Latest articles in this journal
Surgeries, Volume 2, pp 409-436; https://doi.org/10.3390/surgeries2040041
Background: Fibrinogen is a substrate for blood clots formation. In cardiac surgery, a number of different mechanisms lead to a decrease in fibrinogen levels and consequent impaired haemostasis. Patients undergoing cardiac surgery are therefore frequently exposed to blood loss and allogeneic blood transfusion, which are risk factors associated with morbidity and mortality. Thus, particular efforts in fibrinogen management should be made to decrease bleeding and the need for blood transfusion. Therefore, fibrinogen remains an active focus of investigations from basic science to clinical practice. This review aims to summarise the latest evidence regarding the role of fibrinogen and current practices in fibrinogen management in adult cardiac surgery. Methods: The PubMed database was systematically searched for literature investigating the role and disorders of fibrinogen in cardiac surgery and diagnostic and therapeutic procedures related to fibrinogen deficiency aimed at reducing blood loss and transfusion requirements. Clinical trials and reviews from the last 10 years were included. Results: In total, 146 articles were analysed. Conclusion: The early diagnosis and treatment of fibrinogen deficiency is crucial in maintaining haemostasis in bleeding patients. Further studies are needed to better understand the association between fibrinogen levels, bleeding, and fibrinogen supplementation and their impacts on patient outcomes in different clinical settings.
Surgeries, Volume 2, pp 399-408; https://doi.org/10.3390/surgeries2040040
The physiological behavior of paranasal sinuses depends on the potency of the ostiomeatal complex and on normal mucociliary function. The interruption of this delicate equilibrium can lead to pathological conditions such as sinusitis. Anywhere between 10% and over 25% of cases of maxillary sinusitis have an odontogenic origin, such as: dental infection; alveolar dental trauma; or iatrogenic causes, such as extractions, endodontic therapies, maxillary osteotomies or placement of endosseous implants. The resolution of sinus pathology is related to the resolution of odontogenic pathology. Aim: to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of a combined oral and endoscopic approach in the treatment of chronic odontogenic sinusitis vs. oral dental management through a case control study. Materials and Methods: all patients showing signs and symptoms of odontogenic sinusitis with obliteration (appreciable radiopacity in CT) of unilateral maxillary sinus between January 2018 and September 2019 at Padua University Hospital were enrolled in this retrospective study. The exclusion criteria were: maxillary sinusitis without odontogenic origin, or resolution with a systemic antibiotic therapy; and presence of anatomical abnormalities that promote the onset of rhinosinusitis. The patients were divided into two groups: one group was treated with a combined surgical approach under general anesthesia (Functional Endoscopic Sinus Surgery-FESS and simultaneous closure of oroantral communication with Bichat’s fat pad advancement); while the other group was treated only with an intraoral approach under local anesthesia and conscious sedation (closure of oroantral communication with Bichat’s fat pad advancement). The variable “success of the surgical procedure” in the two groups was compared by a Student test (with p< 0.05). Results: among the patients enrolled, 10 patients (aged between 42 and 70) made up the case group and the other 10 patients (aged between 51 and 74) constituted the control group. There was no statistically significant difference in success between the two groups (p< 0.025). Conclusions: according to this case study, an exclusive annotation invasive intraoral approach seemed to be comparable to the transoral endoscopic combined method. However, during diagnosis it is necessary and fundamental to distinguish between odontogenic and rhinogenic sinusitis in order for the resolution of odontogenic sinusitis to be achieved.
