American Economic & Social Review

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2576-1269 / 2576-1277
Total articles ≅ 52
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Afsana Mimi, Ali Imran, Tahrima Haque Beg, Sazidur Rahman
American Economic & Social Review, Volume 9, pp 17-28; https://doi.org/10.46281/aesr.v9i1.1733

Abstract:
This research investigates the initiatives and actions taken by the Government of Bangladesh and institutions to attract women into e-commerce and introduce these women as financially independent. The existence and power of women in Bangladesh are very weak, and this is due to dependency, lack of education, and skills. To remove these obstacles and empower women through e-commerce, the Government and different institutions are taking various initiatives and actions as they can contribute to the development of Bangladesh. This study evaluates how Government and other institutions are working to introduce e-commerce as a strong tool for women's economic independence in Bangladesh. The Government is taking action to provide direct funds, introducing simple policies, tax exemptions, easy business space, transportation assistance, and many other ways. Different organizations are also working to assist the Government of Bangladesh in empowering women through e-commerce. The policy recommendations could be helpful for The Government of the People's Republic of Bangladesh to mitigate its challenges and make this sector more profitable.
Afsana Mimi, Ali Imran, Jasia Mustafa, Tahrima Haque Beg, Sazidur Rahman
American Economic & Social Review, Volume 9, pp 9-16; https://doi.org/10.46281/aesr.v9i1.1723

Abstract:
This research investigates the efforts taken by the women for introducing themselves as financially independent through e-commerce from the perspective of Bangladesh. After the outbreak of COVID-19, women of Bangladesh suffered a lot in case of – loss of jobs, lower wages, lower educational support, lower access to information, and deterioration of mental health due to depression and anxiety. At this bad time, e-commerce has shown women a new way of survival and gained economic independence. This study is for evaluating how e-commerce becomes a strong tool for women's economic independence during the period of this pandemic. Though there are some obstacles, e-commerce is opening the door to women’s success. Bangladesh is a developing country where most people think that the only duty of women is cooking and looking after children but e-commerce is giving the opportunity to the women to work at home and become financially independent. The policy recommendations for encouraging women in e-commerce and mitigating their challenges could be helpful for The Government of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh in making this sector more profitable.  JEL Classification Codes: L81.
Muhammad Mostofa Hossain, Luqman Haji Abdullah
American Economic & Social Review, Volume 9, pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.46281/aesr.v9i1.1667

Abstract:
The Covid-19 pandemic has direly smacked over 200 countries, threatening global economic growth that has adversely been peeved by the outbreak. It has patterned jeopardizes globally encompassing economic recession, probable high unemployment rate, mounting the poverty line and death of over 2.5 million people. Meanwhile, the second peak of the pandemic is infuriating many countries which may result in around 13% to 32% projected global trade downgrade. Alike, the South Asian economy is suffering from a dire hit of the pandemic and undergoing an atrocious economical mishap. It resulted in a potential decline in the economy than in a normal downturn which materialized different rebounds in habitual succession. Islam safeguards all necessities to authenticate people’s well-being. Protecting ‘life’ and ‘wealth’ from those necessities means securing the human being from natural and human-made shocks. Islam, therefore, represents a set of principles to exile the shocks like the Covid-19 pandemic. The paper aims to highlight the Islamic framework and policy responses using its financial tools to get rid of the pandemic crisis in South Asia, especially in the Muslim countries of the reign.JEL Classification Codes: A10
Nor Effuandy Pfordten, Jafor Ali, Norhaila Bt. Sabli, Kamal Uddin, Abul Bashar Bhuiyan
American Economic & Social Review, Volume 8, pp 22-29; https://doi.org/10.46281/aesr.v8i1.1551

