Journal of Civil Engineering and Transport

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2658-1698 / 2658-2120
Total articles ≅ 24
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Journal of Civil Engineering and Transport, Volume 3, pp 39-47; https://doi.org/10.24136/tren.2021.004

Abstract:
The paper analyses the propulsion systems of inland waterway vessels according to the criteria of economic efficiency, ecology and safety. The professional experience of the authors and their expert knowledge indicate that always the increase of safety level as well as ecological solutions are realized at the expense of economic efficiency. Therefore, arguing for the result of such analysis, the features of water bodies, port infrastructure and elements which should influence the selection of propulsion systems, features of various types of power and fuels with their energy value guaranteeing the swimming range were described. Types of propulsion systems were characterized and a model of selection of propulsion system to the type of sailing was presented. The analysis presented in the article is necessary for a reliable assessment of the accuracy of the selection of the propulsion system for the actual conditions of operation of sea and inland waterway vessels, i.e. for the type of the vessel and its suitability to perform operational tasks on specific waterways.
Journal of Civil Engineering and Transport, Volume 3, pp 29-37; https://doi.org/10.24136/tren.2021.003

Abstract:
The article presents a cross-sectional view of the development of the HEV car market over the last two decades. Hybrid cars are currently the widest group of cars equipped with alternative to classic drive systems. They are also the most numerous group among electric vehicles. The historical meanders of HEV development were described, as well as the current level of development of this market and the real prospects for the popularization of HEV cars. The level of world production of this category of motor vehicles in the twenty-year period 2001-2020 was also characterized. The article attempts to estimate the real size of the world\'s HEV fleet. The level of sales of this category of vehicles by individual countries and their changing percentage share in the passenger car market were also presented. Sales of electric hybrids even in the crisis year 2020 increased from 3.2 million to approx. 4 million vehicles, despite a decrease in sales of new passenger cars from 64 to 54 million units. The above fact also proves the market attractiveness of this type of vehicles and the constantly growing interest in them.
Journal of Civil Engineering and Transport, Volume 3, pp 9-16; https://doi.org/10.24136/tren.2021.001

Abstract:
The article describes trackside part of the ERTMS / ETCS system installed on Railway Research Institute Test Track Centre in Żmigród where functional tests of ?trackside Control-Command and Signalling" interoperability constituent prototypes i.e. eurobalises were conducted based on the elaborated test schedule and the conditions contained in the specifications of Susbset 040 and Subset 036. Moreover structure of an exemplary telegram sent from the eurobalise to the traction vehicle through the air gap i.e. interface A1 was shown. Selected requirements for timing and distance parameters that eurobalises have to meet during designing the trackside part of the ERTMS / ETCS system were also presented. In addition, the methodology adopted during tests was characterized and the list of functional tests carried out at the selected test site was specified. The paper summary describes the conclusions of the tests and the main features of Railway Research Institute Test Track Centre.
Cezary Krysiuk
Journal of Civil Engineering and Transport, Volume 3, pp 17-27; https://doi.org/10.24136/tren.2021.002

Abstract:
The article presents selected issues from the conducted research and analyzes in the field of the development of autonomous vehicles, carried out under the project: Polish road to Automation of Road Transport. The development of autonomous cars is a global challenge for the automotive industry. The creation of a fully autonomous vehicle capable of transporting passengers and goods without the participation of a driver has become a priority goal of automotive concerns. The huge costs incurred by automotive concerns for the development of autonomous vehicles prove the progressing automotive revolution, which will have a significant impact on the shape of future transport systems, transport based on autonomous transport. Very often in the literature there are overly optimistic forecasts for the development of autonomous vehicles, as well as overestimating the benefits they are to bring, without pointing to the costs and problems of their implementation and functioning in the real transport system. The publication presents forecasts for the development of autonomous vehicles as well as the related risks and advantages of their implementation. The factors that have a significant impact on the development of these vehicles are also outlined.
Andrzej Szymanek
Journal of Civil Engineering and Transport, Volume 2, pp 177-190; https://doi.org/10.24136/tren.2020.013

Abstract:
The article presents selected concepts, models and theories of safety known from research and applications in various areas of technology and suitable for use in the field of transport. In particular, attention was paid to cognitively promising in the field of transport safety, and relatively little used research concepts here: Normal Accident Theory (NAT) Ch.Perrow, "Swiss cheese model" /SCh-M/ by J. Reason, concepts of "safe space of action" by J. Rasmussen and R. Amalberti, the concept of High Reliability Organizations /HRO/, or even interpretations of the transport system as a complex system (CS). The main aim of the article was to present some important general safety concepts and show that they can be used to model safety in the field of transport. The article shows that the so-called Geysen's thesis allows for the development of justified safety analogies between transport systems and such systems of technology that have greater scientific and engineering achievements in the field of safety.
Journal of Civil Engineering and Transport, Volume 2, pp 203-213; https://doi.org/10.24136/tren.2020.015

