Journal of Innovative Science and Engineering (JISE)

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EISSN : 26024217
Total articles ≅ 15
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Izzet Fatih Şentürk, Siratigui Coulibaly
Journal of Innovative Science and Engineering (JISE), Volume 4, pp 22-34; doi:10.38088/jise.713809

Abstract:
Data collection is one of the key building blocks of smart city applications. Sheer number of sensors deployed across the city generate huge amount of data continuously. Due to their limited transmission range, sensors form a sensor network with a base station. The base station acts as a gateway between the network and the remote user and the generated data is collected by the base station. However, due to sensor locations and the transmission range the network may consist of several partitions. A typical solution is employing one or more mobile element(s) to collect data from partitions periodically. Mobile data collection enables intermittent connectivity between sensors and the base station. The major drawback of mobile data collection is increased data latency depending on the velocity of the mobiles. Another challenge is specifying importance for individual sensors in a smart city application. This study evaluates the impact of precedence-based routing of mobiles on data latency in a realistic manner through employing spatial data obtained from a geographic information system. Precedence levels for sensors are determined based on the amenity type of the building they monitor. Mobility of the mobiles is restricted with the drivable road network. The impact of the precedence-based routing according to total path length, maximum data collection delay, and the maximum data latency is evaluated. Obtained results indicate an increase in total path length up to 14% when precedence-based routing is applied. The results also suggest that precedence-based routing increases maximum data collection delay unless the amenity type has fewer points of interest to monitor.
Aysun Tutak Erözen
Journal of Innovative Science and Engineering (JISE), Volume 4, pp 44-55; doi:10.38088/jise.730957

Abstract:
In this paper, a new CNN architecture is introduced for classification of six different hand gestures using surface electromyography (EMG) data collected from the forearm. At first, two different deep neural networks produced based on Slow Fusion and Inception models separately. Then, the average of accuracy values and standard deviations were calculated for each type of network. The average accuracy was 80.88% and standard deviation was 0.030 for the Slow Fusion based network. For the Inception based network, average accuracy was 82.64% and standard deviation was 0.028. In addition to these two networks, a new CNN architecture is introduced using Slow fusion and Inception models in combination. The architecture has two parallel Inception modules in parallel. Each parallel module is fed by the half of the 3D feature map. The proposed model slowly fuses the information of the parallel modules throughout the network as in Slow-Fusion architecture. The average accuracy achieved with this model was 83.97% and the standard deviation was 0.027. Despite the small data set, the accuracy had increased with the proposed hybrid model. The smaller standard deviation indicates that it is less affected by variations in the training dataset. Our experimental results show that the proposed method gives the best results among the Slow Fusion based and Inception based models.
Derya Ünlü
Journal of Innovative Science and Engineering (JISE), Volume 4, pp 35-43; doi:10.38088/jise.713852

Abstract:
The pervaporation is a promising process to achieve highly efficient desalination performance. In this study, Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) and Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) polymers were chosen in the synthesis of blend membranes and used for pervaporative desalination process. The chemical structure and thermal stability of membranes were analyzed by using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), respectively. The effects of PVP ratio in membrane and operation temperature on the flux and salt rejection were examined. The highest separation efficiency was acquired as water flux of 4.86 kg/m2h and a salt rejection of 99.9% using 50 wt% PVP ratio at 40 °C. The obtained results show that HPMC/PVP blend membrane has a great potential for water desalination via pervaporation.
Zeynep Behrin Güven Aydin, Rüya Şamli
Journal of Innovative Science and Engineering (JISE) pp 11-21; doi:10.38088/jise.693098

Onur Aykanat, Mahmut Ermeydan
Journal of Innovative Science and Engineering (JISE), Volume 4, pp 1-10; doi:10.38088/jise.691237

Abstract:
Rock wool is a man-made fiber produced by melting inorganic stones such as basalt, diabase, dolomite obtained from volcanic rocks, and it is an environment friendly resource and generally used for building insulation. Rock wool has good thermal resistance and insulation properties. In this study, PLA/Rock wool biocomposites with 20-30-40% rock wool support were produced with twin-screw extruder and then press molded. Tensile and flexural tests were applied to reveal mechanical properties of composites. FT-IR spectroscopy was used for investigation of chemical changes. TGA /DTG analysis were carried out to determine thermogravimetric properties of biocomposites, where thermal conductivity was measured to investigate heat transfer characteristics. The results showed that flexural strength of composites decreased 5-40% with increasing ratio of rock wool (20-40%), while tensile strength decreased 40-60% with increasing amount of rock wool (20-40%). Besides that, rock wool accelerated thermal degradation of PLA, but the composites have 25% better heat insulation property than neat PLA.
Emrah Sarica, Vildan Bilgin
Journal of Innovative Science and Engineering (JISE), Volume 3, pp 66-72; doi:10.38088/jise.641810