Abstract:
Quality Higher Education transforms human life into meaningful human resources. Moreover, it brings qualitative changes in humankind and socioeconomic development with the help of extended knowledge and higher skills. But, most of the traditional student loan mechanisms are based on interest (riba) therefore, many devout Muslims are struggling with traditional student financing, as interest (riba) is impermissible in Islamic shariah. This study aims to analyze student financing concepts based on shariah perspective and to evaluate the shariah issues that are associated to its application. The present qualitative study adopts mostly relied primary and secondary sources of Islamic shariah such as Quran, Hadith, Islamic Jurisprudence, and Islamic scholars’ views. The deliberations evolve at reviewing on the shariah concept of Qard-al-hassan, Qard-bil-ujrah, waqf (Islamic trust bank), and takaful. Finally, the present study highlights that the higher education financing based on the shariah concept could also be generalized into education financing that would be interest(riba) free and acceptable to the Muslim community at large.
Fouzia Perveen, Afaq Ali Khan
American Economic & Social Review, Volume 8, pp 11-21; https://doi.org/10.46281/aesr.v8i1.1454

Abstract:
This research paper aims to find out the relationship between Official Development Assistance and sustainable development in Pakistan. Time series data was taken for the period of 42 years (1976 -2017). Sustainable Development is a dependent variable for which proxy variable of Adjusted Net Savings has been deployed. ODA (% of GNI), Inflation, Per Capita GDP and Trade (GDP %) have been used as explanatory variables. Augmented Dickey-Fuller Test has been applied to examine the nature of the data as time series data may contain unit root problems. ADF test confirms mixed order of integration for the selected variables, hence Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) Approach was applied to find out the long-run relationship among the considered variables. Estimation of Error Correction Regression resulted in a significant long-run relationship between ODA and Sustainable Development. ECM Regression also signifies the negative and significant value of the speed of adjustment term confirming that the model is stable and convergent towards the equilibrium. Overall results of this study confirm a positive and highly significant relationship between ODA and the measure of sustainable development in Pakistan. Therefore it is recommended that attention should be given to drawing on foreign assistance and it should be subject to the transparent and efficient practices applied in the Aid Allocation. It significantly improves the overall welfare of Pakistan.
Syed Irfanul Hoque, Asif Mahbub Karim, Rabiul Hossen, Dina Arjumand
American Economic & Social Review, Volume 8, pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.46281/aesr.v8i1.1295

Abstract:
Telemedicine provides healthcare services to the patients through the adaptation of a telecommunication system, as opposed to the face-to-face conventional way of visiting a hospital and doctor's chamber. In the new-normal situation during COVID 19, telemedicine is a new way forward in the absence of conventional appointments with doctors to ensure regular health services. It is important to evaluate patients' satisfaction with service qualities and their perception of telemedicine service. The study proposed a conceptual framework based on the e-SERVQUAL model and TAM model to evaluate the service qualities and customers' satisfaction. Data has been collected through a telephone questionnaire survey from the patients through the psychiatric department who have received healthcare services provided by Maizbhanderi Foundation. Data has been analyzed using IBM SPSS Statistics version 23 according to the patients’ responses on the service qualities including responsiveness, reliability, information quality, empathy, ease of use, perceived usefulness, and their satisfaction with the telemedicine service. The study used Spearman Rank Co-relation to evaluate the co-relation of service qualities with customer satisfaction following the conceptual framework of the study. The result shows a positive co-relation of service qualities with customers’ satisfaction. The study will help to determine the customers' satisfaction with service qualities using technology. 
Candace M. Pohl, John R. Slate
American Economic & Social Review, Volume 7, pp 25-33; https://doi.org/10.46281/aesr.v7i1.1281

Abstract:
This study was conducted to determine the degree to which economic status was related to Discipline Alternative Education Program placement assignments for Grades 8 and 9 Black boys and Black girls who were at-risk during the 2017-2018 school year. Inferential statistical analyses of Texas statewide data revealed the presence of statistically significant differences in the number of Discipline Alternative Education Program placement assignments by the economic status of Black boys and Black girls at both grade levels. Grades 8 and 9 Black boys and girls who were at-risk and who were economically disadvantaged were assigned to statistically significantly more of these exclusionary discipline consequences than their counterparts who were not economically disadvantaged. Grade 8 Black boys who were economically disadvantaged were assigned to these exclusionary discipline consequences two times more often than Grade 8 Black boys who were not economically disadvantaged. Grade 8 Black girls who were economically disadvantaged were assigned to these exclusionary discipline consequences two-thirds more often than Grade 8 Black girls who were not economically disadvantaged. Grade 9 Black boys and Black girls who were economically disadvantaged were assigned these exclusionary discipline consequences one-third more often than their non-economically disadvantaged peers. Implications and recommendations for future research were discussed.
Sultana Akter
American Economic & Social Review, Volume 7, pp 10-24; https://doi.org/10.46281/aesr.v7i1.1171

