International Research Journal of Multidisciplinary Technovation
Latest articles in this journal
Published: 13 September 2021
International Research Journal of Multidisciplinary Technovation pp 26-31; https://doi.org/10.34256/irjmt2153
Heavy metals accumulation in biological system are by inhalation of contaminated air, intake of contaminated food or drinking water has been considered to be an ecological menace to man and other organisms. This study was carried out to ascertain the pollution status of Cr, Pb, Zn, Cu and Cd in sediment of Akata Lake, Katsina- Ala Benue State, Nigeria. Sediment samples were collected, digested using 30% H2O2 followed by 0.5M HCl and the metal concentrations were determined with Varian AA240 Atomic absorption spectrophotometer equipped with Zeeman’s background correction (Varian, New Jersey, USA). The mean level of the heavy metals, Pb, Zn, Cu, Cd and Cr are 31.05, 2.72, 19.22 and 0.88 mg/kg while the concentration of Cr was below the detection limit of the instrument. The values obtained were compared with the established soil and sediment standard by World Health Organization (WHO). The contamination factors value for Zn, Cu and Cd are 1, hence it shows that the sediment is polluted by lead. The pollution load index (PLI) and Geo-accumulation index (Igeo) levels for Cr, Zn, Cu, Cd heavy metals in sample A - E were less than 1 except for Pb which is >1, this show that, the sediment were polluted with Pb.
Published: 7 August 2021
International Research Journal of Multidisciplinary Technovation pp 11-25; https://doi.org/10.34256/irjmt2152
There is a continuous requirement to develop novel, safe, effective and affordable anti-cancer drugs because Cancer is a serious disease at current situation. A huge number of patients die annually due to cancer disease. Phytochemical are the secondary metabolites of medicinal plants and significantly used in conventional cancer research. Bioactive phytochemical is favored as they claim differentially on cancer cell only without altering normal cell. Carcinogenesis is an intricate process and includes multifold signaling procedures. Phytochemical are pleiotropic in nature, function and target these events in multiple manners so they are considered as most appropriate candidate for drug development. The aim of the present research was to find out the anti-cancer activity of the phytochemical constituents through computer aided drug design approach. In this experiment, we have find total 42 natural compounds with anti-cancer activity against the cancer target 1QCF tyrosine kinase. The data set comprising of phytochemical compounds was used for virtual screening and molecular docking in PyRx software. Along with screened compound, hit compound Carnosic acid was further docked to confirm the binding mode and confirmed the effective inhibition of 1QCF and anticancer activity. Molecular dynamic simulation studies were done to confirm the stability of the protein and ligand complex during a simulation. Parameters like RMSD, RMSF, and radius of gyration were experiential to understand the fluctuations. Protein-ligand interaction studies also expose that enough hydrogen and hydrophobic bonds are present to validate our results. Our study suggests that the potential use of Carnosic acid can come out as a potential candidate and in turn prevent cancer.
Published: 7 August 2021
International Research Journal of Multidisciplinary Technovation pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.34256/irjmt2151
Chlordiazepoxide is considered one of most important sedative and hypnotic benzodiazepines drugs which is currently used all over the world with the increased rate of anxiety drugs. In this literature review, we will introduce the pharmacological action of this drug in addition to most of up-to-date reported methods that have been developed for determination of chlordiazepoxide in its pure form, combined form with other drugs, combined form with degradation products, and in biological samples. Most of the reported analytical methods will focus on spectroscopic, chromatographic and electrochemical techniques.
Published: 30 July 2021
International Research Journal of Multidisciplinary Technovation pp 93-105; https://doi.org/10.34256/irjmt21411
In our developing and changing world, the use of energy resources is becoming important. With the development of the aviation industry all over the world, the need to use more innovative, more sustainable resources emerges. When the demands in the transportation sector from past to present are examined, the transformation in energy resources will be inevitable. As stated, all studies have focused on the energy resources that reduce the environmental impact, sustainability, environmental friendliness, costs and dependence on oil producing states. In this study, the study of aviation fuels from past to present, its production, environmental impact, sustainability and the returns of alternative aviation fuels are discussed in detail. It is concluded that the world's developing and changing aviation sector should switch to sustainable alternative fuels as soon as possible.
