Babcock University Medical Journal

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2465-6666 / 2756-4657
Published by: Babcock Medical Society (10.38029)
Total articles ≅ 60
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Manmak Mamven, Ifeanyi Ucha, Oluseyi Adejumo
Published: 30 June 2022
Babcock University Medical Journal, Volume 5, pp 45-53; https://doi.org/10.38029/babcockunivmedj.v5i1.125

Abstract:
Objective: Chronic kidney disease is characterized by a state of chronic inflammation which is associated with poor cardiovascular disease outcomes. The study determined the prevalence of elevated neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio and platelet-lymphocyte ratio as surrogate markers of inflammation and their association with some cardiovascular risk factors among pre-dialysis CKD patients. Method: This was a cross-sectional study to determine and compare the prevalence of elevated NLR and PLR. The correlation between these surrogate inflammatory markers and some cardiovascular risk factors was determined. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 21 software. P-value of < 0.05 was taken as significant. Results: This study involved 51 pre-dialysis CKD patients and 51 controls with mean ages of 50.96±11.42 years and 48.31±9.83 years, respectively. The prevalence of elevated NLR was significantly higher in the CKD group (35.3% vs13.7%; P=0.010). In the CKD group, there was significant negative correlation between NLR and eGFR (r= -0.393; P=0.004), hemoglobin concentration (r= -0.543; P=<0.001) and HDL (r= -0.292; P=0.037). There was significant positive correlation between NLR and PLR (r=0.669; P=<0.001), TC:HDL (r=0.334; P=0.017), AIP(r=0.289; P=0.042) and LDL:HDL (r=0.320; P=0.020). There was significant positive correlation between PLR, NLR (r=0.695; P=<0.001) and AIP (r=0.283; P=0.047). There was significant negative correlation between PLR and estimated GFR (r=- 0.448; P=0.001), hemoglobin concentration (r= -0.596; P=<0.001), serum albumin (r= -0.388; P=0.005), serum HDL-C (r= -0.387; P= 0.005). Conclusion: NLR and PLR were significantly higher in pre-dialysis CKD patients and were associated with cardiovascular risk. They should be routinely used to identify those with high cardiovascular risk.
Nafisat Usman, Benjamin Dominic, Bilkisu Nwankwo, Awawu Nmadu, Nanben Omole, Oyiza Usman
Published: 30 June 2022
Babcock University Medical Journal, Volume 5; https://doi.org/10.38029/babcockunivmedj.v5i1.118

Abstract:
Objective: To determine the prevalence of workplace violence and associated factors in secondary health facilities in Kaduna Metropolis. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study where a semi-structured questionnaire was used to obtain data from 177 health workers who were selected by multistage sampling. The Data was analyzed using SPSS version 23 and results were presented using frequency tables. The Chi-square test was used to test for association between independent and dependent variables. Fisher’s Exact Test was used where more than 20% of the cells had a value less than 5. The level of statistical significance was set at a p-value of <0.05. Results: The results showed that 114 (64.4%) of the respondents had experienced workplace violence; the form which was experienced by most of the respondents was verbal abuse 100 (87.7%). Most (92; 80.7%) of the respondents did nothing following the incident. Most of the respondents believed that lack of bed space 89 (50.3%) and long waiting time 119 (67.3%) are largely responsible for violent situations. There was a statistically significant relationship between the experience of workplace violence and respondents’ age (p=0.001); sex (p=0.00146); cadre (p=0.0012) and work experience (p=0.00483). Conclusion: Most of the respondents had experienced violence in the workplace but did not pursue further action. Training health workers on the means to identify volatile situations and address workplace violence is crucial to ensuring the reduction in the prevalence of harmful incidents. The safety and protection of health workers are integral to the adequate functioning of health systems.
John Imaralu, Funmilayo Oguntade, Chimaobi Nwankpa, Olumuyiwa Adelowo
Published: 30 June 2022
Babcock University Medical Journal, Volume 5; https://doi.org/10.38029/bumj.v5i1.109

Abstract:
Background: Intra-peritoneal drainage dates back to the time of Hippocrates when long bone tissue, metal, and glass tubes were employed. The benefit of routine intra-peritoneal drainage however remains debatable in contemporary times. Retained drains may be outward manifestations of more sinister or latent complications and how an entrapped surgical drain is removed, may determine the occurrence of further complications. Case Presentation: We report here the case of a 32-year-old primipara who had a retained improvised peritoneal drain, which was inserted during the cesarean section for continued oozing of serosanguineous fluid. Omental tissue found at laparoscopy, to have plugged a fenestration in the drain, was promptly relieved. A loop of the Fallopian tube was however later observed trapped in another fenestration and herniating into the stab incision of the drain tube towards the exterior, this was freed with an atraumatic laparoscopic grasper and drain tube retrieval completed under laparoscopic visualization. Conclusion: Insertion of the peritoneal drain during cesarean section should be carefully considered, when necessary; it should be done with the most appropriate drainage systems. Retrieval of the peritoneal drain is a risk factor for visceral herniation. Entrapped drains should be retrieved, under direct visualization, to prevent iatrogenic injuries.
Adebayo Adewole, Adegboyega Fawole, Munirdeen Ijaiya, Abiodun Adeniran, Adeshina Kikelomo, Abiodun Aboyeji
Published: 30 June 2022
Babcock University Medical Journal, Volume 5, pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.38029/bumj.v5i1.99

