International Journal of Research -GRANTHAALAYAH

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2394-3629 / 2350-0530
Published by: Granthaalayah Publications and Printers (10.29121)
Total articles ≅ 3,429
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J. K. A. Kanthi
International Journal of Research -GRANTHAALAYAH, Volume 9, pp 48-52; https://doi.org/10.29121/granthaalayah.v9.i11.2021.4365

Abstract:
Several areas reflect the traditional wisdom of Sri Lanka. This knowledge is of two parts as tactile and intangible cognition. Shantikarma and its associated rituals have a special place in intangible knowledge. Humans rely on various supernatural forces to prevent them from suffering and suffering. The medium used to obtain the help of those forces is called Shanti Karma. Several areas reflect the traditional wisdom of Sri Lanka. This knowledge is of two parts as tactile and intangible cognition. Shantikarma and its associated rituals have a special place in intangible knowledge. Humans rely on various supernatural forces to prevent them from suffering and suffering. The medium used to obtain the help of those forces is called Shanti Karma. The research problem was how Shanti Karma is used as an art of healing. The methodology involved in this research was Qualitative and Quantitative. Data were gathered using primary and secondary evidence in-depth interviews. A sample of about 20 yakaduras from Palatuwa, Godagama in Matara District, Habaraduwa and, Ahangama in Galle District was selected for the field study. The secondary evidence was the substance yielded from the published sources. Today, there is a decline in the use of peace rituals in Sri Lanka. The decline in the number of people willing to engage in this, the emergence of a new generation after the decline of traditional artisans, and the need to pay a high price for peacemaking, etc., have contributed to this decline.
Manoj Dakua, Bappa Sarkar
International Journal of Research -GRANTHAALAYAH, Volume 9, pp 109–121-109–121; https://doi.org/10.29121/granthaalayah.v9.i11.2021.4382

Abstract:
Sex preference is highly dominated in India and its adjacent South Asian countries. The present study examines the pattern, prevalence, and determinants of sex preference for an extra child at India's national and regional levels. For this study, we have utilized the secondary data of the Indian Human Development Survey-II. Bivariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression analysis were carried out to understand the difference of sex preference for an extra child by selected background variable- prevalence of sex preference almost 40% in India. Sex preference is higher among women who have three alive children, where the son's preference is more who have at least four living children. Son preference is decreasing with the increase of women's educational levels. On the contrary, sex preference is more among lower age at marriage. The odds of sex preference are higher among those above bachelor's degrees than those with no formal education. On the contrary, sons' preference is higher who completed their primary education than those who have no education. Sex preference, especially son's preference, directly or indirectly affects on sex ratio. Therefore, Government should focus on an awareness program and make some policies for a venerable woman identified in this study.
Liviu Popa-Simil
International Journal of Research -GRANTHAALAYAH, Volume 9, pp 53-71; https://doi.org/10.29121/granthaalayah.v9.i11.2021.4374

Abstract:
It is known for more than 2000 years that Damascus swords’ performances were not possible without the existence and usage of the “Damascus steel”, the first man made nano-hetero structural material that generalized is clearly showing that materials determine ultimate properties of the objects that made of. The actual world energy is manly based carbon emission materials, as coal, heavy oil, methane gas, with negative environment impact. Solar, wind and geothermal energy have also a negative impact on environment and have to be smartly used to minimize it. Nuclear energy, has lower CO2 emission, but because it is in its infancy it is complex, expensive and raises security and proliferation issues, has the potential for large scale accidents, and generates difficulties in dealing with waste fuel dispositioning.The novel developed families of engineered nano-materials, eliminate all the drawbacks of the actual nuclear power, rendering it among the most efficient and environmental friendly energy source. We learned from the global warming that the amount of energy man can produce on Earth is limited at 0.1% of sun delivered on Earth energy of 170 PW, which is of 200 TW, about 100 times more than today if it is chemical pollution free. Thermal pollution remains in place, therefore the upper clean power limit acceptable for the planet is at about 100 TW.The novel nuclear materials were developed in 6 families, each of them bringing in harmony a nuclear agent active inside that material as:- Micro-hetero structures, generally called “cer-Liq-Mesh”, that self-separates the fission products from the nuclear fuel and minimizes their fuel damage, allowing breed&burn to near perfect burning;- Nano-hetero structures generically called “CIci”, that form a super-capacitor, charged by nuclear energy and directly discharged as electricity;- Nano-clustered structure that enhances self-separation of transmutation products;- Fractal immiscible materials with radiation damage self-repairing capabilities eliminating the need for re-cladding in near perfect burning structures- Nano-structures with active NEMS used as fast control of nuclear reactivity by guiding neutrons in desired directions or ultralight shielding for mobile reactors.- Nano-structures that create active-quantum-nuclear-environment for long range nuclear reactions control by using quantum states entanglement and collective quantum states control.The use of these advanced materials in future nuclear energy related application will render a high efficiency, minimal nuclear waste, and optimal nuclear fuel cycle, delivering the needed planetary clean energy at will for the next 10,000 years.
Najlatun Naqiyah, Titik Taufikurohmah, Ananto Sidohutomo
International Journal of Research -GRANTHAALAYAH, Volume 9, pp 5-14; https://doi.org/10.29121/granthaalayah.v9.i11.2021.4347