Surgeries, Volume 2, pp 391-398; https://doi.org/10.3390/surgeries2040039
(1) Background: The COVID-19 pandemic tested the public health system’s readiness for crises and highlighted the importance of knowing the demand for blood products and the maintenance of the blood supply chain. The aim of this study was to evaluate blood product usage in a series of patients that were hospitalized due to COVID-19 and to analyze their demographics and clinical characteristics. (2) Methods: In this retrospective cohort study, we analyzed data from transfused COVID-19 patients that were treated in the University Hospital Medical Center Bezanijska Kosa in Belgrade, Serbia during the second wave of the epidemic. (3) Results: This study included 90 patients. The median age of the patients was 72 (range 23–95) years. The median time of hospitalization was 23 days (range 3–73 days). In intensive care units (ICUs) the median time of hospitalization was 9 days (range 0–73). One or more comorbidities were observed in 86 individuals (95.6%). The total number of transfused red blood cell concetrates (RBC) was 304 (139 in ICU, 165 in other wards), with a mean of 3 units/patient (range 1–14). Comorbidities, severity of illness and hospital duration in the ICU were statistically significant predictors of higher RBC use. (4) Conclusion: Knowledge of the transfusion profile of COVID-19 patients allowed better management of the hospital’s blood stocks during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Surgeries, Volume 2, pp 384-390; https://doi.org/10.3390/surgeries2040038
We report two cases of ectopic bone formation in the head and neck following treatment with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2). Surgical pathologic data, laryngoscopy imaging, CT imaging, and patient medical history were obtained. First, we report osseous metaplasia in the vocal fold in a 67-year-old male following mandibular dental implants with rhBMP-2; second, a case of severe bony overgrowth of the larynx and fusion to the anterior cervical spine (ACS) in a 73-year-old male following multiple anterior cervical discectomies and fusions with rhBMP-2. Ectopic bone formation following rhBMP-2 has been previously reported. Adverse events like local swelling and edema leading to dysphagia and even airway obstruction after cervical spine application of rhBMP-2 have also been widely reported. Due to the uncommon nature of abnormal bony growth in soft tissue areas of the head and neck and the previously documented adverse effects of rhBMP-2 use, especially in the cervical spine, we consider the two unusual case presentations of ectopic bony formation highly likely to be linked with rhBMP-2. We urge awareness of the adverse effects caused by rhBMP-2, and urge caution in dosing.
Surgeries, Volume 2, pp 378-383; https://doi.org/10.3390/surgeries2040037
Gastric leak is a serious complication of sleeve gastrectomy with a well-documented morbidity and mortality. Depending on the series the leak rate ranges between 1 and 5%. The treatment of sleeve gastrectomy leak is still challenging. Different procedures have been described in management of gastric leak, both surgical and endoscopic. The treatment of gastric leaks depends on the extent of the staple-line leak, the site of the leak and its association with stenosis. As published data are limited, there are no still standardized guidelines on best treatment. One of the most commonly used option in the treatment of gastric leak is esophageal stent. Its success rate reaches 70–80% but it is burdened by some complications. Stent migration is the most common complication in the placement of esophageal stent.We present a challenging surgical in which case the use of an esophageal stent for the treatment of a sleeve gastrectomy leak gained the resolution of the leak but was complicated by bowel obstruction due to migration of the stent.
Surgeries, Volume 2, pp 371-377; https://doi.org/10.3390/surgeries2040036
Decompressive craniotomy is a neurosurgical emergency procedure in which a large skull bone is removed and the dura matter is extensively opened. Duraplasty is required to avoid cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage during the decompressive craniotomy. DuraGen® is a safe and effective type I collagen matrix graft, which is frequently used in decompressive craniotomy procedures. Since DuraGen® does not require labor-intensive suturing, the operative time is shortened by DuraGen® closure with sufficient tightness preventing CSF leakage. Recently, early cranioplasty is preferred to achieve efficient rehabilitation after decompressive craniotomy. Although evidence of efficacy and safety of DuraGen® has been increasing in the management of duraplasty, no reports have previously discussed the condition of DuraGen® during the second surgery (cranioplasty) at this early timing. DuraGen®-derived neodura develops a mature dura 1 year post its placement, and the neodura remain fragile at this early time point. A deconstructed fragile neodura may result in postoperative CSF leakage. Here, we illustrated a multilayered dural repair technique with DuraGen® to avoid disruption of the fragile neodura during early cranioplasty.
Surgeries, Volume 2, pp 357-370; https://doi.org/10.3390/surgeries2040035
Introduction: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer in the world. The liver is the most common site of metastasis with 15 to 25% of patients presenting with synchronous colorectal liver metastasis (CRLM). This study is aimed at evaluating the long- and short-term outcomes of laparoscopic and robotic CRLM surgery, and directly comparing their respective effectiveness. Methodology: A literature search was performed and all studies that reported on operative characteristics, oncological outcomes for CRLM, morbidity or mortality and cost-effectiveness on robotic or laparoscopic surgery were included. The study design was in keeping with the PRISMA guidelines. Results: From the initial 606 manuscripts identified, 19 studies were included in the final qualitative analysis. A total of 1340 patients with 1194 LLR (Laparoscopic Liver Resection) and 146 RLR (Robotic Liver Resection) cases were analysed. Within the LLR group, the average tumour size excised was 32.1 mm compared to the RLR group of 33.8 mm. The average operative time in the LLR was 193 min, CI of 95% (147.4 min to 238.6 min) compared to RLR 257 min, CI of 95% (201.5 min to 313.8 min) with a p-value < 0.0001. Estimated blood loss was lower in the RLR group (210 mL) compared with the LLR group (246 mL). Conclusion: Despite the higher operative cost, RLRs do not result in statistically better treatment outcomes, with the exception of lower estimated blood loss and excision of larger CRLMs. Operative time and total complication rate are significantly more favourable with LLRs. Our study has shown that robotic liver surgery is safe and feasible in well-selected patients.