Abstract:
Objectives: This study aimed to determine the rate and predictive factors for successful vaginal birth after cesarean delivery, and measure maternal and neonatal outcomes of VBAC following one previous cesarean delivery. Methods: In this hospital-based prospective study, sixty women with one previous CD (subjects) who attempted VBAC and another sixty without previous CD (controls) carrying singleton cephalic fetuses matched for maternal age, parity, and gestational age were compared. The primary outcome measures were successful vaginal delivery and its predictors. Data were analyzed using SPSS (version 22.0), and p<0.05 was significant. Results: Out of 1768 deliveries, 105 (5.9%) had one previous CD; 57.1% (60/105) attempted while 61.7% (37/60) had successful VBAC; 23 (38.3%) had failed VBAC and repeat CD, while 14 (23.3%) of the control group had CD. The significant predictors of successful VBAC were cervical dilatation ≥4cm on admission (p=0.003), maternal age >35 years (p=0.019); and augmentation of labor (p=0.020); while previous vaginal delivery (p=0.108), parity (p=0.706), BMI (0.240), and inter-delivery interval (p=0.265) were not statistically significant. The maternal and neonatal outcomes were not statistically different among women who had successful VBAC after one CD compared to women without previous CD. Important morbidities following VBAC included uterine rupture (3.3%) and primary postpartum hemorrhage (6.7%). There was no peripartum hysterectomy or maternal death; the perinatal mortality rate was 16.7/1,000 live births for women who attempted VBAC while no perinatal death was recorded among the controls. Conclusion: VBAC is safe, and its outcome is comparable to women without previous CD.
Ime Ani, Adeola Adeola, Nnenna Ajuzie, Miriam Sam-Okere
Published: 30 June 2022
Babcock University Medical Journal, Volume 5, pp 54-62; https://doi.org/10.38029/babcockunivmedj.v5i1.130

Abstract:
Objective: The study assessed nutrition knowledge and attitude of final year medical and nursing students and inter-professional collaboration with dietitians in the management of patients. Methodology: This cross-sectional study of all final year medical and nursing and Babcock University students collected quantitative data using a structured questionnaire that contains sections on nutrition instruction hours, knowledge, attitude, and barriers to nutrition. Data obtained was analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20. Statistics were significant at p<0.05. Result: A total of 159 students participated in the study, 73 medical students and 86 nursing students. The proportion of those who had good, average, and poor knowledge scores were 50.3%, 39%, and 10.7% respectively. The attitude towards nutrition was positive. There was no significant relationship between nutrition knowledge and nutrition instruction hours during pre-clinical (P=0.368) and clinical years (P=0.245). Conclusion: Significant proportions of the students had good nutrition knowledge, however, there were gaps in knowledge in clinical nutrition; nutritional management of diabetes, hypertension, and renal diseases, respectively. There was a high positive attitude towards nutrition among the students but nutrition education was not perceived as sufficient to adequately prepare them for nutrition care of patients. Insufficient training for doctors and nurses, lack of confidence in the efficacy of the intervention of dietitians/nutritionists, and Lack of interest from patients to see the dietitian were the prominent barriers to inter-professional collaboration with dietitians/nutritionists.
Boladale Mapayi, Ibidun Oloniniyi, Morenike Folayan
Published: 30 June 2022
Babcock University Medical Journal, Volume 5; https://doi.org/10.38029/bumj.v5i1.104

Abstract:
The global pandemic of the coronavirus has resulted in a disruption in life as we know it, with massive effects on tourism, the healthcare system, and the global economy at large. Many countries, initiated measures to curtail the spread of the virus with non-pharmaceutical interventions such as lockdown, quarantine, social distancing, and movement restrictions. These measures while preventing the spread of the virus may have triggered another pandemic, albeit a silent one. This article reviews the burden of domestic, sexual, and gender-based violence in Nigeria highlighting the factors that may have interplayed with the lockdown to worsen the situation in Nigeria. This article also focuses on measures to strengthen medical, legal, and supportive responses to survivors.
Oluwafemi Ojo
Published: 30 June 2022
Babcock University Medical Journal, Volume 5, pp 37-44; https://doi.org/10.38029/babcockunivmedj.v5i1.124

