Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review (RJSSER)

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2707-9015 / 2707-9023
Total articles ≅ 158
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Zaigham Ali, Ammar Hussain, Zubair Ahmed
Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review (RJSSER), Volume 2, pp 414-427; https://doi.org/10.36902/rjsser-vol2-iss1-2021(414-427)

Abstract:
The purpose of this research is to break down the monitoring process to explore the problems which impede cost efficiency in contract monitoring in a developing country, such as Pakistan. This research investigated the issues and challenges to the cost-efficient and effective implementation of project monitoring systems in public sector construction projects in Pakistan. This study uses the transaction cost economics (TCE) lens, to explore the project monitoring process of construction projects, 25 interviews with Engineers and Associate engineers were conducted from public sector construction projects. Qualitative research was performed, and thick qualitative data has been coded, categorized, analyzed, and concluded. The study concluded that in principle, project monitoring contributes to reduced transaction costs, depending on how efficiently governance arrangements are made. Hurdles related to weak governance in the organization significantly increase the post-contract transaction cost (TC). As a result of the analysis, multiple issues have been identified from the study such as Political realities, capacity building, resource constraints, administrative issues, mutual dependency, and department coordination has a direct influence on the TCs in construction projects. The result of this study provides a deeper understanding and clear roadmap of the ongoing monitoring practices and processes in the public sector construction projects. It identifies the problems and issues of the monitoring process in the construction industry of developing countries which potentially causes to increase in the total project cost.
Zia Ur Rehman, Abdul Khaliq Alvi, Zaeem Ahmad
Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review (RJSSER), Volume 2, pp 303-316; https://doi.org/10.36902/rjsser-vol2-iss1-2021(303-316)

Abstract:
This research aims to check the mediating role of resilience between the relationships of hope with life satisfaction. Hope and mindfulness are independent variables and life satisfaction is the dependent variable. This is cross-sectional research and data was collected from 350 employees of an engineering company randomly. Simple linear and multiple regression analyses are performed for testing the hypotheses of the study. Results indicate that hope has a direct positive impact on life satisfaction and resilience respectively. Moreover, resilience is partially mediating the relationship of hope with life satisfaction. The current study considers only the employees of Mott MacDonald Group. Current research is a case study on Mott MacDonald Group, so cannot generalize the results on other types of industry and describes only a few predictors of life satisfaction. Future researches will also conduct on the same kind of engineering firm for generalization. In future researches, some other variables as predictors and outcomes may also include for explaining the phenomenon of life satisfaction. It is also beneficial to conduct this kind of research on sectors like the textile sector, banking sector, and telecom sector. Life satisfaction is very supportive for the organizations to maintain balance in work and lives of employees which may result in dedicated employees. The proposed research model of life satisfaction is satisfactorily supported by empirical tests.
Shaukat Ali, Saddam Hussain, Iftikhar Ali
Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review (RJSSER), Volume 2, pp 382-389; https://doi.org/10.36902/rjsser-vol2-iss1-2021(382-389)

Abstract:
This study exploits John Milton's poems "On His Blindness, and "Methought I Saw My Late Espoused Saint" for teaching speaking skills to ESL learners. The study utilized a quasi-experimental design consisting of a treatment group (TG) and a comparison group (CG). CG was taught through conventional language text whereas TG was treated with the aforementioned poems. The main focus of the study was to observe the language learning behavior of the students of both TG and CG during language learning activities. The study therefore employed observation field notes beside the speaking type pretest and posttest as tools of data collection. The thematic analysis of the observation field notes indicated that the students of TG were confident, motivated, involved in, and excited about the language learning activities. On the contrary, the students of the CG were found to be hesitant, passive, and demotivated during the language learning venture. Consequently, the students of TG performed significantly better than that of CG on the posttest. The study recommends that poetry should be utilized for teaching the English language in general and speaking skills in particular.
Farooq Hussain Dr, Muhammad Shah, Azmat Ali
Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review (RJSSER), Volume 2, pp 460-465; https://doi.org/10.36902/rjsser-vol2-iss1-2021(460-465)