Surgeries, Volume 2, pp 347-356; https://doi.org/10.3390/surgeries2040034
(1) Background: We tested Capstesia against a reference system, Vigileo FloTrac, in patients undergoing major vascular surgery procedures. (2) Methods: Twenty-two adult patients (236 data pairs) were enrolled. Cardiac output (CO), stroke volume (SV), systemic vascular resistance (SVR), and related indexed parameters from the two monitoring systems were collected and compared at eleven time points during surgery. Intraclass correlation coefficients with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and Bland–Altman plots with percentages of error were used. (3) Results: The interclass correlation coefficients for CO, SV, and SVR were 0.527 (95%CI 0.387 to 0.634), 0.580 (95%CI 0.454 to 0.676), and 0.609 (95%CI 0.495 to 0.698), respectively. In the Bland–Altman analysis, bias (and limits of agreement) of CO was 0.33 L min−1 (−2.44; 3.10), resulting in a percentage error of 61.91% for CO. For SV, it was 5.02 mL (−36.42; 46.45), with 57.19% of error. Finally, the bias (and limit of agreement) of SVR was −75.99 dyne sec cm−5 (−870.04; 718.06), resulting in an error of 69.94%. (4) Conclusions: Although promising, cost-effective, and easy to use, the moderate level of agreement with Vigileo and the high level of error make Capstesia unsuitable for use in the intraoperative setting of vascular surgery. Critical errors in acquisition or digitalization of the snap might have a strong impact on the accuracy and performance. Further standardization of the acquisition technique and improvements in the processing algorithm are needed.
Surgeries, Volume 2, pp 335-346; https://doi.org/10.3390/surgeries2030033
Punch incision is an alternative to elliptical excision for treating epidermal inclusion cysts, but its efficacy has not been systematically reviewed. This study assessed the efficacy and safety of punch incision versus elliptical excision for epidermal inclusion cysts. Randomized controlled trials published through January 2021 that evaluated the performance of punch incision versus elliptical excision on epidermal inclusion cysts were identified through electronic databases and clinical registries. Version 2 of the Cochrane risk-of-bias tool for randomized trials tool was used. Review Manager software was used for the meta-analysis. Two trials (100 participants) were identified. The primary outcomes were recurrence rate (risk ratio, 2.40; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.37–15.60 [favoring elliptical excision]), mean operative time (mean difference [MD], −5.28; 95% CI, −12.72 to 2.16 [favoring punch incision]), and mean postoperative wound length (MD, −11.67; 95% CI, −20.59 to −2.76 [favoring punch incision]). The evidence was low to moderate due to the small sample size and its considerable heterogeneity. The use of punch incision shortened the mean postoperative wound length and had comparable safety to that of elliptical excision.
Surgeries, Volume 2, pp 320-334; https://doi.org/10.3390/surgeries2030032
Compressive neuropathies of the forearm are common and involve structures innervated by the median, ulnar, and radial nerves. A thorough patient history, occupational history, and physical examination can aid diagnosis. Electromyography, X-ray, and Magnetic Resonance Imaging may prove useful in select syndromes. Generally, first line therapy of all compressive neuropathies consists of activity modification, rest, splinting, and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Many patients experience improvement with conservative measures. For those lacking adequate response, steroid injections may improve symptoms. Surgical release is the last line therapy and has varied outcomes depending on the compression. Carpal Tunnel syndrome (CTS) is the most common, followed by ulnar tunnel syndrome. Open and endoscopic CTS release appear to have similar outcomes. Endoscopic release appears to incur decreased cost baring a low rate of complications, although this is debated in the literature. Additional syndromes of median nerve compression include pronator syndrome (PS), anterior interosseous syndrome, and ligament of Struthers syndrome. Ulnar nerve compressive neuropathies include cubital tunnel syndrome and Guyon’s canal. Radial nerve compressive neuropathies include radial tunnel syndrome and Wartenberg’s syndrome. The goal of this review is to provide all clinicians with guidance on diagnosis and treatment of commonly encountered compressive neuropathies of the forearm.