented as an example of virtual bonding in politics gone wrong. The paper follows the events of January 6 and the public opinion generated by the riot. Maturation effects in public opinion over months are observed. Contending public opinion influences including institutions, political parties, mainstream media, social media, and Internet personalities are mentioned. Analysis is included about the uncertainty resulting from 520 unresolved criminal riot cases. Differences in how Democrats and Republicans perceive various issues are noted.Since the Capitol riot is likely to be compared to other events such as Arab Spring, a research design about virtual empowerment is included. Theoretical sampling allows an image sample presenting rioters’ use of mobile devices. Interpretive techniques analyze this data. Two possible explanations for the empowerment emerge. First, mobile devices are seen as keeping rioters connected with reliable political information. Second, virtual reality is theorized to catalyze with the public place. Cognitive mechanisms may compel action as virtual reality and public place interact. Data analysis procedures to supplement interpretivism of the visual data, cognitive mapping is suggested. Placing each riot image on a graph analyzing two dimensions, political information and ethnography, was mentioned as a possibility for improved data analysis.
Jin Hyung Kim, Jordan I. Siegel
Published: 12 July 2021
SSRN Electronic Journal; doi:10.2139/ssrn.3285609

Abstract:
Prior literature has identified several firm and industry characteristics that are important determinants of firms’ political strategies. Yet much of the variation in firms’ political strategies remains unexplained. We address this theoretical gap in the literature by looking at the growing prevalence of foreign firms formulating and implementing political strategies in the U.S. In particular, we examine the role of home-country culture, particularly home-country beliefs around egalitarianism, as a central driver of the political strategies of foreign firms in the U.S. We argue that home-country beliefs around egalitarianism—the socially equitable and transparent use of market and political power—are a strong predictor of foreign firms’ political strategies in a host-country market. Empirically, we look at spending on formalized lobbying with mandated disclosure in the United States by non-U.S. firms and find strong support for our theory. We also find that home-country legal institutions and norms pertaining to egalitarianism have a moderating effect. This study contributes to the cross-cultural studies and the intersection of nonmarket and global strategy literatures.
Peter S. Menell, Mark A. Lemley, Robert P. Merges, Shyamkrishna Balganesh
Published: 11 July 2021
SSRN Electronic Journal; doi:10.2139/ssrn.3884159

Abstract:
Rapid advances in digital and life sciences technology continue to spur the evolution of intellectual property law. As professors and practitioners in this field know all too well, Congress and the courts continue to develop intellectual property law and jurisprudence at a rapid pace. For that reason, we have significantly augmented and revised Intellectual Property in the New Technological Age.
Leah Hollis
Published: 11 July 2021
SSRN Electronic Journal; doi:10.2139/ssrn.3884180

Abstract:
Often, administrators believe that workplace bullying can be ignored because it is not prohibited legally. This paper examines the likelihood that workplace bullying leads to expensive lawsuits. A chi square analysis confirms the association on a statistically significant level.
Tse-Chun Lin, Mingzhu Tai, Jiayu Zhou
Published: 11 July 2021
SSRN Electronic Journal; doi:10.2139/ssrn.3884276

Abstract:
This paper documents that racial differences in credit distribution during a general mortgage credit expansion can lead to unintended negative consequences on crime. Exploiting a federal mortgage market deregulation, we find a significant increase in mortgage approval to white borrowers, while the approval rate to black borrowers is unchanged. More importantly, the local housing boom induced by this credit expansion leads to an increase in money-related crime rates of black offenders. The results highlight an unintended adverse consequence of credit expansion on the welfare of the minorities.
Komain Jiranyakul
Published: 11 July 2021
SSRN Electronic Journal; doi:10.2139/ssrn.3884186

Abstract:
This paper examines the influence of crude oil price on inflation in seven Asian and two of the pacific economies. The period of investigation is from 1987M5 to 2019M12. The results of cointegration tests reveal that there is stable positive long-run relationship between consumer price index and crude oil price in these countries. In the short run, there is unidirectional causality running from crude oil price change to inflation in most cases. The findings suggest accommodative monetary policy measures to combat high inflation rate.
Yilin Hou, Robert Phillips
Published: 10 July 2021
SSRN Electronic Journal; doi:10.2139/ssrn.3842832

Abstract:
Crowdfunding is an alternative funding mechanism whereby innovators can access funding for their projects using a variety of “payback” options to investors – from traditional rewards such as equity, dividends and repayments with interest to non-monetary rewards such as physical or digital rewards. It has been defined by Schwienbacher and Larralde (2010) as an open call to the crowd to generate financial resources for particular purposes. The reward-based model is of great interest as it gives the option of providing incentives to investors without using money (which is in short supply) or giving up equity – yet still being able to provide rewards which are of great interest to investors such as prototypes of games, a character in a game, early versions of products, or products at an exclusive discount (Islam and Phillips, 2020).
Yuzhuo Huang, Ken'ichi Matsumoto
Published: 10 July 2021
SSRN Electronic Journal; doi:10.2139/ssrn.3874289

Abstract:
With Japan’s emphasis on domestic demand and the gradual expansion of interregional trade, indirect carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions have become an important factor limiting Japan’s realization of carbon neutrality in 2050. In this study, using regional trade data, input-output analysis was applied to study indirect CO2 emissions from the domestic exports/imports of 30 prefectures in Japan in 2010, and log-mean Divisia index decomposition analysis was conducted to analyze the factors influencing the net indirect CO2 emissions of each prefecture. The main results are as follows: (1) some manufacturing prefectures with obvious characteristics of an export-oriented economy supply the market demand of most areas in Japan with their industrial products and have become the main net CO2 exporters undertaking the vast majority of CO2 emission reduction tasks; (2) consumer prefectures not only guide the output of manufacturing prefectures to a certain extent but also export a substantial amount of indirect CO2 emissions to other prefectures through the service industry, which is widely seen as a low-carbon emitter and is as such neglected by regulations aimed at reducing emissions. Therefore, the implementation of carbon neutrality needs to balance the relationship between production and consumption. While reforming the technology of the manufacturing prefecture from the production side to reduce CO2 emissions, the market demand of the consumer prefecture should also be adjusted from the consumption side to enhance the concept of sustainable consumption.
Daniel Müller, Elisabeth Gsottbauer
Published: 10 July 2021
SSRN Electronic Journal; doi:10.2139/ssrn.3884125

Abstract:
We conduct a representative survey experiment in Germany to understand why people support inefficient policies. In particular, we measure beliefs about and preferences for rent control -- a policy that is widely regarded as harmful by experts. To tease out causal mechanisms, we provide randomly selected subsets of participants with empirical estimates about the effects of rent control on rent prices and housing supply and with information about the consensus among economists against rent control. We find that people update their beliefs and that this leads to lower demand for rent control. Left-wingers update their beliefs more strongly, which reduces the ideological gap in support for rent control by about one-third. Providing information about economists' rejection of this policy leads to the largest reduction in support. However, the main drivers of support for rent control are fairness considerations and profit motives. Our study also highlights the importance of trust in expert advice since treatment effects are consistently larger among those who indicate trust in expert advice. Finally, an obfuscated follow-up survey conducted three weeks later reveals that the effects, both on support for rent control and on beliefs, persist only for those who trust.
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