Abstract:
Objective: Vaccination rates among risk groups vary between different countries. There are gaps in the implementation of the acceptable recommended guidelines on adult pneumococcal immunization in Nigeria. This study aims to evaluate the barriers for physicians in recommending pneumococcal vaccines. Methods: This was a descriptive cross-sectional survey involving 97 physicians. Self-administered questionnaires were sent electronically to the physicians to understand the barriers to adult pneumococcal vaccine recommendations among adult physicians in Lagos. The sample size was based on estimation using the Cochrane formula. Results: Ninety-seven (97) physicians completed the questionnaire with a male to female ratio of 1:1.3. The mean age of the responders was 39.54±6.2 years. About 73(81.1%) of physicians recommended the pneumococcal vaccine and most physicians recommended the vaccine for patients with chronic lung diseases. The common barriers for vaccine recommendation include: unavailability (53; 54.6%), poor reminder systems (43; 44.3%), inadequate insurance coverage (33; 34%), and Vaccine shortage (31; 32%). Conclusions: This study suggests that the majority of physicians recommend pneumococcal conjugate vaccines. The major barriers to vaccination include poor access, availability, and cost. There is a need to increase access, cost, and availability of pneumococcal vaccine if the narrative must change.
Oluwafemi Ojo
Published: 30 June 2022
Babcock University Medical Journal, Volume 5; https://doi.org/10.38029/bumj.v5i1.102

Abstract:
Background: Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare disorder that presents in women of childbearing age. The affected patients present with spontaneous pneumothorax, chylothorax, hemoptysis, and slowly progressive dyspnea. There are poor awareness, knowledge, and records about this disease in Nigeria. Case presentation: We report a case of pulmonary LAM in a 43-year-old woman who presented with progressive shortness of breath with recurrent hemoptysis and pneumothorax. Her imaging and Vascular endothelial growth factor level were in keeping with LAM. The typical features in the current case include the patient's age, gender, radiologic features, and VEGF- D value. Conclusion: There is a need for a high index of suspicion for LAM in women of child-bearing age with cystic lung diseases. There is also a need for registries for rare lung diseases in Africa.
Mojirola Martina Fasiku, Kabir Adekunle Durowade, Matthew Olumuyiwa Bojuwoye, Abdullahi Ahmed, Medinat Omobola Osinubi, Omotosho Ibrahim Musa, Gordon Kayode, Tanimola Makanjuola Akande
Published: 31 December 2021
Babcock University Medical Journal, Volume 4, pp 78-85; https://doi.org/10.38029/bumj.v4i2.84

Abstract:
Objective: The elderly usually require assistance and sometimes have unmet needs for assistance with activities of daily living. This study assessed the unmet needs for assistance with activities of daily living among the elderly in rural and urban areas in Kwara Central Senatorial District, Nigeria. Methods:  Cross-sectional data were collected using pre-tested semi-structured interviewer-administered questionnaires from 300 elderly using the multistage sampling technique. The Statistical Package for Social Sciences 20 was used to analyze data, and the level of significance was predetermined at a p-value less than 0.05. Results: Overall, 60% of the elderly in the urban than rural group (46%) had unmet needs for assistance with activities of daily living. The prevalence of unmet needs for assistance with basic activities of daily living in the rural areas ranged from 0.0% (eating) to 70.8 % (bathing) and 0.0% (eating) to 68.8 % (transferring) in the urban areas. The prevalence of unmet needs for instrumental activities of daily living ranged from 16.7% (handling finances) to 59.3 % (cooking) for those in the rural areas. However, the range was from 33.3% (transportation) to 75.0% (taking medications) in the urban areas. The urban respondents had higher unmet needs for assistance with telephone use than rural respondents. (p=0.004*). Conclusion: The elderly in the urban areas had a higher prevalence of unmet needs for assistance with activities of daily living. The government must address the needs of the elderly through a policy to prevent unmet needs for assistance with activities of daily living.
Oluwadamilare Akingbade, Ogechukwu Emmanuel Okondu, Matthew Akinola, Julius Olatade Maitanmi, Khadija Abubakar, Daniel Durodoluwa Faleti, Chinyere Florence Chigeru, Tolulope Deborah Oladimeji, Eyitomi Alao, Esther Nnennaya Umahi, et al.
Published: 31 December 2021
Babcock University Medical Journal, Volume 4, pp 112-119; https://doi.org/10.38029/bumj.v4i2.83

Abstract:
Objective: Good nutrition is important in promoting health and is dependent on the quality of food eaten. Little has been researched on the dietary practices among the workforce in Nigeria. This study aimed at assessing the dietary knowledge, practices, and factors influencing dietary practices and work productivity among the non-medical staff of Universities. Methods: This is a descriptive cross-sectional survey of 398 non-medical staff of Babcock University who were selected using the multi-stage sampling technique. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS 21) to compute frequency distributions, means, and standard deviations. Nutritional knowledge, dietary practices, and barriers to work productivity were assessed. Inferential statistical analysis was conducted using Pearson’s correlation coefficient. Results: The mean age among respondents was 38.68±11.04, with the majority being female 54.6%. of the respondents (61.1%) of Yoruba origin, about three percentiles (66%) were members of staff while (34%) were faculty members. The computed level of knowledge and dietary-based practices scores were (2.57±0.61) and (3.64±1.44) respectively, indicating poor knowledge and dietary practices, while the barriers that influence work productivity among workers (11.34±5.286) were high at 87.2%. No significant association was found between nutritional knowledge and dietary practices of staff and faculty (p=.154), but a significant association was found between dietary practices and work productivity of staff and faculty (p=.019) Conclusion: Health education and promotion of good nutrition should be incorporated in the workplace, interventions that will improve work productivity among workers are also encouraged. This will culminate in a well-fed and healthy workforce.
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