Abstract:
Improving the immunity of COVID-19 patients is very important for the healing process. As is known, viral diseases, including COVID-19, cannot be treated. What can be done is to increase the body's immune system to be strong against the virus attack and weaken it. Various efforts to increase immunity are carried out, among others, with Moringa capsules containing nanogold and nano-silver. Nanogold as drug delivery and nano-silver as antiviral. A total of 64 COVID-19 patients who were treated using Moringa capsules routinely showed a significant recovery process. Clinical trial volunteers were grouped into 3 categories. The first group of positive COVID-19 asymptomatic 22 people. The second group of 24 COVID-19 positive people with mild to moderate symptoms, including experiencing fever, cough, runny nose, and weakness. The 3rd group of 18 people were COVID-19 patients with severe conditions with respiratory problems to the point of using a ventilator. The results of the clinical trial showed that the first group of Covid-19 patients recovered after consuming Moringa capsules for 1-2 weeks, the second group recovered 3-6 weeks. The 3rd group recovered 4-8 weeks. In conclusion, it is proven that Moringa capsules with nanogold and nano-silver increase the immunity of Covid-19 patients so that they survive and recover from their pain. The length of time required for recovery is different for each group. The first group recovered faster than the second group. The third group recovered the longest. It is highly recommended to use Moringa capsules with nanogold and nano-silver innovations to recover COVID-19, especially the new variants that are more easily spread.
Ridwan, , Adi Saputra Ismy, Nurhanifa Aidy, Awanis Ilmi
International Journal of Research -GRANTHAALAYAH, Volume 9, pp 97-108; https://doi.org/10.29121/granthaalayah.v9.i11.2021.4381

Abstract:
Research has been conducted on the manufacture of PLA Coir Bentonite composites. This study aims to examine the effect of PLA on mechanical strength with the addition of coir and bentonite fillers from North Aceh and Central Aceh. The sample formulations used were single polymer PLA/Coir and PLA/Coir with variations of filler Bentonite Aceh Utara and Aceh Tengah with 2, 4, 6 and 8% respectively. The combination of PCa samples showed the highest bacterial colony growth rate, which was more than 100 colonies/gram during the 1 week testing period. In the PBATd filler mixture sample, the maximum bacterial test value was 65 colonies/gram and the minimum value contained in the PBAUa sample was 105 colonies/gram. The best tensile strength was obtained in the PBATc sample, namely 65 MPa. PBATd samples began to degrade at 370.15oC compared to PCa samples degraded at 280.21oC. While the PBAUa sample began to degrade at a temperature of 282.11oC. The surface structure of the PCa sample is more homogeneous because there is no bentonite filler mixture, but it is brittle and crumbles easily. For the PBATd sample, the surface structure is smoother and more homogeneous compared to the PBAUa sample.
Ifwandi, Dewi Saputri, Liana Rahmayani, Pocut Aya Sofya, Syahrial, Zelcha Savira Haridhi
International Journal of Research -GRANTHAALAYAH, Volume 9, pp 168-181; https://doi.org/10.29121/granthaalayah.v9.i11.2021.4389

Abstract:
When a person reaches the elderly phase, the function of the body's organs decreases, which causes an increased risk of disease and death. Including dental infections such as caries and periodontal disease which are the main factors for tooth loss. Tooth loss does not only affect the impact of mastication but also affects a person's cognitive function. This condition occurs because when a person loses teeth, the function of the Periodontal Mechanoreceptors decreases, disrupting the function of the hippocampus which is important for memory in the brain. Loss of a large number of teeth tends to indicate low cognitive function, but several factors affect cognitive function, namely education level, Diabetes Mellitus, Hypertension, heart disease, depression, sleep disorders, head injury, physical activity, and a history of smoking. Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) is a tool to assess a person's cognitive function. This study aims to see the description of cognitive function in the elderly at the Geunaseh Sayang Nursing Home with variations in the number of tooth losses. This study was conducted with 43 research subjects with interviews and intra-oral examination methods. Based on the results of the study, it can be concluded that the elderly who only have fewer teeth show a higher decline in cognitive function compared to the elderly with more teeth in the oral cavity. This is following the theory which states that the more teeth you lose, the lower your cognitive function will be.
Hubert Makomo, Jean Bruno Bassiloua, Fergie Romance Bivoumboukoulou, Thomas Silou
International Journal of Research -GRANTHAALAYAH, Volume 9, pp 15-22; https://doi.org/10.29121/granthaalayah.v9.i11.2021.4322