Abstract:
The study examined to analyze the different levels of pre-competitive anxiety for inexperienced and inexperienced athletes. The pre-competitive anxiety factors were evaluated with the help of competitive state anxiety inventory – 2 (Urdu version). CSAI-2 questionnaire is composed of twenty-seven items having three subscales e.g. cognitive anxiety, somatic anxiety, and self-confidence. A sample of 360 athletes was taken through a stratified sampling technique for the examination of pre-competitive anxiety levels. The data of 360 athletes were further stratified into two sets of 180 experienced and 180 inexperienced athletes between the ages of 16 to 27 years. The questionnaire was distributed one hour before the start of the competition. T-test has been used to assess the data collected for investigation. The results displayed a significant difference in somatic, cognitive aspects of anxiety and self-confidence among the college-level experienced and inexperienced athletes.
Shaukat Ali, Iftikhar Ali, Saddam Hussain
Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review (RJSSER), Volume 2, pp 428-435; https://doi.org/10.36902/rjsser-vol2-iss1-2021(428-435)

Abstract:
Tenses are one of the vital essentials of grammar. Command over the English language demands a thorough understanding of tenses. Although much research has been conducted on the teaching of the English language in the context of Pakistan, little has been dug out about the problems faced by students regarding the applications of tenses. This paper investigates the perceptions of both students and teachers of the difficulties in the applications of tenses facing ESL learners. Data were collected from 150 students and 30 teachers of government high schools through a structured questionnaire. The results of the study showed that the students are confronted with many difficulties in the application of tenses consisting of using future indefinite tense instead of the simple present tense regarding its use for scheduled future activities, using present continuous tense instead of a simple present for the permanent situation in the present, using future indefinite tense for planned future activities and so on. The results also indicated that the difficulties were caused by inappropriate teaching methodology, lack of speaking environment inside the classroom, translations from the mother tongue into English and vice versa, much focus on rules and teaching sentences and expressions as isolated units rather than an integral part of the discourse. In the light of the results, it is recommended that while teaching tenses, teachers should focus both on rules and applications of tenses. English should be taught more as a language than as a mere body of rules. Moreover, teachers should be properly trained in teaching tenses.
Muhammad Shah, Farooq Hussain, Azmat Ali
Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review (RJSSER), Volume 2, pp 446-452; https://doi.org/10.36902/rjsser-vol2-iss1-2021(446-452)

Abstract:
Sleep is increasingly being an integral part of a training routine rather than a stagnant state of inactivity, and as a controllable factor that can modify performance for elite athletes. Athletes report high rates of sleep disturbance especially during intense workloads which directly affects athletic performance and may predispose individuals to injury. This study aimed to evaluate the quality of sleep and the various risk factors associated with it among Pakistani athletes. From February to April 2020, a cross-sectional, multi-center study was conducted involving athletes aged 18 and up, of either gender, from various cities in Pakistan... A validated Urdu version of the Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI) instrument was used to identify sleep quality. Out of 205 participants, n=84 athletes were bad sleepers based on PSQI score. Of whom, the majority were males n=75 (89.3%), and having age group of 18-30 years n=71 (84.5%). Binary logistic regression demonstrated no statistically significant association between any of the factor and PSQI score. The study found a disturbing quality of sleep in a considerable number of athletes. Therefore, interventions should be done to improve sleep quality so that the performance of the athletes can be improved.
Sajjad Ahmad, Sana Aziz, Umar Sajjad
Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review (RJSSER), Volume 2, pp 16-21; https://doi.org/10.36902/rjsser-vol2-iss1-2021(16-21)