Abstract:
To understand the financial condition of a firm, it is mandated to evaluate the financial fitness of a firm, whether manufacturing, trading and service rendering etc. The main purpose of this research is to measure the financial fitness of leading pharmaceutical industries and listed on the stock exchange in Bangladesh. This study employs a sample of seven companies from pharmaceutical industries in Bangladesh where Altman’s Z-score model is used to assess the financial fitness of those companies by the prediction of whether they will go into bankruptcy within the next two years. By applying the model, it is revealed that SQUARE Pharmaceuticals Ltd, Renata Limited and IBN SINA Pharmaceutical Limited are in a very good position with higher Z-Score. Beacon Pharmaceuticals Limited and Ambee Pharmaceuticals Limited are heading toward good scores. But ACI Limited and Beximco Pharmaceuticals Limited are financially unhealthy and there is a possibility of going into bankruptcy in the near future. The finding of the study suggested the main reason for such a situation is that the performance of companies is differed by declining market value of shares, falling total asset turnover, inadequate proportion of EBIT to total assets and insufficient liquid assets etc. JEL Classification Codes: G33, G53, M10.
Syed Irfanul Hoque, Nayeb Sajjadah Nasheen, Muhammad Ali Asgor, Ariful Islam
American Economic & Social Review, Volume 7, pp 1-9; https://doi.org/10.46281/aesr.v7i1.1030

Abstract:
Due to the pandemic situation, the whole world is in turmoil. The educational activities are being conducted via an e-Platform in Bangladesh. Social awareness and creativity enhancement Programs have also been limited from the wide range of conventional mode to virtual mode. In the meantime, many Social organizations and educational institutions have failed to manage their regular activities due to lack of technological support. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to examine the success of social awareness and creativity enhancement programs through the e-Learning platform. In order to measure the success of the program a quasi-experimental research design has been applied. In order to collect data, a well-structured creativity, and awareness scale has been adapted. A questionnaire has been administered twice with the same sample. Once before the program offered and again after their participation in the program. The test-retest reliability of the scale would also check with a minimum of α=.80. Therefore, the findings of the research will show how much the effectiveness of those activities increased. This study will assist the social workers, teachers, students and concerned authority in operating creativity enhancement related co-curricular and non-credited program through self-regulated distance learning in a developing country.
American Economic & Social Review, Volume 6, pp 13-30; https://doi.org/10.46281/aesr.v6i2.851

Abstract:
Self-control is by all explanations a basic worth affecting how others see us and how we see ourselves. The basic aim of the study is to elaborate the vice versa relationship among the factor to test whether certain psychological variable which increases the satisfaction with life. Component of happiness with the influence of locus of control is correlated with each other which is we find in this research. The participants in the study were 307 students of the different institutes who fill questionnaires through snowball sampling. This had a significant huge relationship with the locus of control. In this study, we use a different technique to find the relationship with data. Firstly we test the reliability of the questionnaire which is used by the different researcher in their research article after this we find the correlation which shows the positive result among the variable. Subsequently, MANOVA and other test were applied in this research to emphasize how self-control plays a major role to enhance the level of happiness which discovered the true meaning of satisfaction. This study recommended that if students and people are good at self-control elements in different situations then they will be happier and satisfied with their life. Moreover, the investigation uncovered that self-control has emphatically corresponded with Happiness, regularity feeling, and satisfaction with life. Research on happiness has caused it conceivable to better comprehend human behaviour in different parts of life.
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