Abstract:
In the literature, the drying mechanism were generally analyzed in terms of effective diffusivity through the pseudo first order diffusion model. This process was revisited through the modified Peleg model, assuming the drying as a moisture desorption versus drying time. The leaves of Corymbia citriodora acclimatized in the Congo Brazzaville “Plateau des Cataractes” were dried in open air and under shade thanks to a domestic scale of essential oil production. One obtains following model parameters: kinetic constant k1: 0.8555 - 2.1355 d.(g/g)-1, extraction capacity constant K2: 1.5255 - 1.8733 (g/g)-1; end equilibrium moisture X∞ = 0.53 - 0.66 g/g. and first order drying kinetic constant k = K2/k1: 1.71 - 1.78 d-1. Pseudo first order diffusion model fits experimental data with k = 0.368 - 0.587 d-1 and t1/2 = 1,18 - 1,88 d.. These results needed for the optimization of proccess and sizing equipments came from a fast graphic data processing, with low computer inputs.
K.F.A. Ibrahim, Ademu Sylvester Onyekachi
International Journal of Research -GRANTHAALAYAH, Volume 9, pp 122–137-122–137; https://doi.org/10.29121/granthaalayah.v9.i11.2021.4258

Abstract:
This study examined effect of corporate social responsibility (CSR) on investment efficiency of quoted oil and gas firms in Nigeria. The study employed Ex post facto research design. The sample size of seven (7) oil and gas firms was derived from the population of the quoted twelve (12) oil and gas firms in Nigeria. Judgmental approach was employed during the sampling procedure. The study used secondary data sourced from the annual reports of the quoted oil and gas firms in Nigeria Stock Exchange fact books of official lists covering a ten-year period (2010-2019). The study employed Multiple Regression Model as the technique of data analysis with the aid of SPSS 23 statistical software. Analysis of findings showed that CSR charitable donation expenditure, CSR expenditure on education and CSR societal expenditure reveal significant relationship with investment efficiency of oil and gas firms in Nigeria. Nevertheless, CSR health expenditure and CSR environmental expenditure show insignificant effect on investment efficiency of oil and gas firms in Nigeria. The study also reveals that there is significant relationship between CSR sports expenditure and investment efficiency of oil and gas firms in Nigeria. With respect to the findings, the study recommends that the oil and gas firms should boost and monitor their CSR charitable donation expenditure, CSR on health expenditures, CSR environmental and CSR sport expenditures and observe them closely since they reveal negative effect. The study also recommends that CSR expenditure on education and CSR societal expenditure should be upheld and sustained since they reveal significant positive effect on investment efficiency of oil and gas firms in Nigeria.
Haghamad Allzain, Yassir Hamadalnil
International Journal of Research -GRANTHAALAYAH, Volume 9, pp 161-167; https://doi.org/10.29121/granthaalayah.v9.i11.2021.4337

Abstract:
COVID-19 is unprecedented pandemic threading the mankind existence in the recent time, with globally reported (256,966,237) confirmed cases, including (5,151,643) death, as of 22 of November 2021(WHO. 2021). The COVID-19 vaccine doses administered globally were (7,408,870,760) doses as of 22 of November 2021 (WHO. 2021). Strategy to face this serious threat include prevention of getting infection and rational treatment of symptomatic infected ones. Treatment can adopt one or all of the three strategies; prohibiting the virus from entry into the human cells, halt replication of the virus inside the human cells, and neutralizing the inflammatory and other effects of the virus pathogencity. Replication inhibitors are important tool in the tools box against COVID-19, however they are not substitute for vaccination against COVID-19 and other adopted preventive measurements. Still prevention is the best medicine for any disease. The aim of this review is to further explore the replication inhibitors as emerging tools for treatment of symptomatic cases of COVID-19. Many encouraging results have emerged from recent clinical trials. This may help to bridge the gap in existence knowledge and stimulate further discussion to enhance conducting more clinical trials for the treatment of COVID-19 and repurpose already existing other viral replicating indictors for treatment of COVID-19. Remdesivir, Molnupiravir and Paxlovid are promising viral replicating inhibitors drugs for treatment of symptomatic COVID-19 patients. Since Molnupiravir and Paxlovid are given orally as five days short course, are significantly of great value for low-income countries
Hira Zaidi, Arsia Hanif, Salman Niaz Ahmed, Iqbal A. M Khyani
International Journal of Research -GRANTHAALAYAH, Volume 9, pp 156-160; https://doi.org/10.29121/granthaalayah.v9.i11.2021.4391

Abstract:
Pilomatrixoma, also known as pilomatrixoma or calcifying epithelioma of Malherbe, is a benign tumor of skin appendages. Although it is an uncommon and benign neoplasm of the head and neck region, it may sometimes become malignant. It arises from the cells of the outer sheath of the hair follicle root. Owing to its rarity, pilomatrixoma can be missed during differential diagnosis, and it can be misdiagnosed as malignancy. Therefore, for definitive and confirmatory diagnosis, histopathological analysis is imperative. We report a case of a 26-year-old female who presented with hard swelling on the right side of her face near the angle of the mandible. We have discussed its clinical, radiological, and histological findings and reflected light on the treatment of choice for pilomatrixoma.
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