Abstract:
The provision of transport services is a crucial element of the modern economy and it is not an easy task. It requires taking into consideration a number of factors and expectations of travelers. Meeting these expectations results in the degree of use of a given carrier by travelers. In the article, using the method of documentation analysis, an assessment and comparison of the efficiency of the selected regional rail carriers providing transport services mainly within different provinces in Poland in the years 2017-2020 were made.
Journal of Civil Engineering and Transport, Volume 2, pp 191-202; https://doi.org/10.24136/tren.2020.014

Abstract:
The paper deals with the problem of traffic light control of road intersection. The authors use a model of a real road junction created in the AnyLogic modelling tool. For two scenarios, there are three simulation experiments performed ? fixed time control, fixed time control after AnyLogic-based optimizations, and dynamic control obtained through the cooperation of the AnyLogic tool and the Bonsai platform, utilizing benefits of deep reinforcement learning. At present, there are trends to simplify machine learning processes as much as possible to make them accessible to practitioners with no artificial intelligence background and without the need to become data scientists. Project Bonsai represents an easy-to-use connector, that allows to use AnyLogic models connected to the Bonsai platform - a novel approach to machine learning without the need to set any hyper-parameters. Due to unavailability of real operational data, the model uses simulation data only, with presence and movement of vehicles only (no pedestrians). The optimization problem consists in minimizing the average time that agents (vehicles) must spend in the model, passing the modelled intersection. Another observed parameter is the maximum time of individual vehicles spent in the model. The authors share their practical, mainly methodological, experiences with the simulation process and indicate economic cost needed for training as well.
Marzenna Dębowska-Mróz,
Journal of Civil Engineering and Transport, Volume 2, pp 215-235; https://doi.org/10.24136/tren.2020.016

Abstract:
The article presents the results of surveys on public transport and road infrastructure of Radom. There were 855 questionnaires obtained. The 19 questions of the survey were used. The survey, in addition to questions about age and gender, contained questions with specific answer options with single or multiple choice and questions in which the respondent rated the various elements of the transport system. From 8 questions, a 5-point Liekert scale was created as a basis for evaluating public transportation and road infrastructure. The reliability of the scale was assessed using the standardized Cronbach's coefficient. The analysis was done in selected groups of respondents with respect to age of respondents, gender of respondents and with respect to both characteristics simultaneously. Using the chi-square test of independence, the dependence of the scores on the age and gender of the respondents was examined. To compare the significance of differences in ratings between the separate groups of respondents, the test of significance of averages was used. The results of the survey indicate that although the overall rating is positive, due to the high percentage of negative ratings, it is necessary to take measures to improve, among other things: safety at bus stops and public transportation vehicles, availability and distribution of parking spaces. The results of the survey were compared with the results of previous surveys. Compared to the 2014 survey, a significant improvement was found in the condition of road infrastructure and the condition and distribution of bike lanes.
Journal of Civil Engineering and Transport, Volume 2, pp 139-148; https://doi.org/10.24136/tren.2020.011

Abstract:
This article presents the results of numerical research on operational mechanical loads, carried out for the main structural elements of a cross-belt sorter: tracks and trolleys with trays. The goal of the research was to collect data required at the stage of designing new solutions of the sorters. A novelty is an analytical model that allows to determine the influence of the motion velocity of trolleys, frictional properties and mass of sorted objects on the forces transmitted from the trolleys to the track, the sorting efficiency and power required by the drive systems.
, , Łukasz Parszutowicz
Journal of Civil Engineering and Transport, Volume 2, pp 149-163; https://doi.org/10.24136/tren.2020.012

Abstract:
The article presents an analytical approach to building a mathematical model of a quadrocopter. The main purpose of building the model was to design an appropriate facility control system and analyze its behavior in various situations. The assumption was made to build a model, control system and all accompanying algorithms in an open programming environment, which will allow their subsequent implementation in a real facility, without the need to use expensive software. The quadrocopter is controlled by the operator by means of hand movements that are read by the camera and properly interpreted using advanced image processing methods. The entire system is visualized and embedded in a three-dimensional simulation environment. The model study was conducted using a DC motor as an input data source. The operation of the model was checked with a controller when a disturbance was introduced into the model. The four-rotor model with a selected regulator was tested by analyzing the angular velocity and position of the object in a rectangular coordinate system. At the end of the article, the results of the simulations made are presented and the resulting conclusions are presented.
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