Abstract:
In this work, we aimed to deposit PbS thin films at relatively low temperature and therefore thin films were deposited onto preheated glass substrates at 473 K and 523 K by ultrasonically spraying of equimolar aqueous solution of lead acetate and thiourea. The thickness of deposited thin films was determined by spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) prior to investigate physical properties of deposited PbS films. In order to investigate structural and morphological properties of PbS thin films, x-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) images were obtained. Crystal structure, mean crystallite size, lattice parameters, micro-strain of deposited thin films were evaluated by means of XRD patterns and it was seen that deposited PbS thin films were successfully obtained in polycrystalline form with cubic crystal structure. Also lattice parameter of a was calculated as 5.866 Å and 5.870 Å for thin films deposited at 473 K and 523 K, respectively. Additionally, the surface roughness of PbS thin films was determined via AFM images as 5.8 nm and 9.9 nm in non-contact mode. The obtained results confirm that deposition of PbS thin films can be successfully achieved at relatively low temperature.
Aminu Atiku Shehu, Zainab Yunusa
Journal of Innovative Science and Engineering (JISE), Volume 3, pp 57-65; doi:10.38088/jise.657221

Abstract:
Variety of materials with different dielectric constants are available for microstrip patch antenna. In the paper, graphene material is used and analyzed at X-band frequency. The use of graphene patch material as conducting substance for the antenna is assumed to improve the bandwidth and radiation efficiency on account of the outstanding functionalities and electromagnetic properties. The antenna is designed with Duroid RT5880 (lossy) material with a dielectric constant of 2.2 palced between graphene patch and ground plane using Computer Simulation Tool (CST) Microwave Studio 2016. The resonance frequency of the antenna is 10.54 GHz with a gain of 7.86dB, return loss of -24.55 dB, directivity of 8.31 dBi and VSWR of 1.1.2. The antenna operates for frequencies from 8 – 12 GHz with an enormous bandwidth of 1.09GHz.
Isa Yüksel
Journal of Innovative Science and Engineering (JISE), Volume 3, pp 86-101; doi:10.38088/jise.590738

Abstract:
Tall building construction has increased rapidly in Turkey especially in metropolitans such as Istanbul, Ankara, and Bursa. These buildings are subjected to different kinds of loads during its construction and service life time. Substantial load types affecting to tall buildings are gravity loads, seismic and wind loads, and other special loads. Modern lightweight and high strength materials, new force resisting structural systems, shock absorption systems, structuring combinations reveals different solutions to engineers and architects for design and constructing tall buildings. The aim of this paper is to review structural form, wind and earthquake loads on tall buildings from the point of structural engineering. At first, the effect of building form to building aerodynamics is examined. Then the loads, selection and arrangement of the major structural elements to resist loading combinations containing gravity, earthquake, and wind loads on tall buildings are discussed. In addition, the new provisions are reviewed that given in TBEC-2018, which is the first national code comprised special regulations for tall buildings in Turkey.
Abdullahi Auwal Gabari, Zainab Yunusa, Mohd Nizar Hamidon
Journal of Innovative Science and Engineering (JISE), Volume 3, pp 73-85; doi:10.38088/jise.638568

Abstract:
An octagonal microstrip patch antenna is presented in this paper. A small sized microstrip patch antenna with a high gain has been the focusing point of so many researches over the years. Microstrip patch antenna is basically known to have a low gain as a result various techniques are carried out in order to enhance the gain. In this work, a single patch octagonal microstrip patch antenna and a 1x2 octagonal patch antenna array are designed and the effects are studied. The structure is designed on four different substrates FR4, Duroid, Arlon and Rogers substrate materials. Copper is used as the patch and ground material. The antenna is designed on a small substrate material and it is probe fed. The simulated results of the array reveals a gain increase of 6.25dB from 3.6dB of the single patch on the FR4 substrate. The simulated results of the antenna in terms of reflection coefficients, voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR) and gains realized showed that the antenna has prospective applications for 4.6 and 5.9GHz applications. Conclusively, the antenna with the FR4 substrate shows the best antenna performance in terms of Gain and Return loss and its operating frequency falls under the WiMAX and WLAN range compared to the other substrates. The tool used for the design and simulation is the Computer Simulation Technology (CST) microwave studio.
Naile Angin, Sena Çaylak, Murat Ertaş
Journal of Innovative Science and Engineering (JISE), Volume 3, pp 47-56; doi:10.38088/jise.654790

Abstract:
Polyurethane foams are used in many different applications, such as insulation and coating materials, packaging, furniture and so on. It has very low weight, low cost and thermal conductivity hereby frequently preferred by architectural and construction industry. On the other hand, these large-scale uses bring with waste problem after applications. In this study, the effect of polyurethane foam waste (PUw) on the thermal and morphological properties of polypropylene (PP)/ poly(lactic acid) (PLA) composites plasticized with polyethylene glycol (PEG 400) was investigated. PUw filled PP/PLA composites were prepared using melt blending followed by compression molding. Thermal and morphological properties of PUw filled PP/PLA composites were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermal conductivity analyzer and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results shown that the thermal conductivity of the composites improved significantly with addition of PUw, while glass transition temperature (T g ), the melting temperature (T m ) and melting enthalpy (ΔH m ) values of the composites decreased. Based on finding, the PUw could be used as filler in PP/PLA composites for insulation and energy efficiency.
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