Published: 12 July 2021
International Research Journal of Multidisciplinary Technovation pp 83-92; https://doi.org/10.34256/irjmt21410
This work deals with preparation and characterization of immobilized laccase (Aspergillus sp.) over oxidized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (ox-MWCNTs) via simple mixing technique. The resulting materials were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and particle size distribution analysis using dynamic light scattering technique (DLS). The results showed that the TEM images exhibited more separate individual carbon bundles with particle size around of 396 nm after enzyme immobilization rather than the spaghetti-like tubes with size about 180 nm in the case of ox-MWCNTs. Also, the lowering in the zeta potential negative value (-5 mv) proved that the free carboxyl groups at ox-MWCNT surface were decreased after enzyme immobilization. Moreover, the thermal stability was decreased after enzyme immobilization using TGA. These results confirmed that the laccase could be reacted at the side walls of the ox-MWCNTs without structure damage. The biocatalytic effect of the immobilized laccase was investigated after its incubation with silver nitrate solution for 1 and 24 h. It can be concluded that the biocatalytic efficiency of the immobilized laccase could be enhanced after its incubation with silver nitrate solution for 24 h at room temperature relative to the free form. On the other hand, the enzyme stability was improved after immobilization up to 50ºC and at pH 3.0, while no remarkable differences on the activity values were observed for immobilized and free laccases at acidic pH range (4-6).
Published: 9 July 2021
International Research Journal of Multidisciplinary Technovation pp 75-82; https://doi.org/10.34256/irjmt2149
This study aimed at the preliminary investigation of inorganic and organic contaminants in soils within Wukari metropolis and to assess the contamination status and metal bioavailability. Digested soil samples for total metals and fractionation were analyzed for heavy metal concentrations in triplicates using Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer while 5 Varian Bond Elu SI SPE cartridges was used for solid phase extraction and the soil sample extracts were analyzed by GC-MS. The percentage bioavailability of metals ranged from Fe: 13.81 – 98.85 %, Ni: 65.01 - 80.93 %, Cr: 34.82 – 77.19 %, Pb: 66.93 - 86.59 % and Co: 70.35 - 99.14 % respectively. The bioavailability of Fe, Ni, Pb and Co station ST3 which is an agricultural area were above 50.00%. This indicates that food crops grown in the area may be contaminated by the metals. Irrespective of sampling points, the distribution of metals in the soil samples generally followed the order Fe: residual > carbonate > exchangeable > oxidizable; Ni: exchangeable > carbonate > oxidizable > residual; Pb: exchangeable > residual > carbonate > oxidizable; Co: exchangeable > carbonate > oxidizable > residual. Organic contaminants such as Halo alkanes; bromodichloromethane (molecular weight 162.0 g/mol) and chloroform (molecular weight 118.0 g/mol) were detected in ST1 while, 1, 1, 2 trichloroethane (molecular weight 132.0 g/mol). Another contaminant phenol d5 was recorded in sample ST2, ST3 and ST4 respectively. BTEX compounds were also contaminants present in ST5 (Fuel station near some automobile workshops).
Published: 9 July 2021
International Research Journal of Multidisciplinary Technovation pp 67-74; https://doi.org/10.34256/irjmt2148
Tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding on Duplex stainless steel (DSS) is more easy, comfortable and useful, if the process is precisely understood and controlled through development of the science & technology. TIG welding on DSS has been performed with the help of specific controlled welding process parameters. Welding quality has been strongly depended on these process parameters. In this study, some valuable welding parameters are chosen. These are welding current, shielding gas flow rate and speed of welding. These process parameters of TIG welding for ASTM/UNS 2205 DSS welds are optimized by using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) method and Grey based Taguchi’s L9 Orthogonal array (OA) experimental plan with the conception of signal to noise ratio (N/S). After that, compression results of above mentioned two analyses of TIG welding process parameters have been calculated. The quality of the TIG welding on DSS has been evaluated in term of ultimate tensile strength, yield strength and percentage of elongation. Compression results of both analyses indicate application feasibility for continuous improvement of welding quality on DSS in different components of chemical, oil and gas industries.