Abstract:
In translation and cultural studies, the issue of (in) visibility of translator has taken its firm grounds especially after the publication of Venuti’s (1995) The Invisibility of Translator and its subsequent row of arguments and counter-arguments for and against the theoretical perspective as given in the book. The current research paper is an attempt to have an overview of Venuti’s and his critics’ arguments and add to the existing discussion of (in) visibility of translator, foreignization, and domestication of translation and projection and preservation of source culture during the act of translation by resisting the linguistic and cultural hegemony of English. This paper has, broadly, three main divisions of ideas: a firstly brief overview of Venuti’s arguments; secondly, a brief overview of Venuti’s most recent critics’ arguments like Pym, Tymoczko, Baker, Cronin, and Shamma; and thirdly the researchers own arguments about the issue based on the detailed analysis of previous literature. Conducting a close reading, as a popular method of analysis in qualitative research methodology, of the literature related to the issue of visibility of translator, the researcher has tried to suggest that the act of translation, during the voluntary act of foreignization, adds a concocted essence to the real spirit of the literary piece of work which neither remains beneficial for the assertion of the individuality of the source culture nor it helps very much in the resistance of the dominating language and culture. At the cost of aesthetic pleasure, the foreignization method also entails the sacrifice of literary meanings and effects.
Maqsood Hayat, Shehzad Khan, Kiran Alim
Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review (RJSSER), Volume 2, pp 1-15; https://doi.org/10.36902/rjsser-vol2-iss1-2021(1-15)

Abstract:
The study aims to explore the CSR's structure over some time (2016-2019) and draw a distinct pattern about the MNEs operating in Pakistan. Content analysis was used to extract the contextual meaning from the available data to set up the foundation for further research questions and draw a basic CSR prototype through an inductive method to develop a theory. CSR's structure is scattered and irregular in Pakistan. The exact pattern and involvement in specific dimensions are not defined, and the tendency is not identical even in the same industry. All enterprises operating in Pakistan need to exercise the updated corporate governance styles, practice both local and international CSR standards to achieve maximum corporate benefits. CSR concept is a 'time & space' sensitive phenomenon and receptive to domestic culture and institution, especially in developing countries. This research study has tried to sketch a fundamental and general but exact pattern of CSR activities observed within MNEs working in Pakistan.
Saima Aftab, Ajmal Waheed
Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review (RJSSER), Volume 2, pp 232-243; https://doi.org/10.36902/rjsser-vol2-iss1-2021(232-243)

Abstract:
Organizational development is the key to success depending highly on the behaviors of individuals working within. This study has tested the impact of two types of proactive behaviors i.e., proactive problem solving (PPS) and proactive idea implementation (PII) on organizational development. The self-efficacy of employees is taken as a moderator on the direct relationship of PPS and PII with organizational development (OD). Data is collected from managerial employees of manufacturing organizations in Rawalpindi, Islamabad, and KPK region in Pakistan, through self-administered survey questionnaires. Results show that PPS and PII have a positive significant relationship with organizational development. Self-efficacy strongly moderates the direct relationships of PPS and PII with OD in such a way that the higher the levels of self-efficacy, the stronger will be the relationship of PII and PPS with OD. This research provides useful insights into the organizational development literature highlighting the importance of proactivity and self-efficacy resources of employees.
Abdul Waheed, Dr. Muhammad Iqbal Majoka, Shawana Fazal
Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review (RJSSER), Volume 2, pp 174-181; https://doi.org/10.36902/rjsser-vol2-iss1-2021(174-181)

Abstract:
This study was carried out to explore the implementation of quality enhancement initiatives at the university level in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. The main focus was on the aspect of quality teaching. The study covered the following research objectives: to examine teachers' training and preparation for enhancing the quality of classroom teaching; to find out facilities and resources provided for the enhancement of quality of classroom teaching; to analyze classroom practices taken by teachers for the enhancement of quality of classroom teaching. Data were collected from 68 heads of department and 258 faculty members of the related departments. The sample of the study consisted of two hundred fifty-eight (258) University teachers and sixty-eight (68) Heads of Department. Two research instruments were used for data collection one for faculty members and the other for heads of department. The data were analyzed using the mean score, percentage, and chi-square test. The findings of the study revealed that need-based training facilities for university teachers and smart classroom facilities are slightly imparted in the universities of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. The study also recommends that quality facilities, resources, and need-based training programs may equally be provided for quality teaching-learning processes in all the public sector universities of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.
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