Published: 8 July 2021
International Research Journal of Multidisciplinary Technovation pp 59-66; https://doi.org/10.34256/irjmt2147
This research is based on the thermodynamic performance of a gas turbine power plant. It considered the variation of operating conditions, i.e. the ambient temperature, the compressor outlet temperature, pressure ratio, etc. on the performance of the gas turbine thermal efficiency, turbine work, compressor work, etc. which were derived and analyzed. The Gross (higher) calorific values at constant pressure () heat of combustion in a flow process from state 1 to state 2 was considered and used to analyze our thermal efficiency. The results show that the ambient temperature and air to fuel ratio strongly influence the turbine work, compressor work and thermal efficiency. In addition, the thermal efficiency and power decreases linearly with increase of the ambient temperature. However, the efficiency analyzed when the calorific parameters were considered was higher than the efficiency when the basic thermodynamic theories (first and second law principles) were used. The first ranges between 31% to 33, while the second ranges between 28% to 32% under the same ambient temperature conditions
Published: 5 July 2021
International Research Journal of Multidisciplinary Technovation pp 52-58; https://doi.org/10.34256/irjmt2146
Various methods of biodiesel production have been developed in the recent past to reduce production costs. These new approaches may have varying effects on ester quality. Thus an investigation is necessary to determine cost saving measures that do not compromise ester quality. This work examined the effects of a cost saving strategy on Biodiesel quality. This conservative method involved the transesterification of a Jathropha-Moringa oil blend using a blend of two primary alcohols. Three alkaline catalysts were also used. The reaction conditions were: Jathropha to Moringa oil blending ratio of 4:1; Methanol to ethanol blending ratio of 4:1; Alkaline catalyst concentration of 0.5 w/w %; reaction time of 40 minutes; stirring speed of 1000 rpm; Temperature of 60°C and an Alcohol to oil molar ratio of 7.5. Biodiesel samples were tested according to ASTM D6751 and AOCS guidelines. Results indicated that the density, iodine values, flash point and fire points of esters did not vary significantly as the experiment was repeated using three different alkaline catalysts. It also showed that the effect of NaOH, KOH and CaO were not always negative when they were significant. Lastly, the methods applied in this did not compromise ester quality with regard to observed fuel parameters.
Published: 27 June 2021
International Research Journal of Multidisciplinary Technovation pp 41-51; https://doi.org/10.34256/irjmt2145
In this study, new Imidazolidin-4-one [A1-A5] compounds were prepared by the reaction of schiff base compounds with alanine in ethanol. The prepared compounds were characterized by physical properties, UV-Vis, FT-IR and 1H-NMR spectral and C.H.N analysis. TLC checked the purity for these compounds. All compounds [A1-A5] were prepared by the traditional method (reflux) and microwave technology. It was found that using the microwave method gives better results in terms of less time and, higher yield. Antibacterial behaviors were investigated against a variety of bacteria, including Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumonia Gram (-) ve, Staphylococcus aureus, and Staphylococcus epidermidis Gram (+) ve. The laser efficacy of the compounds [A1-A5] was evaluated after they were radiated by laser for (10, 20, 30) seconds. As the melting point and color of the substances were determined, it was discovered that they were unaffected and did not disintegrate or polymerize. Using the Chem Draw Specialist 19.0 program, the stereoisomers of the prepared compounds [A1-A5] were examined at the lowest layer stage. Using the Chem3D 19.0 program, the heat of the formulation of the compounds [A1-A5] was also investigated.